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HUDF center top left, #90 astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.68 MB 1244X1243 1 of 4 identical views with different color schemes 2008.12.12 #88-91 on rmforall at flickr.com: Rich Murray 2011.01.09

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    HUDF center top left, #90 astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.68 MB 1244X1243 1 of 4 identical views with different color schemes 2008.12.12 #88-91 on rmforall at
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 8, 2011
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      HUDF center top left, #90 astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.68 MB 1244X1243 1 of 4 identical views with different color schemes 2008.12.12 #88-91 on rmforall at flickr.com: Rich Murray 2011.01.09
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2011_01_01_archive.htm
      Sunday, January 9, 2011
      [ at end of each long page, click on Older Posts ]
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/astrodeep/message/80
      [you may have to Copy and Paste URLs into your browser]
      ____________________________________________________________


      for viewing -- click on Actions to get different sizes and for free download

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/rmforall/3103426063/in/photostream/

      #89 astrodeep200407aab10aea.png 4.14 MB 1244X1283 HUDF center top left

      This image is 6.3x6.3 arc-seconds, 3.965% of the area of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field,

      which is 186 arc-seconds wide and high = 3.1 arc-minutes

      = 1/10 width of the Full Moon or Sun, about 0.5 degrees,

      so the HUDF is about 1% of the area of the square that holds the Full Moon or Sun,

      short introduction re viewing lovely subtle earliest structures in HUDF: AstroDeep, Rich Murray 2009.02.23

      I've found since 2005 myriad ubiquitous bright blue sources, always on a darker fractal 3D web, along with a variety of sizes of irregular early galaxies, in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, simply by increasing the gamma from 1.00 to 2.00 and saturating the colors, while minimizing the green band to simplify the complex overlays of complex fractal structures.

      Dozens of these images, covering the entire HUDF in eight ~20 MB segments, are available for viewing at many scales [ To change the size of images on Windows PCs, use Control - and + ] on www.Flickr.com at the "rmforall" photostream. Try #86 for the central 16% of the HUDF.

      ubiquitous bright blue 1-12 pixel sources on darker 3D fractal web in five 2007.09.06 IR and visible light HUDF images, Nor Pirzkal, Sangeeta Malhotra, James E Rhoads, Chun Xu, -- might be clusters of earliest hypernovae in recent cosmological simulations: Rich Murray 2008.08.17 2009.01.20
      rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.htm
      Sunday, August 17, 2008
      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/25
      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/85

      www.flickr.com/photos/rmforall/1349101458/in/photostream/

      The 5 closeups are about 2.2x2.2 arc-seconds wide and high, about 70x70 pixels.
      The HUDF is 315x315 arc-seconds, with N at top and E at left.
      Each side has 10,500x10,500 pixels at 0.03 arc-second per pixel.

      Click on All Sizes and select Original to view the highest resolution image of 3022x2496 pixels, which can be also be conveniently seen directly at their Zoomable image:

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0714a.html

      Notable in the deep background of the five closeups are ubiquitous bright blue sources, presumably extremely hot ultraviolet before redshifting, 1 to a dozen or so pixels, as single or short lines of spots, and a few irregular tiny blobs, probably, as predicted in many recent simulations, the earliest massive, short-lived hypernovae, GRBs with jets at various angles to our line of sight, expanding bubbles, earliest molecular and dust clouds with light echoes and bursts of star formation, and first small dwarf galaxies, always associated with a subtle darker 3D random fractal mesh of filaments of H and He atomic gases.

      As a scientific layman, I am grateful for specific cogent, civil feedback, based on the details readily visible in images in the public domain.

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/heic0714a.html

      Hubble and Spitzer Uncover Smallest Galaxy Building Blocks

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@... 505-819-7388
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505
      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/messages
      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/messages
      www.sfcomplex.org Santa Fe Complex

      You are welcome to visit me and share your comments as I share these images at home on a 4X8 foot screen -- no fee.

