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Murray: Wilson: CIIN: EPA: Gold: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: formaldehyde toxicity 8.22.2 rmforall

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  • Rich Murray
    Murray: Wilson: CIIN: EPA: Gold: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: formaldehyde toxicity 8.22.2 rmforall http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/863
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 22, 2002
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      Murray: Wilson: CIIN: EPA: Gold: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham:
      formaldehyde toxicity 8.22.2 rmforall


      http://www.ciin.org/ chemicalinjury@...
      Chemical Injury Information Network
      P.O.Box 301 White Sulphur Springs, MT 59645
      406.547.2255 fax 2455

      Chemical Exposure and Human Health; Cynthia Wilson, covers 314
      chemicals in an easy-to read format. $55.00 US plus $2.00 shipping to
      McFarland and Company Ltd.; P.O. Box 611; Jefferson NC 28640,

      The Human Consequences of the Chemical Problem by Cindy
      Duehring and Cynthia Wilson, $7.20, TT Publishing, PO Box T,
      White Sulphur Springs MT 59645

      Formaldehyde (From "Chemical Exposure and Human Health")
      Eye, ear and throat irritation;
      Acute sense of smell;
      Altered tissue proteins;
      Antibodies formation;
      Blood in urine;
      Blurred vision;
      Body aches;
      Bronchial spasms;
      Burns, nasal and throat;
      Cardiac impairment, palpations, and arrhythmias;
      Central nervous system depression;
      Changes in higher cognitive functions ;
      Chemical sensitivity;
      Chest pains and tightness;
      Chronic vaginitis;
      Corneal erosion;
      Difficulty Concentrating;
      DNA damage;
      Ear aches;
      Emotional upsets;
      Ethmoid polyps;
      Fecal Bleeding;
      Fetal asphyxiation;
      Flu-like or cold like illness;
      Frequent urination with pain;
      Gastrointestinal inflammation;
      Hemolytic anemia;
      Hyperactive airway disease;
      Hypomenstrual syndrome;
      Immune system sensitization;
      Impaired attention span;
      Impaired capacity to focus attention;
      Inability or difficulty swallowing;
      Inability to recall words and names;
      Inconsistent IQ profiles;
      Inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs;
      Intestinal pain;
      Intrinsic asthma;
      Joint pain, aches and swelling;
      Kidney pain;
      Laryngeal spasm;
      Loss of memory;
      Loss of sense of smell;
      Loss of taste;
      Menstrual and testicular pain;
      Menstrual irregularities;
      Metallic taste;
      Muscle spasms and cramps;
      Nasal congestion, Crusting and mucosa inflammation;
      Numbness and tingling of the forearms and finger tips;
      Pale, clammy skin;
      Partial laryngeal paralysis;
      Post nasal drip;
      Pulmonary edema;
      Reduced body temperature;
      Retarded speech pattern;
      Ringing or tingling in the ear;
      Schizophrenic-type symptoms;
      Sensitivity to sound;
      Short term memory loss;
      Shortness of breath;
      Skin lesions;
      Sore throat;
      Spacey feeling;
      Speaking difficulty;
      Swollen glands;
      Vomiting blood;
      Suspected of causing cancer (see comment from NIOSH).
      Genetic mutations;
      Chromosomal damage;

      Metabolized as formic acid. Note: Will cross sensitize to formic acid.
      Comparison of ciliostatic effects showed formaldehyde to the most
      toxic of the aldehydes. EPA estimates that 15 people in 1 million will
      get cancer from lifetime exposure of 1 ppb. Neurotoxin.

      Trade Names/synonyms: Quaternium-15; Metanal; Meltyl aldehyde;
      Methylene oxide; Formalin; Formic aldehyde; Formalith; Fyde; BVF;
      Morbicid; Oxymethylene; Oxomethane; Lysoform; Superlysoform;
      Fannoform; Ivalon.

      NIOSH: Carcinogen at any exposure level;
      NIOSH REL: 0.016 ppm (10 hr/day 40 hr. wk);
      0.100 ppm (ceiling limit to not exceed 15
      OSHA: PEL: 0.750 ppm (8 hr/day-40 hr/wk-PP/S);
      2000 ppm (exposure to not exceed 15 min);
      NAS: There is no (constant) population
      threshold for irritation effects;
      NRC: Fewer than 20% but perhaps no more than 10% of
      the general population may be suspectable to formaldehyde and may react
      acutely at any exposure level;
      ACGIH: Suspected human carcinogen;
      IDLH: 30 ppm;

      Chemical Exposure and Human Health: Page 182;
      References: 84,17,18,30,31,129,278,279,285, 88,290,297,299,300,304,

