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Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval: Turner: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

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  • Rich Murray
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927 Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval: Turner: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 23, 2002
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
      Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
      Turner: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

      http://www.swankin-turner.com/

      Swankin & Turner is a law firm specializing in the areas of regulation
      (food and drug, health care, standard setting, antitrust and trade) and
      policy (agricultural, insurance, corporate, tax, administrative and
      consumer). Established in Washington, D.C. in 1973, it has served a
      broad variety of individual and organizational clients, including
      national and local business corporations and nonprofit associations.

      All attorneys with the firm are members of the District of Columbia bar.
      In addition, James Turner is admitted to the Ohio and U.S. Supreme Court
      bars; Betsy Lehrfeld is admitted to the California and U.S. Supreme
      Court bars; Charles Brown is admitted to the bars of Ohio, West Virginia
      and the U.S. Supreme Court; and Chris Turner is admitted to the
      Pennsylvania bar.

      http://www.swankin-turner.com/aspartame.html
      http://www.swankin-turner.com/hist.html
      Aspartame/NutraSweet: The History of the Aspartame Controversy
      by James Turner, ESQ. Director of the National Institute of Science,
      Law, and Public Policy (NISLAPP)

      National Institute of Science, Law, and Public Policy
      1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036
      (202) 462-8800 Fax: (202) 265-6564 nislapp@...

      Timeline:

      December 1965-- While working on an ulcer drug, James Schlatter, a
      chemist at G.D. Searle, accidentally discovers aspartame, a substance
      that is 180 times sweeter than sugar yet has no calories.

      Spring 1967-- Searle begins the safety tests on aspartame that are
      necessary for applying for FDA approval of food additives.

      Fall 1967-- Dr. Harold Waisman, a biochemist at the University of
      Wisconsin, conducts aspartame safety tests on infant monkeys on behalf
      of the Searle Company. Of the seven monkeys that were being fed
      aspartame mixed with milk, one dies and five others have grand mal
      seizures.

      November 1970-- Cyclamate, the reigning low-calorie artificial sweetener
      -- is pulled off the market after some scientists associate it with
      cancer. Questions are also raised about safety of saccharin, the only
      other artificial sweetener on the market, leaving the field wide open
      for aspartame.

      December 18, 1970-- Searle Company executives lay out a "Food and Drug
      Sweetener Strategy' that they feel will put the FDA into a positive
      frame of mind about aspartame. An internal policy memo describes
      psychological tactics the company should use to bring the FDA into a
      subconscious spirit of participation" with them on aspartame and get FDA
      regulators into the "habit of saying, "Yes"."

      Spring 1971-- Neuroscientist Dr. John Olney (whose pioneering work with
      monosodium glutamate was responsible for having it removed from baby
      foods) informs Searle that his studies show that aspartic acid (one of
      the ingredients of aspartame) caused holes in the brains of infant
      mice. One of Searle's own researchers confirmed Dr. Olney's findings in
      a similar study.

      February 1973-- After spending tens of millions of dollars conducting
      safety tests, the G.D. Searle Company applies for FDA approval and
      submits over 100 studies they claim support aspartame's safety.

      March 5, 1973-- One of the first FDA scientists to review the aspartame
      safety data states that "the information provided (by Searle) is
      inadequate to permit an evaluation of the potential toxicity of
      aspartame". She says in her report that in order to be certain that
      aspartame is safe, further clinical tests are needed.

      May 1974-- Attorney, Jim Turner (consumer advocate who was instrumental
      in getting cyclamate taken off the market) meets with Searle
      representatives to discuss Dr. Olney's 1971 study which showed that
      aspartic acid caused holes in the brains of infant mice.

      July 26, 1974-- The FDA grants aspartame its first approval for
      restricted use in dry foods.

      August 1974-- Jim Turner and Dr. John Olney file the first objections
      against aspartame's approval.

      March 24, 1976-- Turner and Olney's petition triggers an FDA
      investigation of the laboratory practices of aspartame's manufacturer,
      G.D. Searle. The investigation finds Searle's testing procedures shoddy,
      full of inaccuracies and "manipulated" test data. The investigators
      report they "had never seen anything as bad as Searle's testing."