      Anyone may view and download for free 91 images, presenting the HUDF in eight 20 MB pieces at rmforall at www.FlickR.com -- #86 is about 20% of the HUDF in their red and blue colors, as leaving out the green greatly simplifies interpreting the overlapping layers of transparent fractal webs of gas with a wide range of sizes of rather distant sources, beyond z = 5.
      _____________________________________________________________


      astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.10 MB flickr.com rmforall #90 astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.68 MB 1244X1243 px HUDF center top left: Lillian J Kelly: Rich Murray 2008.12.30

      The attachment is my image from my hard drive:
      astrodeep200407aab10ada.png

      www.flickr.com

      www.flickr.com/photos/rmforall/3103426063/
      #90 astrodeep200407aab10ada.png 3.68 MB 1244X1243 px HUDF center top left

      Click on All Sizes to see and download the Original
      or find it directly at
      farm4.static.flickr.com/3161/3103426063_df229d2202_o.png

      In Windows Vista, use CTRL +/= over and over to magnify images,
      and CRTL _/- to reduce.

      You can also go to Control Panel to Ease of Access
      to Ease of Access Center
      to Optimize visual display
      to turn on Magnifier,
      which creates a box of any size and location that magnifies
      from 1 to 16 times in width and height,
      whatever area the cursor is pointed at on any image on the screen.
      You can even make "stereo" pairs side by side,
      by setting Magnifier to 1X,
      and putting its box to the left or right half of the screen,
      and using the cursor to adjust
      until the two images are matching and side by side.
      Then if you can, gaze with crossed eyes at the two images
      to get a third image in between,
      which may well look 3D and have much more detail.

      This image is 6.3x6.3 arc-seconds, 3.965% of the area of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field,

      which is 186 arc-seconds wide and high = 3.1 arc-minutes

      = 1/10 width of the Full Moon or Sun, about 0.5 degrees,

      so the HUDF is about 1% of the area of the square that holds the Full Moon or Sun,

      while the image is 4% of 1/1,000 of the area of the HUDF,

      so the image is about 4/100,000 of the area of the square that holds the Full Moon or Sun.

      The image is 6.3 are-seconds wide and high,

      while the pixels are 0.03 arc-seconds wide in the original HUDF.

      The background of many small blue spots are about 1-10 pixels in area.

      I have used a simple, low-cost program, MGI PhotoSuite 4.0 to process these images:

      double the Gamma to 2.00,
      raise the color saturation,
      shift colors a bit to accentuate the reds,
      remove most of the Green band,
      so the image is mostly made of Blue (coding for visible blue),
      with Red codes for the invisible infrared just longer in wavelength than visible red.

      Mixed Blue and Red make green, yellow, orange, red, and white.

      However these colors are downshifted in frequency (lengthened in wavelength)
      more and more the more they are distant in space (light travel time from us):

      The "Little Feller", like the figure "8" in the top center
      to the right of the red galaxy with a red swirl on the right,
      has been measured to be at redshift distance z = 4.88,
      so its light is changed by a factor of 4.88 --
      its apparent reds, oranges, and yellows represent radiation in the hot ultraviolet,
      and its age from us is about 13 billion years,
      about a billion years after the Big Bang,
      13.7 billion = 13,700 million years ago.
      The Sun and solar system are 4.6 billion = 4,600 million years ago.

      The myriad tiny background blue spots,
      along with some green ones,
      always on a dark 3D fractal mesh,
      are probably the first stars,
      made of pure hydrogen and helium,
      about 100-100 solar masses in size,
      extremely hot and short-lived,
      exploding as hypernovae after 1-2 million years,
      often with intense bipolar jets,
      often leaving relic neutron stars and black holes,
      flinging new elements like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen into space to become the substance of later generations of stars,
      which are closer to us in space (nearer in time), smaller, more numerous, cooler, longer-lived,
      collecting together by gravity to make clouds, clusters, dwarf galaxies, clump cluster galaxies, irregular galaxies, and mature galaxies,
      flat slowly rotating spirals and rounded ellipticals,
      which often collide, especially at first
      before the constant expansion of space-time separated them more and more --
      the expansion of space-time itself that originated from a minute region in a source reality
      that had at least 10 dimensions of space and one of time -- the Big Bang.