      8. Berthold-Bond, A., Clean & Green, Woodstock, NY:
      Cress Press, 1990.
      14. Chesebrough-Ponds USA Co., product label for Rave All in One hair
      spray 1992.
      17. Concrete Facts, "99.99 Percent?" March 1991, Vol.1 no.1 and/or
      Rachel's Hazardous Waste News #207, "Hardardous Waste
      Incineration- Part 4; Real Alternatives to Incinerations,"
      November 14, 1988.
      18. "Congress: HR 1066 Needed to Turn Heat Up on Employers,
      Regulators, Congress Told", Indoor Air Pollution News,
      Washington, DC: Buraff, August 22, 1991.
      30. Lander Co., product label for Rose Scented Skin Cream, ca. 1992.
      31. Lander Co., product label for Vitamin E Lotion, ca. 1992.
      129. "National Library of Medicine's Toxicology Information Program,
      Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Hazardous
      Substances Data Bank, "Formaldehyde", as of January 11, 1992.
      279. National Research Council, Assembly of Life Sciences, Committee
      on Aldehydes, Based on Toxicology and Environmental Health
      Hazards, Formaldehydes and other Aldehydes, Washington, DC:
      National Academy Press, 1981.
      285. New Jersey Department of Health, "Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet
      "Formaldehyde", 1986.
      288. Proctor and Gamble Co., label for Ivory Free Conditioner, U.S.
      patent pending.
      290. Redmond Products, product label for Aussie Mega Shampoo with
      Papaya, 1986.
      297. Swanson, J.R., "Formaldehyde: The Psychological and Educational
      Implications of Formaldehyde Toxicology," Seattle, WA:
      University of Washington, College of Education, 1984.
      299. Thomas, C.L., editor, Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary,
      16th Edition, Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company, 1989.

      A History of the Chemical Injury Information Network
      PO Box 301, White Sulphur Springs, MT 59645; (406) 547-2255

      Founded in 1990, the Chemical Injury Information Network
      (CIIN) is a 501(c)3, tax-exempt, non-profit support, advocacy
      organization run by the chemically injured primarily for the benefit
      of the chemically injured. Its primary focus is on education,
      credible research on multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), and the
      empowerment of the chemically injured. CIIN publishes the
      monthly newsletter Our Toxic Times and has over 5,000
      members in 35 countries.*

      CIIN merged with Cindy Duehring's Environmental Access
      Research Network (EARN) in 1994. EARN now serves as the
      research division of CIIN and is responsible for the administration
      of one the largest private libraries on chemical health issues in
      existence. Its primary focus is to make scientific, medical, legal,
      and government literature available to health care professionals,
      expert witnesses, attorneys, and lay persons. EARN publishes
      Environmental Access Profiles and the semi-monthly newsletter
      Medical & Legal Briefs.

      In 1996, CIIN formed a new division to raise money to fund
      research into MCS. The MCS Research Fund has a medical
      advisory board that peer reviews and prioritizes research
      proposals for funding.

      Considered one of the leading organizations in the world for
      chemical health problems, CIIN/EARN receives hundreds of
      requests each month for information on toxic health problems.
      They regularly work with health care professionals in Algeria,
      Australia, Austria, Canada, Germany, India, Sweden, Venezuela,
      United Kingdom, and the United States. They have worked with
      universities in Australia, Canada, Germany, Philippines, Mexico,
      and the United States. CIIN/EARN have also provided
      information not only to the US government, but to the European
      Union and the governments of Canada, Costa Rica, Finland, New
      Zealand, and Venezuela. CIIN has received recognition for its
      work on chemical health issues from the United Nations'
      Environmental Programme and from the European Union.

      In 1991, CIIN was accepted by the Agency for Toxic
      Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) as a clearinghouse for
      information on the adverse health effects of chemical exposures.
      CIIN/EARN have also earned the respect of legislators with over
      100 US Senators and Representatives referring their chemically
      injured constituents to them. In addition, the National Institutes of
      Health, the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences,
      the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the
      ATSDR, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and
      several divisions of the Environmental Protection Agency refer
      people who have been chemically injured to CIIN/EARN.

      Cindy Duehring, EARN's director, and Cynthia Wilson, CIIN's
      executive director, were commissioned by the Chemical Impact
      Project to write a "white paper" in 1994. The 65-page report,
      The Human Consequences of the Chemical Problem (available
      from TT Publishing, PO Box T, White Sulphur Springs MT
      59645 for $7.20), was presented to Vice President Al Gore, First
      Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of the National Institutes
      of Health Donna Shalala, and the Centers for Disease Control and
      Prevention (CDC). The CDC had the paper peer reviewed and it
      was found to have "merit". A conference was convened to discuss
      the health issues raised by the paper. The ATSDR called it
      "powerful and well researched." The Special Assistant to the
      President requested extra copies to distribute, and Senator
      Conrad Burns (R-MT) requested an extra copy to present to the
      Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

      >From March 1993 to April 1994, Ms. Wilson served as a public
      liaison officer and a member of the planning committee for the
      ATSDR sponsored Conference on Low-Level Exposure to
      Chemicals and Neurobiologic Sensitivity. She was also one of
      three patients to make a presentation at the conference which she
      did via telephone.

      In 1994, CIIN/EARN initiated the steering committee for the
      National Coalition for the Chemically Injured. Ms. Duehring and
      Ms. Wilson co-chaired the committee. In 1995, the steering
      committee finished the organizational plan for the coalition and
      turned it over to an elected Board of Directors.


      In December, Ms. Duehring was awarded the 1997 Right
      Livelihood Award for her research into the sources and effects of
      MCS. The Right Livelihood Award is known as the Alternative
      Nobel Prize and is awarded to people working toward a
      sustainable future.

      At the request of the US Interagency Taskforce on Multiple
      Chemical Sensitivities, CIIN prepared a report on MCS as a
      global health problem. The report, written in 1995, documented
      MCS health problems in 36 countries. CIIN was the only group
      to be asked to make a presentation to the taskforce.

      OUR TOXIC TIMES The monthly magazine of CIIN

      The Chemical Injury Information Network publishes a monthly
      magazine called Our Toxic Times (OTT). It covers a wide range
      of pertinent information for those concerned about Multiple
      Chemical Sensitivity, from the technical to the practical. It also
      contains advertisements, usually pertaining to living or dealing with
      MCS or chemical injury. CIIN appreciates the support of these
      advertisers but does NOT guarantee or endorse any products or
      services. Also, the magazine is not a substitute for medical, legal,
      or other professional services.