      January 10, 1977-- The FDA formally requests the U.S. Attorney's office
      to begin grand jury proceedings to investigate whether indictments
      should be filed against Searle for knowingly misrepresenting findings
      and "concealing material facts and making false statements" in aspartame
      safety tests. This is the first time in the FDA's history that they
      request a criminal investigation of a manufacturer.

      January 26, 1977-- While the grand jury probe is underway, Sidley &
      Austin, the law firm representing Searle, begins job negotiations with
      the U.S. Attorney in charge of the investigation, Samuel Skinner.

      March 8, 1977-- G. D. Searle hires prominent Washington insider Donald
      Rumsfeld as the new CEO to try to turn the beleaguered company around. A
      former Member of Congress and Secretary of Defense in the Ford
      Administration, Rumsfeld brings in several of his Washington cronies as
      top management.

      July 1, 1977-- Samuel Skinner leaves the U.S. Attorney's office and
      takes a job with Searle's law firm. (see Jan. 26th)

      August 1, 1977-- The Bressler Report, compiled by FDA investigators and
      headed by Jerome Bressler, is released. The report finds that 98 of the
      196 animals died during one of Searle's studies and weren't autopsied
      until later dates, in some cases over one year after death. Many other
      errors and inconsistencies are noted. For example, a rat was reported
      alive, then dead, then alive, then dead again; a mass, a uterine polyp,
      and ovarian neoplasms were found in animals but not reported or
      diagnosed in Searle's reports.

      December 8, 1977-- U.S. Attorney Skinner's withdrawal and resignation
      stalls the Searle grand jury investigation for so long that the statue
      of limitations on the aspartame charges runs out. The grand jury
      investigation is dropped.

      June 1, 1979-- The FDA established a Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) to
      rule on safety issues surrounding NutraSweet.

      September 30, 1980-- The Public Board of Inquiry concludes NutraSweet
      should not be approved pending further investigations of brain tumors in
      animals. The board states it "has not been presented with proof of
      reasonable certainty that aspartame is safe for use as a food additive."

      January 1981-- Donald Rumsfeld, CEO of Searle, states in a sales meeting
      that he is going to make a big push to get aspartame approved within the
      year. Rumsfeld says he will use his political pull in Washington, rather
      than scientific means, to make sure it gets approved.

      January 21, 1981-- Ronald Reagan is sworn in as President of the United
      States. Reagan's transition team, which includes Donald Rumsfeld, CEO of
      G. D. Searle, hand picks Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. to be the new FDA
      Commissioner.

      March, 1981-- An FDA commissioner's panel is established to review
      issues raised by the Public Board of Inquiry.

      May 19, 1981-- Three of six in-house FDA scientists who were responsible
      for reviewing the brain tumor issues, Dr. Robert Condon, Dr. Satya
      Dubey, and Dr. Douglas Park, advise against approval of NutraSweet,
      stating on the record that the Searle tests are unreliable and not
      adequate to determine the safety of aspartame.

      July 15, 1981-- In one of his first official acts, Dr. Arthur Hayes Jr.,
      the new FDA commissioner, overrules the Public Board of Inquiry, ignores
      the recommendations of his own internal FDA team and approves NutraSweet
      for dry products. Hayes says that aspartame has been shown to be safe
      for its' proposed uses and says few compounds have withstood such
      detailed testing and repeated close scrutiny.

      October 15, 1982-- The FDA announces that Searle has filed a petition
      that aspartame be approved as a sweetener in carbonated beverages and
      other liquids.

      July 1, 1983-- The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) urges the FDA
      to delay approval of aspartame for carbonated beverages pending further
      testing because aspartame is very unstable in liquid form. When liquid
      aspartame is stored in temperatures above 85 degrees Fahrenheit, it
      breaks down into DKP and formaldehyde, both of which are known toxins.