      So, we see far-away early gatherings of hot blue and green objects,
      and closer (nearer to us in time) more numerous gatherings of cooler red objects,
      which all seem exist as a 3D fractal network of twisted tubes,
      rather transparent, as there was little dust in early time to darken light.

      It is well known that for every mass of ordinary matter, gas, dust, stars,
      there is about 6 times more mass of completely invisible dark matter,
      which pulls itself together by gravity into a 3D fractal network, making
      the scaffold that ordinary matter collects within.
      Dark matter surrounds glalaxies and superclusters of galaxies,
      bending light gently by gravity,
      so that the dark matter appears as subtle transparent bubbles
      against the complex background of deeper structures.

      Additionally the cosmic zoo may include galaxy-wide strings of
      condensed space-time geometry, formed during the Big Bang,
      that are massive enough to bend light
      and make double twin images of objects far behind them from us.

      ubiquitous bright blue 1-12 pixel sources on darker 3D fractal web in five 2007.09.06 IR and visible light HUDF images, Nor Pirzkal, Sangeeta Malhotra, James E Rhoads, Chun Xu, -- might be clusters of earliest hypernovae in recent cosmological simulations: Rich Murray 2008.08.17
      rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.htm
      Sunday, August 17, 2008
      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/25
      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/85

      www.flickr.com/photos/rmforall/1349101458/in/photostream/

      The 5 closeups are about 2.2x2.2 arc-seconds wide and high, about 70x70 pixels.
      The HUDF is 315x315 arc-seconds, with N at top and E at left.
      Each side has 10,500x10,500 pixels at 0.03 arc-second per pixel.

      Click on All Sizes and select Original to view the highest resolution image of
      3022x2496 pixels, which can be also be conveniently seen directly at their
      Zoomable image:

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0714a.html

      Notable in the deep background of the five closeups are ubiquitous bright blue
      sources, presumably extremely hot ultraviolet before redshifting,
      1 to a dozen or so pixels,
      as single or short lines of spots, and a few irregular tiny blobs,
      probably, as predicted in many recent simulations, the earliest massive,
      short-lived hypernovae, GRBs with jets at various angles to our line of sight,
      expanding bubbles, earliest molecular and dust clouds with light echoes and
      bursts of star formation, and first small dwarf galaxies, always associated with
      a subtle darker 3D random fractal mesh of filaments of H and He atomic gases.

      As a scientific layman, I am grateful for specific cogent, civil feedback, based
      on the details readily visible in images in the public domain.

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/heic0714a.html

      Hubble and Spitzer Uncover Smallest Galaxy Building Blocks

      In this image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, several objects are identified
      as the faintest, most compact galaxies ever observed in the distant
      Universe.
      They are so far away that we see them as they looked less than one billion
      years after the Big Bang.
      Blazing with the brilliance of millions of stars, each of the newly
      discovered galaxies is a hundred to a thousand times smaller than our Milky
      Way Galaxy.

      The bottom row of pictures shows several of these clumps (distance expressed
      in redshift value).
      Three of the galaxies appear to be slightly disrupted.
      Rather than being shaped like rounded blobs, they appear stretched into
      tadpole-like shapes.
      This is a sign that they may be interacting and merging with neighboring
      galaxies to form larger structures.

      The detection required joint observations between Hubble and NASA's Spitzer
      Space Telescope.
      Blue light seen by Hubble shows the presence of young stars.
      The absence of red light from Spitzer observations conclusively shows that
      these are truly young galaxies without an earlier generation of stars.

