- v*Dandelion* *Taraxacum officinale Weber IRISH DAISY * *Scientific names* *Common names* *Taraxacum officinale *WeberDandelion *Leontodon taraxacum* Linn.IrishMessage 1 of 1 , May 15, 2012View SourcevDandelion
Taraxacum officinale Weber
Scientific names Common names Taraxacum officinale Weber Dandelion Leontodon taraxacum Linn. Irish daisy Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf. Lion's tooth Taraxacum davidssonii Blowball Taraxacum latilobum Milk gowan Taraxacum palustre Priest's crown White endive Puff ball Swine snout
The word Dandelion derives from the old French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth." referring to the toothed edges of its leaves. It has been in use medicinally since the 10th century.
Dandelion is a milkly perennial herb. Roots are vertical. Leaves are all radical, smooth, or wooly on the crown and scaped. Leaves are stalkless, oblanceolate, spatulate or oblong, 7 to 20 cm long, toothed and pinnatifid in the margins; lobes are pointed and more or less toothed. Heads are solitary and grow on stalks 10-20 cm long with numerous golden yellow flowers. Involucre is bell-shaped, 1.5 to 2 cm long. The inner involucral bracts are erect, and often thickened or clawed at the tip; the outer ones are ovate, or linear, appressed, and more or less recurved. Achenes are narrowly obovoid, ribbed, and about 3 mm long, with the beak one-half as long as the body.
- Found wild in the Benguet Subprovince, Luzon, as a naturalized species on lawns, at an altitude of about 1,400 m.
- Introduced, being a temperate zone weed.
- Native of Europe.
• Plant contains inosit, asparagine, a reducing sugar, a bitter principle, saponin, tyrosinase, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, resinic acids, cholin.
• The flowers contain inulin and a bitter alkaloid,taraxacin.
• The milky juice contains taraxin, inosit, and taraxacerin.
• The root contains an abundance of sesquiterpene lactones (taraxacin and taraxacerin). Other compounds include beta-amyrin, taraxasterol, and free sterols.
• Contains an antioxidant, luteolin.
• Aperient, depurative, diuretic, laxative,stomachic, tonic.
• Root is milky and bitter.
Used by some as salad component.
A rich source of vitamins A, B, C and D as well as minerals.
• Its multiplicity of uses rates it a herbal cure-all, especially for the treating hepato-biliary disease and as a diuretic.
• in Europe, widely used for gastrointestinal ailments. It is taken as broth with leaves of sorrel and egg yolk for chronic liver congestion.
• Used for its gently laxative effect and as bitter tonic in atonic dyspepsia.
• Promotes appetite and digestion.
• Root preparation used for a variety of conditions: fevers, diabetes, eczema, scurvy, bowel inflammation.
• Pounded poultice of leaves applied to wounds and cuts.
• As a drink: 20 gms of root to a cup of boiling water, take 3-5 glasses a day.
• Juice of the stalk used to remove warts.
• Powdered dried roots used with coffee, and a substitute for coffee when roasted and powdered.
• Extract of dandelion used as remedy for fevers and chills.
• Infusion used to treat anemia, jaundice and nervousness.
• Decoction of root herb taken for scrofula, eczema, scurvy and various skin eruptions.
• Used for eczema and acne.
• Native American Indians have used infusions and decoctions of the root and herb for kidney diseases, dyspepsia and heartburn.
• Traditional Arabian medicine has used it for liver and spleen diseases.
• Used in Chinese medicine for hepatitis,bronchitis, pneumonia, as a topical compress for mastitis.
• Studies in laboratory animals (1) suggest root may possess anti-inflammatory properties (2) report antioxidant activity from the flower extract, and (3) leaves might have a mild diuretic effect.
• Liver cancer: South Korean study suggests that Taraxacum officinale decreased cell viability and increased the TNF-alpha and interleukin-1alpha production.
• Lipid metabolism: Dandelion water extract had effects on lipid metabolism: decreased total chol and triglycerides while increasing the HDL-chol in diabetic rats.
• Anti-inflammatory / Anti-angiogenic / Antinociceptive: The study showed Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-noniceptive activities through inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or oxidative activity.
• Anticancer: Study of aqueous extracts from mature leaves, flowers and roots showed anti-carcinogenic activity on breast and prostate cancer cells and suggests that the extracts or individual components may be of value as novel cancer agents.[coloured by me]
• Antioxidant / Radical Scavenging: Study identified flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives from the dandelion flower.The dandelion flower extract suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical.
• Hypoglycemic Effect: (1) Animal studies have shown hypoglycemic activities attributed in part to the high inulin content of the plant. (2) A case report of hypoglycemia attributed to ingestion of dandelion.
• Cytotoxicity / Antitumore: Previous studies have indicated Taraxacum officinale exhibits anti-tumor properties. In a study investigating its effect on cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, results showed cytotoxicity effects through TNF-a and IL-1a secretion in Hep G2 cells.
Cultivated for its flowering plant.