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How does a mouse work?

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  • James Boorn
    I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to me) depends on
    Message 1 of 18 , Mar 27 5:21 PM
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      I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
      are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
      me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
      mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
      is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
      which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
      button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.

      Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
      of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
      else.

      James
    • Tom Mairs
      Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do. Sorry.. (bad technician, bad.. very bad...) Tom Mairs tmairs@aasland.com Aasland Technologes
      Message 2 of 18 , Mar 27 5:27 PM
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        Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.



        Sorry..


        (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)

        Tom Mairs tmairs@...
        Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
        Network Support -
        http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
        Systems


        -----Original Message-----
        From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
        Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
        To: BEAM Yahoo Group
        Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?

        I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
        are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
        me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
        mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
        is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
        which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
        button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.

        Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
        of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
        else.

        James


        To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
        beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com



        Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
      • Larry
        Mice work on an x y axis sensing technology. They only need two sensors. One for x and one for y. When you move in any other direction other that straight up
        Message 3 of 18 , Mar 27 5:49 PM
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          Mice work on an x y axis sensing technology. They only need two sensors.
          One for x and one for y. When you move in any other direction other that
          straight up and down or left to right, the inputs are summed to give a
          vector.
          I may not have explained that clearly enough. It is the only way I can
          think of to do it though.


          Larry



          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "James Boorn" <jboorn@...>
          To: "BEAM Yahoo Group" <beam@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
          Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?


          > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
          > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
          > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
          > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
          > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
          > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
          > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
          >
          > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
          > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
          > else.
          >
          > James
          >
          >
          > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
          > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
          >
          >
          >
          > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          >
          >
        • Tom Mairs
          I m sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM design criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) - hope this
          Message 4 of 18 , Mar 27 6:02 PM
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            I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM design
            criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) - hope
            this helps

            Trackball
            How it works
            Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the motion of the
            ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC. Typically,
            the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely rotating, mutually
            perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts are
            located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient friction is
            achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth metal or
            plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are attached to the
            shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
            Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is vitally
            important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of contact should be
            as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the plane
            parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball would
            dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation around the axis
            parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the ball's
            rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not produce any
            movement at all, with small residual braking action due to friction.
            As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is converted into
            electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection. This process
            is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known as Gray
            Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that from all
            the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its state when
            the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to the next,
            or regressing from the current to the previous state.
            Evaluation
            The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was the first
            type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs are
            reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external buttons. Beware of
            poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very annoying. The
            greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect dirt and
            dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly well. Logitech
            came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a non-mechanical
            track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered rotating ball and
            then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device light a
            portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then formed from
            the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved, the image
            of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then processed by
            an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are then
            processed by a driver which translates them into cursor movements.


            Tom Mairs tmairs@...
            Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
            Network Support -
            http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
            Systems


            -----Original Message-----
            From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
            Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
            To: beam@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?

            Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.



            Sorry..


            (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)

            Tom Mairs tmairs@...
            Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
            Network Support -
            http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
            Systems


            -----Original Message-----
            From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
            Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
            To: BEAM Yahoo Group
            Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?

            I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
            are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
            me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
            mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
            is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
            which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
            button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.

            Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
            of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
            else.

            James


            To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com



            Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/



            To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com



            Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          • Larry
            You talking about a mouse or a track ball? Two different animals! Larry ... From: James Boorn To: BEAM Yahoo Group
            Message 5 of 18 , Mar 27 6:26 PM
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              You talking about a mouse or a track ball? Two different animals!


              Larry



              ----- Original Message -----
              From: "James Boorn" <jboorn@...>
              To: "BEAM Yahoo Group" <beam@yahoogroups.com>
              Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
              Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?


              > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
              > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
              > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
              > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
              > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
              > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
              > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
              >
              > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
              > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
              > else.
              >
              > James
              >
              >
              > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
              > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
              >
              >
              >
              > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
              >
              >
            • Larry
              A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input that is totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology. Larry ... From: Tom
              Message 6 of 18 , Mar 27 6:27 PM
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                A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input that is
                totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology.


                Larry



                ----- Original Message -----
                From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:02 PM
                Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?