      July 8, 1983-- The National Soft Drink Association drafts an objection
      to the final ruling which permits the use of aspartame in carbonated
      beverages and syrup bases and requests a hearing on the objections. The
      association says that Searle has not provided responsible certainty that
      aspartame and its' degradation products are safe for use in soft drinks.

      August 8, 1983-- Consumer Attorney, Jim Turner of the Community
      Nutrition Institute and Dr. Woodrow Monte, Arizona State University's
      Director of Food Science and Nutritional Laboratories, file suit with
      the FDA objecting to aspartame approval based on unresolved safety
      issues.

      September, 1983-- FDA Commissioner Hayes resigns under a cloud of
      controversy about his taking unauthorized rides aboard a General Foods
      jet. (General foods is a major customer of NutraSweet)
      Burson-Marsteller, Searle's public relation firm (which also represented
      several of NutraSweet's major users), immediately hires Hayes as senior
      scientific consultant.

      Fall 1983-- The first carbonated beverages containing aspartame are sold
      for public consumption.

      November 1984-- Center for Disease Control (CDC) "Evaluation of consumer
      complaints related to aspartame use." (summary by B. Mullarkey)

      November 3, 1987-- U.S. hearing, "NutraSweet: Health and Safety
      Concerns," Committee on Labor and Human Resources, Senator Howard
      Metzenbaum, chairman.
      ************************************************************************

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/857
      RTM: www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research 7.31.2 rmforall

      http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
      UPI reporter Gregory Gordon: 96K 3-part expose Oct 1987

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
      OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...
      http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm
      ************************************************************************

      <Activist_List@yahoogroups.com>

      Christie D. Michas christiem@...
      Wed, 11 Sep 2002 12:37:51 -0700

      >----- Original Message -----
      >From: "Mark Douglas Whitaker" <mrkdwhit@...>
      >To: <EnvTecSoc@...>
      >Sent: Saturday, August 24, 2002 9:44 PM
      >Subject: Rumsfeld's conflict of interest and ASPARTAME: Rumsfeld was
      >president of Serle corporation! part of Reagan transition team, and got
      >aspartame 'legalized' by appointing a defense department contractor
      >(Hayes) as head of FDA!

      http://csf.colorado.edu/envtecsoc/2002/msg00440.html

      Rumsfeld's conflict of interest and ASPARTAME: Rumsfeld was
      president of Searle corporation! part of Reagan transition team, and got
      aspartame 'legalized' by appointing a defense department
      contractor (Hayes) as head of FDA!
      by Mark Douglas Whitaker 25 August 2002 01:45 UTC

      summary:

      Rumsfeld's conflict of interests and ASPARTAME: Rumsfeld was president
      of Searle corporation in 1977, maker of aspartame, then, part of Reagan
      transition team, and got aspartame 'legalized' by appointing a defense
      department contractor [??] (Hayes) as head of FDA!

      A book should be written about American corruption and aspartame.

      [also at: http://www.stevia.net/aspartame.htm ]
      The Aspartame/NutraSweet Fiasco by James S. Turner

      Many health-conscious people believe that avoiding aspartame, found in
      over 5000 products under brand names such as Equal and NutraSweet, can
      improve their quality of life. The history of this synthetic sweetener's
      approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including a
      long record of consumer complaints and the agency's demonstrated
      insensitivity to public concern, suggests they're right.

      In October 1980 the Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) impaneled by the FDA
      to evaluate aspartame safety found that the chemical caused an
      unacceptable level of brain tumors in animal testing. Based on this
      fact, the PBOI ruled that aspartame should not be added to the food
      supply.

      This ruling capped 15 years of regulatory ineptitude, chicanery and
      deception by the FDA and the Searle drug company, aspartame's discoverer
      and manufacturer (acquired by Monsanto in 1985), and kicked off another
      two decades of maneuvering, manipulating and dissembling by FDA, Searle
      and Monsanto.

      In 1965, a Searle scientist licked some of a new ulcer drug from his
      fingers and discovered the sweet taste of aspartame. Eureka! Selling
      this chemical as a food additive to hundreds of millions of healthy
      people every day would mean many more dollars than limited sales to the
      much smaller group of ulcer sufferers.