      Credit: NASA, ESA, and N. Pirzkal (European Space Agency/STScI)

      Id: heic0714a
      Object: HUDF, UDF, Hubble Ultra Deep Field
      Type: Cosmology
      Instrument: ACS
      Width: 2750
      Height: 3312
      Downloads
      Images

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/original/heic0714a.tif
      Fullsize Original 17.085 MB

      www.alternatiff.com/
      view with free software AlternaTIFF

      alternatiff-1_8_4.exe for Firefox browser

      Large JPEG
      3,422 KB

      Screensize JPEG
      387 KB

      www.spacetelescope.org/images/html/zoomable/heic0714a.html
      Zoomable

      Copyright-free material (more info).

      www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMCGRMPQ5F_index_1.html

      hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2007/31

      hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2007/31/image/

      www.spitzer.caltech.edu/

      www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0714.html

      www.spacetelescope.org/news/text/heic0714.txt

      HEIC0714: EMBARGOED UNTIL 18:00 (CEST)/12:00 PM EDT 06 September, 2007
      www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0714.html

      News release:
      Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes find "Lego-block" galaxies in early
      Universe

      06-September 2007 The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NASA
      Spitzer Space Telescope have joined forces to discover nine of the
      smallest, faintest, most compact galaxies ever observed in the distant
      Universe. Blazing with the brilliance of millions of stars, each of the
      newly discovered galaxies is a hundred to a thousand times smaller than
      our Milky Way Galaxy.

      The conventional model for galaxy evolution predicts that small galaxies
      in the early Universe evolved into the massive galaxies of today by
      coalescing. Nine Lego-like "building block" galaxies initially detected
      by Hubble likely contributed to the construction of the Universe as we
      know it. "These are among the lowest mass galaxies ever directly
      observed in the early Universe" says Nor Pirzkal of the European Space
      Agency/STScI.

      Pirzkal was surprised to find that the galaxies' estimated masses were
      so small. Hubble's cousin observatory, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope
      was called upon to make precise determinations of their masses. The
      Spitzer observations confirmed that these galaxies are some of the
      smallest building blocks of the Universe.

      These young galaxies offer important new insights into the Universe's
      formative years, just one billion years after the Big Bang. Hubble
      detected sapphire blue stars residing within the nine pristine galaxies.
      The youthful stars are just a few million years old and are in the
      process of turning Big Bang elements (hydrogen and helium) into heavier
      elements. The stars have probably not yet begun to pollute the
      surrounding space with elemental products forged within their cores.

      "While blue light seen by Hubble shows the presence of young stars, it
      is the absence of infrared light in the sensitive Spitzer images that
      was conclusive in showing that these are truly young galaxies without an
      earlier generation of stars," says Sangeeta Malhotra of Arizona State
      University in Tempe, USA, one of the investigators.

      The galaxies were first identified by James Rhoads of Arizona State
      University, USA, and Chun Xu of the Shanghai Institute of Technical
      Physics in Shanghai, China. Three of the galaxies appear to be slightly
      disrupted -- rather than being shaped like rounded blobs, they appear
      stretched into tadpole-like shapes. This is a sign that they may be
      interacting and merging with neighbouring galaxies to form larger,
      cohesive structures.

      The galaxies were observed in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with
      Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Near Infrared Camera and
      Multi-Object Spectrometer as well as Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera and
      the European Southern Observatory's Infrared Spectrometer and Array
      Camera. Seeing and analysing such small galaxies at such a great
      distance is at the very limit of the capabilities of the most powerful
      telescopes. Images taken through different colour filters with the ACS
      were supplemented with exposures taken through a so-called grism which
      spreads the different colours emitted by the galaxies into short
      "trails". The analysis of these trails allows the detection of emission
      from glowing hydrogen gas, giving both the distance and an estimate of
      the rate of star formation. These "grism spectra" -- taken with Hubble
      and analysed with software developed at the Space Telescope-European
      Coordinating Facility in Munich, Germany -- can be obtained for objects
      that are significantly fainter than can be studied spectroscopically
      with any other current telescope.