                > I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM
                design
                > criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) -
                hope
                > this helps
                >
                > Trackball
                > How it works
                > Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the motion of
                the
                > ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC.
                Typically,
                > the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely rotating,
                mutually
                > perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts are
                > located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient friction is
                > achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth metal or
                > plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are attached to the
                > shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
                > Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is vitally
                > important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of contact should
                be
                > as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the plane
                > parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball would
                > dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation around the
                axis
                > parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the ball's
                > rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not produce any
                > movement at all, with small residual braking action due to friction.
                > As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is converted
                into
                > electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection. This process
                > is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known as Gray
                > Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that from
                all
                > the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its state when
                > the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to the
                next,
                > or regressing from the current to the previous state.
                > Evaluation
                > The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was the first
                > type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs are
                > reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external buttons. Beware
                of
                > poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very annoying.
                The
                > greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect dirt and
                > dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly well.
                Logitech
                > came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a non-mechanical
                > track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered rotating ball
                and
                > then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device light a
                > portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then formed from
                > the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved, the
                image
                > of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then processed by
                > an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are then
                > processed by a driver which translates them into cursor movements.
                >
                >
                > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                > Network Support -
                > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                > Systems
                >
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
                > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
                > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                >
                > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                >
                >
                >
                > Sorry..
                >
                >
                > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                >
                > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                > Network Support -
                > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                > Systems
                >
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
                > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                >
                > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
                > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
                > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
                > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
                > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
                > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
                > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                >
                > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
                > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
                > else.
                >
                > James
                >
                >
                > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                >
                >
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                >
                >
                >
                > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                >
                >
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                >
                >
                >
                > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                >
                >
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                >
                >
              • Andy Pang
                Hi BEAMers, I ask my mouse to donate his little IR leds, after I read this : http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm Andy ... work:) ... services and ...
                Message 7 of 18 , Mar 27 6:31 PM
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                  Hi BEAMers,

                  I ask my mouse to donate his little IR leds, after I read this :

                  http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm

                  Andy


                  --- In beam@y..., "David Simmons" <devs@i...> wrote:
                  > Don't forget a mouse sized hardhat, and union card.
                  >
                  > Wait, scratch the union card. That is how you get a mouse not to
                  work:)
                  >
                  > Try these links, and a quick search on google.
                  >
                  > http://www.computerhope.com/help/mouse.htm
                  > http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm
                  >
                  > HTH,
                  > David Simmons
                  >
                  > ----- Original Message -----
                  > From: Tom Mairs <tmairs@a...>
                  > To: <beam@y...>
                  > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 7:27 PM
                  > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                  >
                  >
                  > > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Sorry..
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                  > >
                  > > Tom Mairs tmairs@a...
                  > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT
                  services and
                  > > Network Support -
                  > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                  Robotic
                  > > Systems
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > -----Original Message-----
                  > > From: jboorn@s... [mailto:jboorn@s...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
                  > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                  > > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                  > > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                  > >
                  > > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction
                  you
                  > > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect
                  sense to
                  > > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but
                  the
                  > > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is
                  there
                  > > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it
                  know
                  > > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a
                  2
                  > > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                  > >
                  > > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I
                  know
                  > > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to
                  someone
                  > > else.
                  > >
                  > > James
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                  > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                  http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                  > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                  http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                  > >
                • Tom Mairs
                  Nope, sorry. A trackball is just an upside down mouse. Tom Mairs tmairs@aasland.com Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services
                  Message 8 of 18 , Mar 27 6:47 PM
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                    Nope, sorry. A trackball is just an upside down mouse.

                    Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                    Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                    Network Support -
                    http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                    Systems


                    -----Original Message-----
                    From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                    Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:28 PM
                    To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?

                    A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input that is
                    totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology.


                    Larry



                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                    To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:02 PM
                    Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?