      CIIN is interested in inquiries into writing articles for OTT. The
      phone number for the magazine is the same as for the Chemical
      Injury Information Network: 406-547-2255.

      * Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium,
      Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark,
      England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India,
      Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, Northern Ireland,
      Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Russia, Scotland,
      South Africa, Sweden, United States, Venezuela, and Wales.

      Our Toxic Times back issues. 7/90 to 6/94 - $1.50/copy;
      7/94 to present - $3/copy. (Unless otherwise specified, the
      most recent past issue(s) will be sent.)

      Environmental Directory contains over 200 MCS support
      groups and related environmental groups. $5

      Non-Toxic Buying Guide lists products ranging form
      less-toxic construction materials to personal hygiene products.
      Over 200 suppliers. $7.50 (Low-income $5)

      Chemical Injury Information Network Membership Directory.
      $20 for 3.5"disk; $50 for print out. Upon request, a list of
      CIIN members in your state will be provided at no cost. For a
      copy of another state's members, please send $2 for the first
      state and $1.50 for each additional state.

      Chemical Profiles are fully referenced abstracts containing
      trade names, synonyms, exposure standards, adverse health
      effects, usage, and more. $2. per individual profile.

      Bibliography of food allergy, MCS, and the health effects of
      chemicals. Contains over 1,000 references. $10.40 Order
      No. 0112-CIIN-xx-048R

      Chemical Exposures contains the components of products in
      everyday use. $2. Order No. 0229-CIIN-93-006R

      Rich Murray: Serious symptom syndrome summary:
      Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia) is reported by
      scientific studies and case histories to be toxic: * headaches
      * many body and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching,
      spasms, cramps, or numbness) * fever, fatigue
      * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
      irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech,
      ringing in ears, sexual problems, poor vision, hearing, or taste
      * red face, itching, rashes, burning eyes or throat,
      dry mouth or eyes, mouth sores * hair loss
      * obesity, bloating, edema, anorexia,
      poor or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing problems
      * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness * sweating
      * racing heart, high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar levels
      * seizures * birth defects * brain cancers * addiction
      * aggrivates diabetes, autism, ADHD, allergies,
      and interstitial cystitis (bladder pain).

      Almost all are typical of chronic methanol-formaldehyde toxicity:
      for detailed review http://www.dorway.com/barua.html
      Dr. J. Barua (ophthalmic surgeon), Dr. Arun Bal (surgeon)
      Emerging facts about aspartame.
      Journal Of The Diabetic Association Of India 1995; 35 (4):
      (79 references) barua@...
      "...the total amount of methanol absorbed will be approximately
      10% of aspartame ingested. An EPA assessment of methanol states
      that methanol, 'is considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate
      of excretion once it is absorbed. The absorbed methanol is then
      slowly converted to formaldehyde...'"
      "Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA has been observed,
      by spectrophotometry and electron microscopy, to result in
      irreversible denaturation."

      Trocho C, Pardo R, Rafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar X,
      Fernandez-Lopez JA, Alemany M ["Trok-ho"]
      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue
      components in vivo. Life Sci 1998 Jun 26; 63(5): 337-49.
      Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia,
      Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
      Maria Alemany, PhD (male) alemany@...

      RTM: Tholen: Diet Coke has 5 ppm formaldehyde from aspartame
      5.29.2 rmforall
      For 6 cans of diet soda, this is 5 times the daily limit of 1 PPM for
      formaldehyde in drinking water, set by the EPA.

      Dr. Woodrow C. Monte Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
      Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984; 36 (1): 42-54.
      (62 references) Professsor of Food Science
      Director of the Food Science and Nutrition Laboratory
      Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287
      6411 South River Drive #61 Tempe, Arizona 85283-3337
      602-965-6938 woody.monte@...
      The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
      112 mg, 10% of the aspartame. The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily
      for methanol (wood alcohol), a deadly cumulative poison. Many users
      drink 1-2 L daily. The reported symptoms are entirely consistent
      with chronic methanol toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but,
      like all juices, has 16 times more ethanol, which strongly protects
      against methanol.)


      Formaldehyde, also known as formalin, formal, and methyl aldehyde, is a
      colorless liquid or gas with a pungent odor. It is generally known as a
      disinfectant, germicide, fungicide, defoamer, and preservative.
      Formaldehyde is found in adhesives, cosmetics, deodorants, detergents,
      dyes, explosives, fertilizer, fiber board, garden hardware, germicide,
      fungicide, foam insulation, synthetic lubricants, paints, plastic,
      rubber, textile, urethane resins, and water softening chemicals.

      Inhalation of vapors produces irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat
      and frequently results in upper respiratory tract irritation, coughing,
      and bronchitis. Asthma may occur in sensitive individuals. Severe
      exposure to fumes may lead to chemical pneumonia. Skin reactions after
      exposure to formaldehyde are very common because the chemical can be
      both irritating and allergy-causing. In addition, formaldehyde is
      involved in DNA damage and inhibits its repair.