      # # #

      Notes for editors
      The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation
      between ESA and NASA.

      Pirzkal's main collaborators were Malhotra, Rhoads, Xu, and the GRism
      ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) team.

      Image credit: NASA, ESA and N. Pirzkal (European Space Agency/STScI)

      If you wish to no longer receive these News and Photo Releases, please
      send an email to distribution@... with your name.

      For more information, please contact:
      Nor Pirzkal ;
      European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
      Tel: 410-338-4879

      Lars Lindberg Christensen ;
      Hubble/ESA, Garching, Germany
      Tel: +49-(0)89-3200-6306
      Cellular: +49-(0)173-3872-621

      Ray Villard ;
      Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
      Tel: +1-410-338-4514

      Whitney Clavin
      Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA
      Tel: +1-818-354-4673

      AST HUDF Spitzer IR 9 galaxies z 4-5.7, N Pirzdal, S Malhotra, JE Rhoads, C Xu,
      2007.05.01 28p

      www.spacetelescope.org/news/science_paper/0612513.pdf

      arXiv:astro-ph/0612513v2 1 May 2007
      Optical to mid-IR observations of Lyman-a galaxies at z about 5 in the HUDF: a
      young and low mass population
      N. Pirzkal 1,2,
      S. Malhotra 3,
      J. E. Rhoads 3,
      C. Xu 4

      ABSTRACT

      High redshift galaxies selected on the basis of their strong Lyman-a emission
      tend to be young ages and small physical sizes.

      We show this by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of 9 Lyman-a
      emitting (LAE) galaxies at 4.0 < z < 5.7 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF).

      Rest-frame UV to optical 700A < wavelength < 7500A luminosities, or upper
      limits, are used to constrain old stellar populations.

      We derive best fit, as well as maximally massive and maximally old, properties
      of all 9 objects.

      We show that these faint and distant objects are all very young, being most
      likely only a few millions years old, and not massive, the mass in stars being
      about 10E6 to 10E8 M sun.

      Deep Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations of these objects,
      even in cases where objects were not detected,
      were crucial in constraining the masses of these objects.

      The space density of these objects, about 1.25 x 10E-4 per cubic Mpc is
      comparable to previously reported space density of LAEs at moderate to high
      redshifts.

      These Lyman-a galaxies show modest star formation rates of about 8 M sun per
      year, which is nevertheless strong enough to have allowed these galaxies to
      assemble their stellar mass in less than a few 10E6 years.

      These sources appear to have small physical sizes, usually smaller than 1 Kpc,
      and are also rather concentrated.

      They are likely to be some of the least massive and youngest high redshift galaxies observed to date.

      Subject headings: galaxies: evolution, galaxies: high redshift, galaxies:
      formation, galaxies: structure, surveys, cosmology

      1 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
      2 Affiliated with the Space Science Telescope Division of the European Space
      Agency, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
      3 School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ
      4 Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai, P.R. China 200083
      ____________________________________________________________

      See similar images:

      notable bright blue tiny sources on darker 3D fractal web in HUDF VLT ESO
      28 images from 506 galaxies, z about 6 , RJ Bouwens, GD Illingworth,
      JP Blakeslee, M Franx 2008.02.04 draft 36 page: Rich Murray 2008.08.17
      rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_08_01_archive.htm
      Sunday, August 17, 2008
      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/26
      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/86

      bright blue 1-4 pixel sources on darker 3D fractal web in IR and visible light
      HUDF images -- might be the clusters of earliest hypernovae in the
      Naoki Yoshida and Lars Hernquist simulation: Rich Murray 2008.07.31
      rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.htm
      Thursday, July 31, 2008
      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/24
      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/84
      ____________________________________________________________

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-819-7388 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      groups.yahoo.com/group/rmforall/messages

      groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/messages

      www.sfcomplex.org Santa Fe Complex
      ____________________________________________________________
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