                    > I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM
                    design
                    > criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) -
                    hope
                    > this helps
                    >
                    > Trackball
                    > How it works
                    > Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the motion of
                    the
                    > ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC.
                    Typically,
                    > the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely rotating,
                    mutually
                    > perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts are
                    > located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient friction is
                    > achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth metal or
                    > plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are attached to the
                    > shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
                    > Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is vitally
                    > important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of contact should
                    be
                    > as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the plane
                    > parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball would
                    > dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation around the
                    axis
                    > parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the ball's
                    > rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not produce any
                    > movement at all, with small residual braking action due to friction.
                    > As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is converted
                    into
                    > electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection. This process
                    > is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known as Gray
                    > Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that from
                    all
                    > the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its state when
                    > the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to the
                    next,
                    > or regressing from the current to the previous state.
                    > Evaluation
                    > The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was the first
                    > type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs are
                    > reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external buttons. Beware
                    of
                    > poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very annoying.
                    The
                    > greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect dirt and
                    > dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly well.
                    Logitech
                    > came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a non-mechanical
                    > track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered rotating ball
                    and
                    > then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device light a
                    > portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then formed from
                    > the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved, the
                    image
                    > of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then processed by
                    > an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are then
                    > processed by a driver which translates them into cursor movements.
                    >
                    >
                    > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                    > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                    > Network Support -
                    > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                    > Systems
                    >
                    >
                    > -----Original Message-----
                    > From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
                    > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
                    > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                    > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                    >
                    > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Sorry..
                    >
                    >
                    > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                    >
                    > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                    > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                    > Network Support -
                    > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                    > Systems
                    >
                    >
                    > -----Original Message-----
                    > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
                    > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                    > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                    > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                    >
                    > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
                    > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
                    > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
                    > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
                    > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
                    > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
                    > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                    >
                    > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
                    > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
                    > else.
                    >
                    > James
                    >
                    >
                    > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                    > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                    > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                    > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    >
                    >



                    To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                    beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com



                    Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                  • James Boorn
                    Ok. Obviously I was not clear in what I was asking. I know from a high level how a mouse works. I know there is a x axis and a y axis. I am after the
                    Message 9 of 18 , Mar 27 6:49 PM
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                      Ok. Obviously I was not clear in what I was asking. I know from a high
                      level how a mouse works. I know there is a x axis and a y axis. I am
                      after the details. Lets look at one axis, say the x axis (left to
                      right). The mouse must figure out two things of information, 1. how
                      fast is it moving (easy), and 2. which direction (left or right). One
                      solution (which I understand) to the which direction problem is at
                      http://www.4qd.co.uk/faq/meece.html. A good picture of the actual
                      mechanism is http://www.howstuffworks.com/gif/mouse9.jpg. If you take
                      the time to look you will see that for one axis sensor you need two
                      infrared leds and two infrared transistors to calculate one axis's
                      direction. But what I don't understand is that for the mouse I took
                      apart for each axis there is only one led and one transistor (the x axis
                      consists of one led, one transistor, and one wheel and the y axis also
                      has one led, one transistor, and one wheel (it is times like this I wish
                      I had a digital camera)). The solution at the link above will have a
                      total of four infrared leds and four infrared transistors (2 for each
                      axis), but my mouse has a total of two infrared leds and two infrared
                      transistors (1 for each axis). So how does it know if it is going left
                      or right?

                      James
                    • Larry
                      Well, I may have stepped on my hangie down part there. I have not taken a track ball apart. Never bought one for that matter. I do know that some (a lot?) use
                      Message 10 of 18 , Mar 27 6:56 PM
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Well, I may have stepped on my hangie down part there. I have not taken
                        a track ball apart. Never bought one for that matter.
                        I do know that some (a lot?) use a single optical sensor, with dots,
                        spots or patterns on the ball to use as the x - y (brainfart) thingies. So,
                        technically, those are not upside down mice.


                        Larry



                        ----- Original Message -----
                        From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                        To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                        Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:47 PM
                        Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?