      Formaldehyde is a suspected human carcinogen and has been shown to
      produce mutations and abnormal organisms in bacterial studies.
      Formaldehyde fumes are liberated from plywood, particleboard, and
      chipboard, as well as urea formaldehyde foam insulation. Symptoms
      associated with exposure to formaldehyde fumes include mucous membrane
      irritation, upper respiratory tract irritation, eye irritation, skin
      rashes, itching, nausea, stuffy nose, headaches, dizziness, and general

      Toxicity is primarily related to the presence of formaldehyde gas.
      Toxicity may be relatively inconspicuous and nonspecific in nature.
      Patients suffering from formaldehyde toxicity have been misdiagnosed as
      having asthma, bronchitis, anxiety, depression, or hypochondria. Severe
      prolonged vomiting and diarrhea in infants may be related to chronic
      exposure to formaldehyde fumes. An individual may become sensitized to
      formaldehyde following repeated exposure to these fumes.

      If you have any questions or concerns about formaldehyde levels in your
      home, contact the office of air pollution control, your local or state
      Department of Health, or the American Lung Association office nearest

      http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame 603-225-2100
      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      mgold@... 12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      How a Public Relations Campaign Deceives the Public About Formaldehyde
      Poisoning From Aspartame October 15, 2000

      I have recently been sent some information about aspartame and
      formaldehyde that looks like it might be part of one last public
      relations campaign to claim the chemical is 'safe'. The formaldehyde
      exposure number cited in the text is off by a factor of over 400,000
      and would not be taken seriously by knowledgable scientists.
      The scientific literature cited has clearly not been read by the author.

      However, since a few consumers might inadvertently take the text
      seriously, I have chosen to point out some of the more obvious problems
      with the text.

      > A simple MEDLINE search reveals that the levels of
      > formaldehyde they are talking about (30 micrograms after the
      > ingestion of 200 mg/kg/day of aspartame for 11 days) are
      > well within 'safe' levels, even though 200 mg/kg is equal to
      > about 60 Diet Cokes per day(!).

      The truth is that there is no MEDLINE summary showing an exposure to or
      an accumulation of 30 micrograms (ug) of formaldehyde in humans after
      ingestion of 200 mg/kg/day of aspartame. This figure appears to be
      either fabricated or caused by some serious math errors. The actual
      figure can be calculated quite easily and is approximately 61.3
      milligrams (mg) for ingestion of one liter of diet soda.

      The actual measured amount of aspartame in one liter of diet soda is
      approximately 600 mg. [Ref. 1]. If a 60 kg (132 lbs) woman ingested one
      liter of diet soda, she would be ingesting 10 mg/kg of aspartame:

      600 mg aspartame / 60 kg body weight = 10 mg/kg

      Aspartame breaks down into 10.9% methanol by weight [Ref. 2]. So that
      the amount of methanol obtained from 600 mg of aspartame is:

      600 mg aspartame * 10.9% = 65.4 mg of methanol

      Methanol converts to formaldehyde in the body. [Note: Methanol from
      fruit and alcoholic beverages does not convert to formaldehyde because
      of protective factors/chemicals in the foods. See:
      Methanol [CH(3)OH] has a molecular weight of
      approximately 32.0. Formaldehyde [HCHO] has a molecular weight of
      approximately 30.0. Therefore, 65.4 mg of methanol converts to:

      65.4 mg methanol * ( 30.0 / 32.0 ) = 61.3 mg of formaldehyde.

      If we had used a dose mentioned by the author in the industry public
      relations (PR) article of 200 mg/kg instead of an easily-obtainable
      dose of 10 mg/kg, the formaldehyde exposure would be 20 times greater or

      1,226 mg of formaldehyde. If we used the length of exposure mentioned
      in this PR article of 11 days, the exposure to formaldehyde would be a
      further 11 times greater or 1,226 * 11 = 13,486 mg of formaldehyde.

      The author of the PR article was off by a factor of:

      (13,486 mg * 1,000 micrograms/mg) / 30 micrograms = 449,533 !

      Some scientists might argue that only 70 - 75% of the methanol from
      aspartame is absorbed and of that amount, approximately 90%
      is converted into formaldehyde during the metabolic process [Ref. 3].
      Even if true, it is clear that the exposure to formaldehyde is somewhere

      from 283,000 to 449,533 times what was mentioned in the PR piece.
      Using these figures, the exposure to formaldehyde from a 600 mg dose of
      aspartame would be:

      61.3 mg * 72.5% * 90% = 40 mg of formaldehyde

      Rather than discussing an unobtainable daily dose of 200 mg/kg, it is
      preferable to discuss a very easily obtainable dose of 10 mg/kg of
      aspartame. Actually, a large number of people have reported to this
      author ingesting far in excess of this amount on a daily basis.
      Even the industry's own research shows that higher dosages are
      easily-obtainable by consumers [Ref. 4].

      An exposure to a daily dose of 40.0 mg to 61.3 mg of formaldehyde is
      clearly enough to cause gradual damage (without even considering
      aspartame's excitotoxin that would likely worsen the damage
      as discussed at:
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html#discussion ).

      The daily dose of airborne formaldehyde exposure that was shown
      to cause irreversible genetic damage [Ref. 5] was:

      2.25 ppm formaldehyde (average) ~= 3.375 mg/m3
      3.375 mg/m3 * 10 m3/workday = 33.75 mg/day (for a

      The genetic damage from formaldehyde exposure at approximately 33.75
      mg/day was seen after many years of exposure. The longer the exposure,
      the more genetic damage.

      It is important to keep in mind that the health effects of methanol are
      different in humans as compared to rodents and non-human primates [Ref.
      6], so experiments of the health effects of aspartame in rodents and
      non-human primates might not apply readily to health effects in humans.
      Methanol is many times more toxic to humans than to rodents.