      Searle, a drug company with little experience in food regulation, began
      studies to comply with the law-- but which failed to do so. Its early
      tests of the substance showed it produced microscopic holes and tumors
      in the brains of experimental mice, epileptic seizures in monkeys, and
      was converted by animals into dangerous substances, including
      formaldehyde.

      In 1974, however, in spite of the information in its files, the FDA
      approved aspartame as a dry-foods additive. But the agency also made
      public for the first time the data supporting a food-additive decision.
      This data was subsequently reviewed by renowned brain researcher John
      Olney from Washington University in St. Louis, and other scientists.

      Dr. Olney discovered two studies showing brain tumors in rats and
      petitioned FDA for a public hearing. Consumer Action for Improved Foods
      and Drugs (represented by the author of this piece) also petitioned for
      a public hearing based on the approval process having been based on
      sloppy science and the product's having reportedly caused epileptic
      seizures in monkeys and possible eye damage.

      Dr. Olney had already shown that aspartic acid (one aspartame component)
      caused microscopic holes in the brains of rats after each feeding.
      Aspartame also includes phenylalinine, which causes PKU in a small
      number of susceptible children, and methyl, or wood, alcohol which is
      neurotoxic in large amounts.

      Faced with this array of possible health dangers, FDA granted the
      hearing requests. In lieu of withdrawing its aspartame approval, the
      agency prevailed on Searle to refrain from marketing the sweetener until
      after completion of the hearing process. it then proposed that a Public
      Board of Inquiry (PBOI) review the matter.

      In July of 1975, as the FDA prepared for the PBOI, an FDA inspector
      conducted a routine review of the Searle's Skokie Ill., testing
      facilities and found many deviations from proper procedures. This report
      led the FDA commissioner to empanel a Special Commissioner's Task Force
      to review Searle's labs.

      In December of 1975 the Task force reported serious problem with Searle
      research on a wide range of products, including aspartame. It found 11
      pivotal studies conducted in a manner so flawed as to raise doubts about
      aspartame safety and create the possibility of serious criminal
      liability for Searle.

      The FDA then stayed aspartame's approval. It also contracted, over
      serious internal objection, with a group of university pathologists
      (paid by Searle) to review most of the studies, set up a task force to
      review three studies and asked the U.S. Attorney for Chicago to seek a
      grand jury review of the monkey seizure study.

      The pathologists paid by Searle only reviewed failure to properly report
      data and not the study's design or conduct. They found no serious
      problems. The FDA task force found Searle's key tumor safety study
      unreliable, but was ignored. The U.S. attorney let the statue of
      limitations run out, then (along with two aides) proceeded to join
      Searle's law firm.

      While these committees met, the FDA organized the PBOI. Searle, the
      petitioners and the FDA Bureau of Foods each nominated three members for
      the board and the FDA commissioner selected one member from each list.
      the board, which convened in January of 1980, rejected petitioners'
      request to include the commissioner's task force information in its
      deliberations. Still, in October 1980, based on its limited review, the
      board blocked aspartame marketing until the tumor studies could be
      explained. Unless the commissioner overruled the board, the matter was
      closed.

      In November 1980, however, the country elected Ronald Reagan President.
      Donald Rumsfeld (former congressman from Skokie, former White House
      chief of staff, former secretary of defense and since January 1977
      president of Searle) joined the Reagan transition team. A full court
      press against the board decision began.

      In January 1981 Rumsfeld told a sales meeting, according to one
      attendee, that he would call in his chips and get aspartame approved by
      the end of the year. On January 25th, the day the new president took
      office, the previous FDA commissioner's authority was suspended, and the
      next month, the commissioner's job went to Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes.

      Transition records do not show why the administration chose ***Hayes, a
      professor and Defense Department contract researcher.*** In July Hayes,
      defying FDA advisors, approved aspartame for dry foods -- his first
      major decision. In November 1983 the FDA approved aspartame for soft
      drinks -- Hayes' last decision.