                        > Nope, sorry. A trackball is just an upside down mouse.
                        >
                        > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                        > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                        > Network Support -
                        > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                        > Systems
                        >
                        >
                        > -----Original Message-----
                        > From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                        > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:28 PM
                        > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                        > Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                        >
                        > A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input that
                        is
                        > totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology.
                        >
                        >
                        > Larry
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > ----- Original Message -----
                        > From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                        > To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                        > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:02 PM
                        > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                        >
                        >
                        > > I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM
                        > design
                        > > criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) -
                        > hope
                        > > this helps
                        > >
                        > > Trackball
                        > > How it works
                        > > Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the motion of
                        > the
                        > > ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC.
                        > Typically,
                        > > the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely rotating,
                        > mutually
                        > > perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts are
                        > > located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient friction is
                        > > achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth metal
                        or
                        > > plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are attached to
                        the
                        > > shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
                        > > Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is vitally
                        > > important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of contact
                        should
                        > be
                        > > as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the plane
                        > > parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball would
                        > > dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation around the
                        > axis
                        > > parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the ball's
                        > > rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not produce any
                        > > movement at all, with small residual braking action due to friction.
                        > > As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is converted
                        > into
                        > > electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection. This
                        process
                        > > is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known as
                        Gray
                        > > Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that from
                        > all
                        > > the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its state
                        when
                        > > the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to the
                        > next,
                        > > or regressing from the current to the previous state.
                        > > Evaluation
                        > > The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was the
                        first
                        > > type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs are
                        > > reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external buttons.
                        Beware
                        > of
                        > > poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very annoying.
                        > The
                        > > greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect dirt and
                        > > dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly well.
                        > Logitech
                        > > came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a non-mechanical
                        > > track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered rotating ball
                        > and
                        > > then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device light
                        a
                        > > portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then formed
                        from
                        > > the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved, the
                        > image
                        > > of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then processed
                        by
                        > > an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are then
                        > > processed by a driver which translates them into cursor movements.
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                        > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                        > > Network Support -
                        > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                        > > Systems
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > -----Original Message-----
                        > > From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
                        > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
                        > > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                        > > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                        > >
                        > > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Sorry..
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                        > >
                        > > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                        > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                        > > Network Support -
                        > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                        > > Systems
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > -----Original Message-----
                        > > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James
                        Boorn
                        > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                        > > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                        > > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                        > >
                        > > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
                        > > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
                        > > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
                        > > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
                        > > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
                        > > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
                        > > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                        > >
                        > > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
                        > > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
                        > > else.
                        > >
                        > > James
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                        > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                        http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                        > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                        http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                        > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                        http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        > >
                        > >
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                        > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                        > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        >
                        >
                      • David Simmons
                        Don t forget a mouse sized hardhat, and union card. Wait, scratch the union card. That is how you get a mouse not to work:) Try these links, and a quick search
                        Message 11 of 18 , Mar 27 7:16 PM
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Don't forget a mouse sized hardhat, and union card.

                          Wait, scratch the union card. That is how you get a mouse not to work:)

                          Try these links, and a quick search on google.

                          http://www.computerhope.com/help/mouse.htm
                          http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm

                          HTH,
                          David Simmons

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: Tom Mairs <tmairs@...>
                          To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 7:27 PM
                          Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?


                          > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Sorry..
                          >
                          >
                          > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                          >
                          > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                          > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                          > Network Support -
                          > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                          > Systems
                          >
                          >
                          > -----Original Message-----
                          > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
                          > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                          > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                          > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                          >
                          > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
                          > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
                          > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
                          > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
                          > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
                          > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
                          > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                          >
                          > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
                          > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
                          > else.
                          >
                          > James
                          >
                          >
                          > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                          > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                          > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                          >
                        • Tom Mairs
                          Technically, those aren t trackballs either. A track ball is just an upside down mouse. - trust me - I have dismantled and repaired hundreds of them. What you
                          Message 12 of 18 , Mar 27 8:41 PM
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Technically, those aren't trackballs either. A track ball is just an upside
                            down mouse. - trust me - I have dismantled and repaired hundreds of them.
                            What you are describing is something altogether different.

                            See these for further info...

                            http://www.trackballs.com/index.htm
                            http://www.mousetrak.com/

                            http://cs104.cs.uwindsor.ca/inhard.htm#track - here is an actual excerpt
                            from this site .. .. "The trackball, an upside-down mouse, is essentially
                            the same as the mouse with one major exception. The trackball remains
                            stationary and the user rolls the ball with the palm of the hand to move the
                            pointer."


                            Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                            Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                            Network Support -
                            http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                            Systems


                            -----Original Message-----
                            From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                            Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:56 PM
                            To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?

                            Well, I may have stepped on my hangie down part there. I have not taken
                            a track ball apart. Never bought one for that matter.
                            I do know that some (a lot?) use a single optical sensor, with dots,
                            spots or patterns on the ball to use as the x - y (brainfart) thingies. So,
                            technically, those are not upside down mice.


                            Larry



                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                            To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                            Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:47 PM
                            Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?