      Exposure to formaldehyde at levels much lower than the 33.75 mg per day
      (that causes irreversible genetic damage) has been shown to cause
      musculoskeletal problems, cardiovascular symptoms, gastrointestinal
      problems, and a wide range of other chronic toxicity symptoms.
      Formaldehyde exposure, especially in the presence of co-exposure to an
      excitotoxin from aspartame appears to cause gradual neurological damage
      and immunological system changes. Please see discussions at both:
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html#discussion and
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/methanol.faq for details
      and scientific references related methanol and formaldehyde toxicity.

      The study by Trocho et al. [Ref. 7] showed that exposure to a single
      dose of 10 mg/kg of aspartame led to the accumulation of formaldehyde
      in the body. The accumulation of formaldehyde was seen throughout the
      body, in the organs (liver, kidneys, brain) and tissues. (See:
      http://www.presidiotex.com/barcelona/SUMMARY/summary.html. )
      The level of formaldehyde accumulation was calculated by Trocho et al.
      to be from 5% of the total methanol levels of aspartame given.
      For every 600 mg of aspartame (a 10 mg/kg dose in a 60 kg woman),
      the amount of formaldehyde estimated to accumulate is:

      61.3 mg of formaldehyde * 5% = 3.065 mg of formaldehyde

      The research on formaldehyde toxicity and damage is based upon exposure
      only. If formaldehyde from aspartame accumulates in organs and tissues
      as the Trocho et al. experiment appears to demonstrate, then it is like
      a ticking time bomb for those who ingest aspartame (even if they have
      not yet experienced symptoms).

      > Well, this published MEDLINE study states that the safe level
      > of formaldehyde consumption for humans is 3 mg/kg/day. So
      > someone who weighs 70kg (154 pounds) can safely
      > consume 70 x 3 = 210 milligrams of formaldehyde per day.

      This is a complete misrepresentation of the formaldehyde research.
      Formaldehyde is not readily abosrbed from foods [Ref. 8]. But the
      methanol in aspartame is readily and quickly absorbed
      and then converted into formaldehyde once in the body [Ref. 9, Ref. 10].
      (Methanol in fruits has protective factors/chemicals to prevent
      conversion into

      "Ingestion represents a minor route of [formaldehyde] exposure
      because the dilution factor and the binding to the macromolecules
      present in food reduce substantially the [formaldehyde] concentration
      that enters into contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa"
      (Restani 1991) [Ref. 8]

      Therefore, any comparison to formaldehyde in foods, is useless.
      A closer comparison (but still not ideal) is a comparison to
      the inhalation toxicity of formaldehyde since formaldehyde
      is easily introduced into the bloodstream through inhalation or from
      methanol derived from aspartame ingestion. The toxicity differences
      between inhalation of formaldehyde and formaldehyde derived from
      aspartame appear to relate

      1.Aspartame also breaks down into an excitotoxin that would be
      expected to increase the toxicity of the formaldehyde and its
      metabolite, formic acid. Please see discussions at both:
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html#discussion and


      2.Inhalation exposure to formaldehyde likely leads to a greater
      exposure of formaldehyde to organs other than the liver. But the Trocho
      et al study makes it clear that at least some of the formaldehyde
      derived from aspartame is distributed to other organs and tissues.

      To conclude, the 30 microgram figure was obviously off by a factor of
      over 400,000. The amount of formaldehyde exposure is more than what has
      been seen to cause chronic toxicity in independent formaldehyde
      exposure research. When one considers
      1) the total formaldehyde exposure,
      2) the long term exposure to and accumulation of formaldehyde,
      3) the excitotoxin obtained from aspartame that would
      likely increase the toxicity of the formaldehyde,
      4) the permanent damage that can result from chronic formaldehyde
      5) the huge numbers of people reporting serious health problems from
      long-term aspartame use
      (http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/suffer.faq), and
      6) the fact that independent controlled human studies nearly always find

      problems with aspartame (even though the experiments are quite short),
      it is a good idea to avoid any aspartame ingestion.

      Tsang, Wing-Sum, et al., 1985. "Determination of Aspartame and Its
      Breakdown Products in Soft Drinks
      by Reverse- Phase Chromatography with UV Detection,"
      Journal Agriculture and Food Chemistry,
      Vol. 33, No. 4, page 734-738.

      Aspartame is composed of: C(14) O(5) N(2) H(18) [See Journal of AOAC
      International, Volume 76, No. 2, 1993: "Determination of Aspartame and
      Its Major Decomposition Products in Foods."]

      The molecular weights are:

      C : 12 * 14 = 168
      O : 16 * 5 = 80
      N : 14 * 2 = 28
      H : 1 * 18 = 18
      Total = 294

      The total molecular weight of methanol is approximately 32.0 as
      described above. Therefore, aspartame breaks down into:

      (32.0 / 294) * 100 = 10.9% methanol

      Kavet, Robert, Kathleen M. Nauss, 1990. "The Toxicity of Inhaled
      Methanol Vapors," Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Volume 21, Issue 1,
      page 21-50.

      Porikos, Katherine P., Theodore B. Van Italie, 1984. "Efficacy of
      Low-Calorie Sweeteners in Reducing Food Intake: Studies with Aspartame"
      In: Stegink, L., Filer L., 1984. "Aspartame: Physiology and
      Biochemistry," Marcel Dekker, Inc., N.Y., page 273-286.