      In November 1983 Hayes, under fire for accepting corporate gifts, left
      the agency and went to Searle's public-relations firm as senior medical
      advisor. Later Searle lawyer Robert Shapiro named aspartame NutraSweet.
      Monsanto purchased Searle. Rumsfeld received a $12 million bonus.
      Shapiro is now Monsanto president.

      Shortly after the FDA soft-drink approval, Searle began test marketing,
      and complaints began to arrive at the FDA -- of such reactions as
      dizziness, blurred vision, headaches, and seizures. The complaints were
      more serious than the agency had ever received on any food additive, At
      the same time, scientists began looking more closely at this
      manufactured chemical sweeetner.

      In 1985, the FDA asked the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to review
      the first 650 complaints (there are now over 10,000). CDC found that the
      symptoms in approximately 25% of the complainants had stopped and then
      restarted, corresponding with their having stopped and then restarted,
      either purposely or by accident, aspartame consumption.

      The CDC also identified several specific subjects whose symptoms stopped
      and started as they stopped and started consuming aspartame. The FDA
      discounted the report. The day the FDA released the CDC report, Pepsi
      Cola -- having obained an advance copy -- announced its switch to
      aspartame with a worldwide media blitz.

      Former White House Chief of Staff Rumsfeld owed a debt of gratitude to
      former White House confidante and Rumsfeld friend Donald Kendal, Pepsi's
      chairman. The Pepsi announcement and aggressive marketing (millions of
      gumballs, a red and white swirl, tough contracts) made NutraSweet known
      in every home.

      At the same time, according to data released in 1995, human brain tumors
      like those in the animal studies rose 10% and previously benign tumors
      turned virulent. Searle and FDA's deputy commissioner said the data
      posed no problem. Two years later this same FDA official became vice
      president of clinical research for Searle.

      >From 1985 to 1995, researchers did about 400 aspartame studies. They
      were divided almost evenly between those that gave assurances and those
      that raised questions about the sweetener. Most instructively, Searle
      paid for 100% of those finding no problem. All studies paid for by
      non-industry sources raised questions.

      Given this record, it is little wonder that many health-conscious people
      believe avoiding NutraSweet improves their quality of life. If and when
      a scientific consensus concludes that aspartame puts some, if not all,
      of its consumers at risk, it will be much too late. The point is to eat
      safely now. Remember: the brain you save may be your own.

      James S. Turner, Esq., is a partner in the 27-year-old Washington, D.C.
      consumer-interest law firm of Swankin and Turner. He is the author of
      The Chemical Feast: The Nader Report on the Food and Drug
      Administration, Making Your Own Baby Food, and a number of law journal
      and popular media articles.
      ************************************************************************

      http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?channelid=55&contentid=107
      Conspiracy Planet Mon Dec 23 2002
      The Alternative News & History Network
      Your Antidote to Media Cartel Propaganda

      Rumsfeld Lobbied FDA Approval of Toxic Aspartame by RM NEWS

      (Editor's note: Bush just appointed another unindicted criminal, Donald
      Rumsfeld, as Secretary of Defense.

      >From Secretary of Defense under Gerald Ford to Chairman and CEO of G.D.
      Searle (makers of aspartame), to White House Chief of Staff to
      Congressman to the board of directors of Amylin Pharmaceuticals, among
      other things, this man is apparently really qualified to take over the
      position of head of dirty works.

      His connections to Ford, Rockefeller, Bush, Cheney, Kissinger, etc. make
      him an ideal insider choice.

      >From the following website comes this tidbit and much more:

      http://www.aspartamekills.com/mpvalley/
      ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER ASPARTAME (EQUAL, NUTRASWEET) LINKED TO BREAST
      CANCER AND GULF WAR SYNDROME

      "On June 1, 1977, Donald Rumsfeld became Chairman and CEO of G.D.
      Searle. Rumsfeld, straight out the White House as Gerald Ford's
      Secretary of Defense and before that his Chief of Staff, was a heavy gun
      for Searle to secure FDA approval of aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet).