                            > Nope, sorry. A trackball is just an upside down mouse.
                            >
                            > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                            > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                            > Network Support -
                            > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                            > Systems
                            >
                            >
                            > -----Original Message-----
                            > From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                            > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:28 PM
                            > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                            > Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                            >
                            > A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input that
                            is
                            > totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology.
                            >
                            >
                            > Larry
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > ----- Original Message -----
                            > From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                            > To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                            > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:02 PM
                            > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                            >
                            >
                            > > I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual OEM
                            > design
                            > > criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you described) -
                            > hope
                            > > this helps
                            > >
                            > > Trackball
                            > > How it works
                            > > Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the motion of
                            > the
                            > > ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC.
                            > Typically,
                            > > the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely rotating,
                            > mutually
                            > > perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts are
                            > > located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient friction is
                            > > achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth metal
                            or
                            > > plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are attached to
                            the
                            > > shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
                            > > Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is vitally
                            > > important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of contact
                            should
                            > be
                            > > as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the plane
                            > > parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball would
                            > > dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation around the
                            > axis
                            > > parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the ball's
                            > > rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not produce any
                            > > movement at all, with small residual braking action due to friction.
                            > > As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is converted
                            > into
                            > > electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection. This
                            process
                            > > is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known as
                            Gray
                            > > Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that from
                            > all
                            > > the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its state
                            when
                            > > the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to the
                            > next,
                            > > or regressing from the current to the previous state.
                            > > Evaluation
                            > > The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was the
                            first
                            > > type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs are
                            > > reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external buttons.
                            Beware
                            > of
                            > > poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very annoying.
                            > The
                            > > greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect dirt and
                            > > dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly well.
                            > Logitech
                            > > came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a non-mechanical
                            > > track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered rotating ball
                            > and
                            > > then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device light
                            a
                            > > portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then formed
                            from
                            > > the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved, the
                            > image
                            > > of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then processed
                            by
                            > > an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are then
                            > > processed by a driver which translates them into cursor movements.
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                            > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                            > > Network Support -
                            > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                            > > Systems
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > -----Original Message-----
                            > > From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
                            > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
                            > > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                            > > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                            > >
                            > > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > Sorry..
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                            > >
                            > > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                            > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services and
                            > > Network Support -
                            > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and Robotic
                            > > Systems
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > -----Original Message-----
                            > > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of James
                            Boorn
                            > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                            > > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                            > > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                            > >
                            > > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction you
                            > > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect sense to
                            > > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but the
                            > > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is there
                            > > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it know
                            > > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a 2
                            > > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                            > >
                            > > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I know
                            > > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to someone
                            > > else.
                            > >
                            > > James
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                            http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                            http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                            http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            > >
                            > >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                            >
                            >



                            To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                            beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com



                            Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                          • Andy Pang
                            After reading the very nice article from : http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm I kindly ask Mr. PC Mouse to donate his IR leds :-) Andy ... work:) ...
                            Message 13 of 18 , Mar 27 8:41 PM
                            • 0 Attachment
                              After reading the very nice article from :

                              http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm

                              I kindly ask Mr. PC Mouse to donate his IR leds :-)

                              Andy


                              --- In beam@y..., "David Simmons" <devs@i...> wrote:
                              > Don't forget a mouse sized hardhat, and union card.
                              >
                              > Wait, scratch the union card. That is how you get a mouse not to
                              work:)
                              >
                              > Try these links, and a quick search on google.
                              >
                              > http://www.computerhope.com/help/mouse.htm
                              > http://www.howstuffworks.com/mouse.htm
                              >
                              > HTH,
                              > David Simmons
                              >
                              > ----- Original Message -----
                              > From: Tom Mairs <tmairs@a...>
                              > To: <beam@y...>
                              > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 7:27 PM
                              > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                              >
                              >
                              > > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > Sorry..
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                              > >
                              > > Tom Mairs tmairs@a...
                              > > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT
                              services and
                              > > Network Support -
                              > > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                              Robotic
                              > > Systems
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > -----Original Message-----
                              > > From: jboorn@s... [mailto:jboorn@s...]On Behalf Of James Boorn
                              > > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                              > > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                              > > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                              > >
                              > > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction
                              you
                              > > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect
                              sense to
                              > > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but
                              the
                              > > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is
                              there
                              > > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it
                              know
                              > > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a
                              2
                              > > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                              > >
                              > > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I
                              know
                              > > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to
                              someone
                              > > else.
                              > >
                              > > James
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                              > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                              http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                              > > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                              http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                              > >
                            • Wilf Rigter
                              I have in front of me a DEC model VSXXX-BB mouse that bears the HAWLEY trademark. It uses X and Y encoder wheels each with a single slotted opto-detector.
                              Message 14 of 18 , Mar 27 10:21 PM
                              • 0 Attachment
                                I have in front of me a DEC model VSXXX-BB mouse that bears the HAWLEY
                                trademark. It uses X and Y encoder wheels each with a single slotted
                                opto-detector. These slotted detectors actually house a dual detector on one
                                side of the slot with a single LED for illumination on the other side. The
                                encoder wheel rotates in the slot. The dual detector side has 4 pins and 2
                                pins are used for the LED. This mouse does not use a ball but instead each
                                encoder wheel is driven from a shaft with a small rubber wheel that contacts
                                the mouse pad directly. This is an opto-mechanical mouse and the principle
                                is the same as for ball type quadrature encoder mice.