      Shaham, J., Y. Bomstein, A. Meltzer, Z. Kaufman, E. Palma, J. Ribak,
      1996. "DNA--protein Crosslinks, a Biomarker of Exposure to
      Formaldehyde--in vitro and in vivo Studies," Carcinogenesis, Volume 17,
      No. 1, page 121-125.

      Roe, O., 1982. "Species Differences in Methanol Poisoning,"
      CRC Critical Reviews In Toxicology, October 1982, page 275-286.

      Trocho, C., et al., 1998. "Formaldehyde Derived From Dietary Aspartame
      Binds to Tissue Components in vivo," Life Sciences, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp.
      337+, 1998.

      Restani, Patrizia, Corrado Galli, 1991. "Oral Toxicity of Formaldehyde
      and Its Derivatives," Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Volume 21, Issue
      5, pages 315-328.

      Haggard, H., L. Greenberg, 1939. "Studies in the absorption,
      distribution and elimination of alcohol IV. The elimination of methyl
      alcohol," Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therap., Volume 66,
      pages 479-496.

      Stegink, Lewis, 1984. "Aspartame Metabolism in Humans: Acute Dosing
      Studies," In: Stegink, L., Filer L., 1984. "Aspartame: Physiology and
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      Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug;56(4):300-11
      Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
      Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH.
      Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.

      [127K full text]
      Jack D. Thrasher, Ph.D. toxicology@...
      Sam-1 Trust, P.O. Box 874, Alto, New Mexico 88312
      Off: (505) 336-8312 Fax: (425) 675-7379

      Kaye H. Kilburn, M.D. kilburn@...
      University of Southern California
      Keck School of Medicine
      Environmental Sciences Laboratory
      2025 Zonal Avenue, CSC 201, Los Angeles, California 90033
      text Dec, 1997 "Chemical Brain Injury"

      C-14 [radioactive labelled] formaldehyde crosses the placenta and
      enters fetal tissues. The incorporated radioactivity is higher in fetal
      organs (i.e., brain and liver) than in maternal tissues. The
      incorporation mechanism has not been studied fully, but formaldehyde
      enters the single-carbon cycle and is incorporated as a methyl group
      into nucleic acids and proteins.

      Also, formaldehyde reacts chemically with organic compounds (e.g.,
      deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleosides, nucleotides, proteins, amino acids)
      by addition and condensation reactions, thus forming adducts and
      deoxyribonucleic acid-protein crosslinks.

      The following questions must be addressed: What adducts (e.g.,
      N-methyl amino acids) are formed in the blood following formaldehyde
      inhalation? What role do N-methyl-amino adducts play in
      alkylation of nuclear and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, as well
      as mitochondrial peroxidation?

      The fact that the free formaldehyde pool in blood is not affected
      following exposure to the chemical does not mean that formaldehyde is
      not involved in altering cell and deoxyribonucleic acid characteristics
      beyond the nasal cavity.

      The teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in the English literature has
      been sought, beginning on the 6th day of pregnancy (i.e., rodents)
      (Saillenfait AM, et al. Food Chem Toxicol 1989, pp 545-48;
      Martin WJ. Reprod Toxicol 1990, pp 237-39;
      Ulsamer AG, et al. Hazard Assessment of Chemicals; Academic Press,
      1984, pp 337-400;
      and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile
      of Formaldehyde; ATSDR, 1999
      [references 1-4, respectively, herein]).

      The exposure regimen is critical and may account for the differences in
      outcomes. Pregnant rats were exposed (a) prior to mating, (b) during
      mating, (c) or during the entire gestation period. These regimens
      (a) increased embryo mortality;
      (b) increased fetal anomalies (i.e., cryptochordism and aberrant
      ossification centers);
      (c) decreased concentrations of ascorbic acid; and
      (d) caused abnormalities in enzymes of mitochondria, lysosomes, and the
      endoplasmic reticulum.

      The alterations in enzymatic activity persisted 4 mo following birth.

      In addition, formaldehyde caused metabolic acidosis,
      which was augmented by iron deficiency.
      Furthermore, newborns exposed to formaldehyde in
      utero had abnormal performances in open-field tests.

      Disparities in teratogenic effects of toxic chemicals are not unusual.
      For example, chlorpyrifos has not produced teratogenic effects in rats
      when mothers are exposed on days 6-15
      (Katakura Y, et al. Br J Ind Med 1993, pp 176-82
      [reference 5 herein]) of gestation
      (Breslin WJ, et al. Fund Appl Toxicol 1996, pp 119-30;
      and Hanley TR, et al. Toxicol Sci 2000, pp 100-08
      [references 6 and 7, respectively, herein]).

      However, either changing the endpoints for measurement or exposing
      neonates during periods of neurogenesis (days 1-14 following birth) and
      during subsequent developmental periods produced adverse effects. These
      effects included neuroapoptosis, decreased deoxyribonucleic acid and
      ribonucleic acid synthesis, abnormalities in adenylyl cyclase cascade,
      and neurobehavioral effects
      (Johnson DE, et al. Brain Res Bull 1998, pp 143-47;
      Lassiter TL, et al. Toxicol Sci 1999, pp 92-100;
      Chakraborti TK, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993, pp 219-24;
      Whitney KD, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharm 1995, pp 53-62;
      Chanda SM, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996, pp 771-76;
      Dam K, et al. Devel Brain Res 1998, pp 39-45;
      Campbell CG, et al. Brain Res Bull 1997, pp 179-89;
      and Xong X, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharm 1997, pp 158-74
      [references 8-15, respectively, herein]).

