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ATR-X Syndrome is an inheritable condition which affects only boys. The effects of the condition include mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearence and mild anaemia. The anaemia results from a mild form of thalassemia.

Most affected boys have alpha thalassemia, a form of anemia resulting from a defect in the production of a component of hemoglobin called alpha globin. A feature of the alpha thalassemia is the presence of hemoglobin H inclusions in the red blood cells which gives them a tell-tale appearance under the microscope. This is the basis of a simple blood test which, if positive, confirms the diagnosis of ATR-X."

NOTE: Not all boys with ATR-X syndrome have Alpha Thalassemia; however, 85% of them do.

Affected boys have severe learning difficulties and
milestones are delayed. Speech is usually not achieved.
Affected boys tend to suffer frequent colds and recurring
chest infections. Most boys have genital abnormalities,
most frequently undescended testes. Feeding problems and
regurgitation are commonly present. Sleep disturbance and
mouthing may occur in some children. World-wide, there are
as many as 200+ identified with this condition. The
underlying gene has been identified.

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