                                In should be possible to derive direction from using a shaped slot or shaped
                                mask in fron of a single detector. If the slot moves in one direction the
                                opto signal has a sharp rising edge and a slow falling edge. In the reverse
                                direction, the rising edge is slow and the falling edge is fast. The number
                                of pulses per second determines the speed of rotation. This is a bit like
                                our hearing being able to distinguish a sound recording going forward or
                                backwards.

                                The new optical "any surface" mouse probably uses a LED and an optical array
                                and tracks the direction of highly accentuated minute differences in surface
                                reflectivity.

                                wilf

                                -----Original Message-----


                                -----Original Message-----
                                From: James Boorn
                                To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                                Sent: 3/27/01 6:49 PM
                                Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?

                                Ok. Obviously I was not clear in what I was asking. I know from a high
                                level how a mouse works. I know there is a x axis and a y axis. I am
                                after the details. Lets look at one axis, say the x axis (left to
                                right). The mouse must figure out two things of information, 1. how
                                fast is it moving (easy), and 2. which direction (left or right). One
                                solution (which I understand) to the which direction problem is at
                                http://www.4qd.co.uk/faq/meece.html. A good picture of the actual
                                mechanism is http://www.howstuffworks.com/gif/mouse9.jpg. If you take
                                the time to look you will see that for one axis sensor you need two
                                infrared leds and two infrared transistors to calculate one axis's
                                direction. But what I don't understand is that for the mouse I took
                                apart for each axis there is only one led and one transistor (the x axis
                                consists of one led, one transistor, and one wheel and the y axis also
                                has one led, one transistor, and one wheel (it is times like this I wish
                                I had a digital camera)). The solution at the link above will have a
                                total of four infrared leds and four infrared transistors (2 for each
                                axis), but my mouse has a total of two infrared leds and two infrared
                                transistors (1 for each axis). So how does it know if it is going left
                                or right?

                                James


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                              • Manfred Schaffran
                                hi james, i attached a little schematic i figured out from a ms-mouse. i made a little device for measure the motor speed with an old mouse. BTW (other thread)
                                Message 15 of 18 , Mar 28 12:33 AM
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                                  hi james,

                                  i attached a little schematic i figured out from a ms-mouse.

                                  i made a little device for measure the motor speed with an old mouse.

                                  BTW (other thread) :
                                  With motor speed (mouse), inner resistance, the voltage and the current
                                  (measured
                                  with a multimeter) the torque of a motor can be calculated.

                                  hope that helps

                                  Manfred
                                • James Boorn
                                  Ok, I think I ve got it. I actually have two detectors in one package. Where can I find some more info about the sensor. It has four legs, on top there is an
                                  Message 16 of 18 , Mar 28 11:52 AM
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                                    Ok, I think I've got it. I actually have two detectors in one package.
                                    Where can I find some more info about the sensor. It has four legs, on
                                    top there is an 'E' and a 'L', on the back there is a hard to read
                                    string that appears to be "COr09" (that 'r' could be a 'n' or some other
                                    mark).

                                    Thanks
                                    James
                                  • Wilf Rigter
                                    Since I can t directly identify that part number, I can only offer a common sense solution. There will be a small electrolytic cap for the +5V and 0V
                                    Message 17 of 18 , Mar 28 12:38 PM
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Since I can't directly identify that part number, I can only offer a common
                                      sense solution. There will be a small electrolytic cap for the +5V and 0V
                                      (indicated by the polarity of the cap) to which two of the 4 sensor pins are
                                      connected. Use an ohmmeter for continuity. The remaining two pins are the
                                      TTL logic signals from the Opto-Schmitt sensors.

                                      wilf

                                      -----Original Message-----
                                      From: James Boorn
                                      To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                                      Sent: 3/28/01 11:52 AM
                                      Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?

                                      Ok, I think I've got it. I actually have two detectors in one package.
                                      Where can I find some more info about the sensor. It has four legs, on
                                      top there is an 'E' and a 'L', on the back there is a hard to read
                                      string that appears to be "COr09" (that 'r' could be a 'n' or some other
                                      mark).