      Furthermore, the terata caused by thalidomide
      is a graphic human example in which the animal model and timing of
      exposure were key factors
      (Parman T, et al. Natl Med 1999, pp 582-85;
      and Brenner CA, et al. Mol Human Repro 1998, pp 887-92
      [references 16 and 17, respectively, herein]).

      Thus, it appears that more sensitive endpoints (e.g., enzyme activity,
      generation of reactive oxygen species, timing of exposure) for the
      measurement of toxic effects of environmental agents on embryos,
      fetuses, and neonates are more coherent than are gross terata
      observations. The perinatal period from the end of organogenesis to the
      end of the neonatal period in humans approximates the 28th day of
      gestation to 4 wk postpartum. Therefore, researchers must investigate
      similar stages of development
      (e.g., neurogenesis occurs in the 3rd trimester in humans
      and neonatal days occur during days 1-14 in rats and mice, whereas
      guinea pigs behave more like humans).
      Finally, screening for teratogenic events should also include exposure
      of females before mating or shortly following mating.
      Such a regimen is fruitful inasmuch as environmental
      agents cause adverse effects.
      Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 11572272

      Discussion and Analysis of the Papers:
      FA was distributed to all organs in the adult, the placenta and
      fetus (Table 1), which was similar to that reported in male F344 rats,
      guinea pigs and monkeys. (25,26).
      The major difference is that the Japanese demonstrated the
      incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the placenta and fetus.
      The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
      at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose.

      The DNA fraction contained 20 % and 50% of total incorporated
      radioactivity in the maternal and fetal liver at 6 and 24 hours when
      compared to the acid insoluble fraction (Fig. 1).

      Of primary interest is that the incorporated radioactivity persisted
      longer in the fetal liver and brain when compared to the mothers.

      Also, since FA is a precursor of a number of biological compounds, it
      would have been of prime interest to determine what fraction resulted
      from either metabolic incorporation or from chemical reactivity of FA
      (e.g. crosslinks, adduction, methylation) with biological molecules
      (DNA, proteins, polypeptide, amino acids, etc.).

      FA undergoes addition (adducts and alkylation) and condensation
      (methene bridges) reactions with proteins and amino acids (27) as well
      as nucleic acids and nucleosides/tides. (28)
      It is a mutagen, crosslinking agent and an immunogen (28-30).
      Free FA concentrations in the blood are 2.24+- 0.07 (rats), 1.84+- 0.15
      (Rhesus monkeys) and 2.61+- 0.14 (humans) ug/g of blood [ppm],
      which did not change following either acute or subchronic inhalation of
      FA. (31,32)

      Thus, it appears that additional information is required on addition
      and condensation products of amino acids, polypeptides, nucleoside, etc.

      of the blood, generated by FA exposure.

      An increase of N-methyl amino acids would produce endogenous FA, which
      may have a significant role in mitotic and apoptosis processes.
      FA generators are responsible for FA formation in tumors and have an
      impairment of liver antioxidant mechanisms and functional integrity of
      mitochondria. (33-41)

      FA had adverse effects on zygotes/embryos and bone marrow cells (Tables
      2 and 3). The embryos showed cytological injury and high rate of
      mortality, while bone marrow cells had increased rates of chromosome
      aberrations and aneuploidy.

      Similar observations on chromosomes of peripheral lymphocytes have been
      reported for anatomy and mortuary students. (42-44)
      Classroom exposure to FA at 1.5 to 3.17 mg/m3 was associated with
      increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges, aberrations and
      micronuclei. Concentrations less 1 mg/m3 had no effect on lymphocyte
      chromosomes, but caused micronuclei in nasal and oral exfoliative cells
      and changes in lymphocyte subsets (increase in CD19 and decreases in
      CD4, CD5 and H/S ratio. (45,46)

      With respect to the effect of FA on embryos additional research is
      needed. FA is an alkylating agent. Treatment of C3H transplacentally
      with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (alkylating agent) has caused
      primordial germ cell mutations. (47)
      Also, treatment of female mice within hours after mating with ethyl
      methanesulfanate, ethyl nitrosourea and ethylene oxide resulted
      in fetal deaths and malformations. (48-51)
      Thus, further investigation into the zygote/embryonic effects of FA
      should follow the protocols established for other alkylating agents
      with attention to the role of potential methyl donors,
      e.g. N-methyl amino acids.

      FA exposure throughout gestation caused a decreased DNA and RNA
      concentrations, increased weights of bodies and organs (thymus, heart,
      kidneys and adrenals) and decreased in the weights of lung and liver
      (Table 3). Microscopy and histochemical observations revealed other
      abnormalities: involution of lymphoid tissue, numerous extra-medullary
      hemopoietic centers, decreased glycogen content (myocardium) and liver,
      decreased AA content of whole fetus and fetal and maternal liver.

      AA is an antioxidant, produced from glucuronate via the uronic acid
      pathway, which also is the intermediary route for synthesis of pentoses.

      The decreased AA content may have resulted from either the utilization
      of AA as an antioxidant or by interference (inhibition?) of the uronic

      It is difficult to interpret the meaning of the decreased DNA and the
      increased RNA contents of the organs. However, treatment of adult male
      rats by FA injection was reported to decrease the DNA content of testis
      and prostate and a decrease of protein content of the prostate and
      epididymus. (52)

      Cytopathology of organs and alterations of mitochondria,
      ER and lysosome enzymatic were observed in fetuses following FA
      inhalation (Table 4).
      Organ cytopathology included increased ploidy, micronecrotic loci,
      extramedullary hematopoeitec enters, and degeneration of kidney
      glomeruli. Concomitant were changes in enzymatic activity of as follows:

      mitochondria (MDH, SDH, LDH decreased, while GDH increased);
      ER and lysosomes (ATPase increased while inosine diphosphatase and
      b-glucorinidase decreased). The impairment lasted in the organs to 4
      months of age.
      In addition, N-acetylneuraminic concentration increased in maternal and
      fetal tissues. The changes in the enzymatic activity and
      N-acetyleneuraminic acid correlated with increased fetal mortality.
      Finally, the development of postnatal behavior was also adversely
      affected (Table 6).