      A hard-right Republican who served four terms in Congress
      (1962-69),Rumsfeld voted against food stamps, Medicare and anti-poverty
      funds. Rumsfeld's political ideology encompasses the stockpiling of
      chemical weapons,downsizing the Federal government, and eliminating
      funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting."

      And this:

      "James Turner, the anti-aspartame advocate alleges that Searle hired
      Rumsfeld to handle the aspartame approval difficulties as a "legal
      problem rather than a scientific problem."

      And this:

      "On September 30, 1980, the PBOI voted unanimously to reject the use of
      aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet) until additional studies on aspartame's
      potential to cause brain tumors could be done.

      On January 21, 1981, the day after Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as
      President of the United States, Searle Pharmaceuticals reapplied to the
      FDA for aspartame (Equal, NutraSweet) approval.

      A former G.D. Searle salesperson, Patty Wood-Allott, revealed that
      Donald Rumsfeld, president of Searle, told his sales force that, if
      necessary, "he would call in all his markers and that no matter what, he
      would see to it that aspartame would be approved that year." (mgold,
      Gordon, US Senate Record)

      >From the Amylin Pharmaceuticals webpage: Donald Rumsfeld Bio

      Mr. Rumsfeld is Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gilead
      Sciences, Inc. He also serves as a member of the boards of directors
      of ABB (Asea Brown Boveri) Ltd., Tribune Company and RAND
      Corporation. He is currently Chairman of the Salomon Smith Barney
      International Advisory Board. He recently completed service as
      Chairman of the U.S. Government Commission to Assess the Ballistic
      Missile Threat to the United States. From 1991 to 1996, Mr.
      Rumsfeld served as a member of the board of directors of Amylin
      Pharmaceuticals. Mr. Rumsfeld was Chairman and Chief Executive
      Officer of General Instrument Corporation from October 1990 to
      August 1993 and served as a senior advisor to William Blair & Co.,
      an investment banking firm, from 1985 to 1990. He was Chief
      Executive Officer of G.D. Searle & Co. from 1977 to 1985. Mr.
      Rumsfeld formerly served as U.S. Secretary of Defense, White
      House Chief of Staff, U.S. Ambassador to NATO, and U.S.
      Congressman. He has also served as the President's special envoy to
      the Middle East. He is a recipient of the Presidential Medal of
      Freedom, the United States' highest civilian award.
      ************************************************************************

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/912
      aspartame: methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid toxicity:
      brief review: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-986-9103

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
      for 928 posts in a public searchable archive

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/862 long review

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/910
      formaldehyde & formic acid from methanol in aspartame:
      Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall

      It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily
      for months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid
      toxicity, since 11% of aspartame (1,120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz
      cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the
      body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in
      molecules inside many fruits), then quickly transformed into
      formaldehyde, which in turn becomes formic acid, both of which in
      time become carbon dioxide and water-- however, about 30% of the
      methanol remains in the body as cumulative durable toxic metabolites of
      formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily, a gram every month.
      If 10% of the methanol is retained as formaldehyde, that would give 12
      mg daily formaldehyde accumulation, about 60 times more than the 0.2 mg
      from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in
      drinking water.

      Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in
      drinking water is 1 ppm,
      or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
      RTM: ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999
      5.30.2 rmforall

      This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical
      patterns of increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with
      headache, fatigue, joint pain, irritability, memory loss, and leading to
      vision and eye problems and even seizures. In many cases there is
      addiction. Probably there are immune system disorders, with a
      hypersensitivity to these toxins and other chemicals.

      Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/909
      testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
      peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
      Martin L. Pall: Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/915
      formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold: Murray:
      Wilson: CIIN: 12.12.2 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/860
      RTM: FDA: objections to neotame approval 8.3.2 rmforall 38 pages

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/868
      Murray: submit complaints and papers to FDA Docket 02P-0317
      by Jan 12 2003: Recall Aspartame as a Neurotoxic Drug 9.20.2 rmforall

      http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
      Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
      Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@...
      http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@...
      Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
      800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/926
      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 2/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall
      ***********************************************************************
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