                                      Thanks
                                      James


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                                    • vilya3@juno.com
                                      Guys: You can cut it any number of ways that you want to, and it ll still come out baloney. Mice and trackballs aren t any more different from each other as a
                                      Message 18 of 18 , Mar 31 5:48 PM
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        Guys:

                                        You can cut it any number of ways that you want to, and it'll still come
                                        out baloney. Mice and trackballs aren't any more different from each
                                        other as a wireless, optical mouse is from a regular, corded one. Same
                                        diff.

                                        ~Vilya

                                        On Tue, 27 Mar 2001 20:41:00 -0800 "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                                        writes:
                                        >Technically, those aren't trackballs either. A track ball is just an
                                        >upside
                                        >down mouse. - trust me - I have dismantled and repaired hundreds of
                                        >them.
                                        >What you are describing is something altogether different.
                                        >
                                        >See these for further info...
                                        >
                                        >http://www.trackballs.com/index.htm
                                        >http://www.mousetrak.com/
                                        >
                                        >http://cs104.cs.uwindsor.ca/inhard.htm#track - here is an actual
                                        >excerpt
                                        >from this site .. .. "The trackball, an upside-down mouse, is
                                        >essentially
                                        >the same as the mouse with one major exception. The trackball remains
                                        >stationary and the user rolls the ball with the palm of the hand to
                                        >move the
                                        >pointer."
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                                        >Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services
                                        >and
                                        >Network Support -
                                        >http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                                        >Robotic
                                        >Systems
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >-----Original Message-----
                                        >From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                                        >Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:56 PM
                                        >To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                                        >Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >
                                        > Well, I may have stepped on my hangie down part there. I have not
                                        >taken
                                        >a track ball apart. Never bought one for that matter.
                                        > I do know that some (a lot?) use a single optical sensor, with
                                        >dots,
                                        >spots or patterns on the ball to use as the x - y (brainfart)
                                        >thingies. So,
                                        >technically, those are not upside down mice.
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >Larry
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >----- Original Message -----
                                        >From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                                        >To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                                        >Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:47 PM
                                        >Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >
                                        >
                                        >> Nope, sorry. A trackball is just an upside down mouse.
                                        >>
                                        >> Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                                        >> Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT services
                                        >and
                                        >> Network Support -
                                        >> http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                                        >Robotic
                                        >> Systems
                                        >>
                                        >>
                                        >> -----Original Message-----
                                        >> From: Larry [mailto:larry@...]
                                        >> Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:28 PM
                                        >> To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                                        >> Subject: Re: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >>
                                        >> A track ball is not a type of mouse! It is a type of user input
                                        >that
                                        >is
                                        >> totally different from a mouse. Entirely different technology.
                                        >>
                                        >>
                                        >> Larry
                                        >>
                                        >>
                                        >>
                                        >> ----- Original Message -----
                                        >> From: "Tom Mairs" <tmairs@...>
                                        >> To: <beam@yahoogroups.com>
                                        >> Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 6:02 PM
                                        >> Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >>
                                        >>
                                        >> > I'm sorry. Here.. to make it up to you I am enclosing the actual
                                        >OEM
                                        >> design
                                        >> > criteria information for a trackball type mouse (what you
                                        >described) -
                                        >> hope
                                        >> > this helps
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Trackball
                                        >> > How it works
                                        >> > Trackballs use an electro-mechanical system for converting the
                                        >motion of
                                        >> the
                                        >> > ball into electrical signals understandable to the controller IC.
                                        >> Typically,
                                        >> > the motion of the ball is transferred to a pair of freely
                                        >rotating,
                                        >> mutually
                                        >> > perpendicular shafts with code wheels at their ends. These shafts
                                        >are
                                        >> > located in a place parallel to the work surface. Sufficient
                                        >friction is
                                        >> > achieved by using a combination of a rubberized ball and a smooth
                                        >metal
                                        >or
                                        >> > plastic shaft. Alternately, small elastic rollers that are
                                        >attached to
                                        >the
                                        >> > shafts and make contact with the hard ball surface can be used.
                                        >> > Location and area of contact between the shafts and the ball is
                                        >vitally
                                        >> > important to the overall performance. Ideally, the area of
                                        >contact
                                        >should
                                        >> be