      FA has effects on mitochondrial enzymes, glutathione concentrations and
      bile production in the liver of many species, including humans. (53)
      FA inhibits the uptake of phosphate by mitochondria, (54,55) and causes
      the release of GPT, SDH, GSSG and malondialdehyde into the perfusate of
      isolated livers. (56)
      Intraperitoneal injection results in a 2-fold increase in bile and a
      significant decrease in glutathione of the liver, lungs and brains. (57)

      An electron microscopic investigation of the perfused isolated livers
      showed destruction of the mitochondria (ruptured membranes, loss of the
      cristae) and some damage to the endoplasmic reticulum. (56)

      The protection of the liver from FA toxicity appears to be dependent
      upon glutathione by formation of the adduct S-hydroxymethylglutathione.
      Thus, the observed effect of FA on mitochondrial and ER functions
      during embryo/fetal development is also demonstrable in the adult liver.

      FA caused preimplantation, prenatal and postnatal abnormalities. The
      prenatal effects were demonstrable as anomalies and aberrancies in
      blood buffering capacity with metabolic (formate?) acidosis. The major
      anomalies were an increased frequency of cryptochordism, a
      decrease/delay in ossification centers of the hyoid, metacarpus and
      metatarsal bones, delay in eruption of incisors and a decrease in body

      Blood pH decreased in the fetus, while the pCO2 (hypercapnia) increased
      in the fetus and the mother. The true bicarbonates and CO2 were
      unaffected by FA alone, but increased with iron-deficiency in the fetus
      and mother.

      The presence of iron-induced deficiency augmented these abnormalities,
      along with increased embryo mortality .

      The postnatal effect of FA was tested by maze performance. Open field
      tests demonstrated an increase in motor activity, increase in standing
      and appearance of emotion.
      In sexually mature rats there was an increase in search activity.

      FA is metabolized to formate. Alcohols, particularly methanol and
      ethanol, are metabolized to formate and lactate via an aldehyde.

      The toxicity of alcohols and formalin in humans and animals includes
      metabolic acidosis (59-61). Alcohol toxicity generates free radicals,
      cause an increase in malondialdehyde, and induce lipid peroxidation
      resulting in DNA single strand breaks (62-66).
      FA and alcohols probably affect embryos and the fetus via mitochondrial
      Ethanol and environmental agents trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in
      the developing brain (67,68).

      Oxygen stress, such as that caused by free radical generation, is
      associated with apoptotic cell death and fragmentation of mitochondrial
      genome (69-71).

      Moreover, FA via formaldehyde generators, e.g. alkylating agents,
      initiates apoptosis (72-74).
      Mitochondria are the suicide organelles and control apoptosis (75-78).

      Thus, subtle birth defects (autism, low birth weight, fetal alcohol
      syndrome, etc.) are probably best understood by investigating in utero
      oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, rather than by standard FA
      teratogenic research (79-83).

      Mutat Res 2002 Feb 15;514(1-2):115-23
      Sister chromatid exchange in pathology staff occupationally exposed to
      Shaham J, Gurvich R, Kaufman Z. judiths@...
      [ http://www.ioh.org.il/1_3_5.htm
      National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health
      P.O Box 3 Raanana 43100, Israel
      +972 9 - 770 7200 Fax- +972 9 - 771 4969
      Dr. Judith Shaham, MD MOccH
      972-3-5404786 fax 972-3-5497293
      Head of Occupational Cancer Department
      Dr. Shaham was the Chairman of the Organizing Committee of the 14th
      International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health that
      was held in Herzlia, Israel, in 1999.]

      Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was measured in peripheral lymphocytes
      of 90 workers from 14 hospital pathology departments in Israel who were
      occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (FA) and of 52 unexposed workers
      from the administrative section of the same hospitals.
      The mean exposure period to FA was 15.4 years (range 1-39). The results
      of SCEs are expressed in two variables:
      (a) mean number of SCEs per chromosome and (b) proportion of high
      frequency cells (cells with more than eight SCEs). A high correlation
      was found between these two variables.
      The adjusted means of both SCEs variables were significantly higher
      among the exposed compared with that of the unexposed group (P<0.01).
      Adjustment was made for age, sex, smoking habits, education
      workers and origin. Evaluation of the influence of years of exposure on
      the frequency of SCEs showed that the two variables of SCEs were higher
      among those who were exposed to FA for 15 or more than among those with
      less than 15 years of exposure.
      Concerning levels of exposure, both variables of SCEs were the same in
      the low and in the high levels of exposure sub-groups.
      However, among the smokers, both variables of SCEs were higher in the
      high exposure sub-group than in the low exposure sub-group.
      Our finding of a significant increase of SCEs frequency in peripheral
      lymphocytes in pathology staff indicates a potential cytogenetic hazard
      due to FA exposure. We conclude that our data indicate that FA is
      mutagenic to humans. PMID: 11815250

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe NM USA 87505 505-986-9103

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