                                        >> > as small as possible and located exactly at the point where the
                                        >plane
                                        >> > parallel to the shafts and passing through the center of the ball
                                        >would
                                        >> > dissect the ball. In this configuration, the ball's rotation
                                        >around the
                                        >> axis
                                        >> > parallel to the shaft will produce the shaft's movement, and the
                                        >ball's
                                        >> > rotation around the axis perpendicular to the shaft will not
                                        >produce any
                                        >> > movement at all, with small residual braking action due to
                                        >friction.
                                        >> > As the code wheels turn, information about their rotation is
                                        >converted
                                        >> into
                                        >> > electrical pulses by a process known as Quadrature Detection.
                                        >This
                                        >process
                                        >> > is applying the smallest two-bit code from a family of codes known
                                        >as
                                        >Gray
                                        >> > Codes. The significant property of the Gray Codes is the fact that
                                        >from
                                        >> all
                                        >> > the bits in the code word, one and only one bit is changing its
                                        >state
                                        >when
                                        >> > the code word is sequentially advancing from the current state to
                                        >the
                                        >> next,
                                        >> > or regressing from the current to the previous state.
                                        >> > Evaluation
                                        >> > The trackball, mechanically identical to the desktop mouse, was
                                        >the
                                        >first
                                        >> > type of pointing device to be widely used in portables. Trackballs
                                        >are
                                        >> > reasonable small and inexpensive, but do require external
                                        >buttons.
                                        >Beware
                                        >> of
                                        >> > poorly constructed sensors, though - a loose ball can be very
                                        >annoying.
                                        >> The
                                        >> > greatest drawback of a trackball is its predilection to collect
                                        >dirt and
                                        >> > dust. Once collected, the device no longer works particularly
                                        >well.
                                        >> Logitech
                                        >> > came up with a solution to the dust problem, inventing a
                                        >non-mechanical
                                        >> > track ball in which light is reflected off the dot-covered
                                        >rotating ball
                                        >> and
                                        >> > then translated into movement. The LEDs in the body of the device
                                        >light
                                        >a
                                        >> > portion of the ball with diffuse light. A sensor array is then
                                        >formed
                                        >from
                                        >> > the reflected image of the dots on a lens. When the ball is moved,
                                        >the
                                        >> image
                                        >> > of the dots is projected onto the sensor array, which is then
                                        >processed
                                        >by
                                        >> > an arrangement of analog and digital circuits. The signals are
                                        >then
                                        >> > processed by a driver which translates them into cursor
                                        >movements.
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                                        >> > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT
                                        >services and
                                        >> > Network Support -
                                        >> > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                                        >Robotic
                                        >> > Systems
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > -----Original Message-----
                                        >> > From: Tom Mairs [mailto:tmairs@...]
                                        >> > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:27 PM
                                        >> > To: beam@yahoogroups.com
                                        >> > Subject: RE: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Feed it cheese and give it something meaningful to do.
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Sorry..
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > (bad technician, bad.. very bad...)
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Tom Mairs tmairs@...
                                        >> > Aasland Technologes http://www.aasland.com/ - Complete IT
                                        >services and
                                        >> > Network Support -
                                        >> > http://www.mairs.org/ - Machines, Artificial Intelligence, and
                                        >Robotic
                                        >> > Systems
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > -----Original Message-----
                                        >> > From: jboorn@... [mailto:jboorn@...]On Behalf Of
                                        >James
                                        >Boorn
                                        >> > Sent: Tuesday, March 27, 2001 5:21 PM
                                        >> > To: BEAM Yahoo Group
                                        >> > Subject: [beam] How does a mouse work?
                                        >> >
                                        >> > I have a question about how a computer mouse knows which direction
                                        >you
                                        >> > are pushing it. The explanation I found (which makes perfect
                                        >sense to
                                        >> > me) depends on two infrared led/transistor pairs per wheel, but
                                        >the
                                        >> > mouse I opened up has only one led/sensor pair per wheel (that is
                                        >there
                                        >> > is only one led and one sensor per slotted wheel). How does it
                                        >know
                                        >> > which direction the wheel is spinning? The mouse in question is a
                                        >2
                                        >> > button logitech mouse M/N:M-S34.
                                        >> >
                                        >> > Sorry this is a bit off topic, but it is the most relevant place I
                                        >know
                                        >> > of to ask. And besides the mechanism is sure to be useful to
                                        >someone
                                        >> > else.
                                        >> >
                                        >> > James
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
                                        >> > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                                        >> > beam-unsubscribe@egroups.com
                                        >> >
                                        >> >
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                                        >> >
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                                        >>
                                        >>
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