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RTM: Blumenthal & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997 7.28.2 rmforall

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  • Rich Murray
    RTM: Blumenthal & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997 7.28.2 rmforall http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855 Chewing Gum Headaches
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 28, 2002
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      RTM: Blumenthal & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997
      7.28.2 rmforall


      Chewing Gum Headaches
      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
      Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-666.
      Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
      Tulsa, USA.

      Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
      susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of
      young women with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked
      by chewing sugarless gum containing aspartame.
      PMID: 9439090

      [Excerpts] [Comments by Rich Murray are in square brackets.]

      Patient 1.--A 40-year-old housewife described migraine without aura
      beginning about age 25. When she first consulted the senior author in
      July 1994, she also had episodic tension-type headaches and mild
      In February 1996, she reported worsening of her headache condition and
      described near-daily headaches with worsening of depressive symptoms....

      Over the next 6 months, she did remarkably well. She was assiduous in
      keeping a headache calendar and felt she had better control over her
      life and her headache condition by taking an active part....She observed
      that certain nuts and skipping meals might provoke headaches. Most of
      all, she observed that the aspartame-containing sugarless gum was a
      great trigger of her typical migraine...

      Patient 2.--A 32-year-old housewife and secretary presented in September
      1995, with a 6-year history of migraine without aura...On subsequent
      inquiry about dietary triggers, she reported her observation of an
      intermenstrual migraine provoked by chewing gum containing aspartame,
      but not by chewing gum which did not contain aspartame. A throbbing
      bitemporal headache developed within 45 minutes of chewing the gum.
      Norgesic, ibuprofen, and aspirin did not help. The headache began at
      1730 hours, persisted through the evening and she did not sleep that
      night because of headache. This gum-induced headache lasted
      approximately 10 hours, whereas her menstrual migraine usually lasts 4
      to 5 days. The intensity was less than the menstrual migraine and the
      location was different, with the gum-induced headache being a throbbing
      bitemporal headache and the menstrual migraine being very intense at the
      vertex but more generalized and accompanied by nausea.

      Patient 3.--A 26-year-old laboratory technician consulted the senior
      author in January 1997. Her headaches began at age 14; these were mild
      and easily relieved by Tylenol. She was never disabled. Six months
      before consultation, the headaches became more severe and more frequent:
      she attributed this to work stress. She described throbbing bifrontal
      and temporal headaches accompanied by sonophobia, and she preferred to
      lie down in a dark room because the headaches worsened if she continued
      her usual activity. There was no nausea and no aura. The headaches
      usually lasted 24 hours and naproxen sodium affored better relief than
      acetaminophen. She never left work and reported, "I suffer through it."
      The patient also reported she never found any food or beverage to
      provoke headache, but when urged to quit smoking and chew gum instead,
      she commented that her typical headache could be provoked by chewing gum
      which contained aspartame...

      The chewing gum referred to in this report contains aspartame, sorbitol,
      and phenylalanine. A representative of the manufacturer of the
      particular gum would not reveal the aspartame content in the gum. We
      can add chewing gum which contains aspartame to our expanding list of
      substances which may trigger headache.
      [ aspartame content:
      1.5 mg per breath mint
      4 mg per vitamin pill
      6-8 mg per stick chewing gum
      37 mg per packet Equal
      180 mg per 12 ounces diet soda]

      1. Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT Jr, van Belle G, Daling
      JR, McKnight B.
      Aspartame ingestion and headaches: a randomized crossover trial.
      Neurology. 1994; 44: 1787-1793.

      2. Koehler SM, Glaros A.
      The effect of aspartame on migraine headaches.
      Headache. 1988; 28: 10-14.

      3. Levy PS, Hedeker D, Sanders PG.
      Aspartame and headache.
      Neurology. 1995; 45: 1631-1632.

      4. Roberts HJ.
      Aspartame and headache.
      Neurology. 1995; 45: 1631.

      Board Members-at-Large American Headache Society
      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD
      Neurological Associates of Tulsa
      6565 South Yale Avenue, Suite 312
      Tulsa, OK 74136
      918-481-7711 fax 7725 neurotulsa@...

      President American Headache Society
      Richard B. Lipton, MD
      Professor of Neurology, Epidemiology and Social Medicine
      Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      Innovative Medical Research, Inc.
      1200 High Ridge Road
      Stamford, CT 06905
      203-321-1050 fax 1044 rlipton@...

      Fall & Winter Symposium Co-Chairs
      Lawrence C. Newman, MD *
      The Headache Institute
      1000 Tenth Avenue
      New York, NY 10019
      212-523-5869 fax5902 (fax) newmanache@...

      American Headache Society http://www.ahsnet.org/
      19 Mantua Road
      Mt. Royal, NJ 08061
      856.423.0043 fax 0082 ahshq@...
      Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain http://ahsnet.org/journal/

      Dwight A. Vance
      The University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy
      P.O. Box 26901
      Oklahoma City, OK 7319

      Consumer Center
      Answers on Aspartame
      Q5. Does aspartame cause headaches?

      A5. No, aspartame does not cause headaches. Headaches are one
      of the most common human ailments. Many factors can cause
      headaches, ranging from stress and sleep disturbances to physical
      illnesses. It is potentially dangerous to assume that a headache is
      related to aspartame, when the cause may be a serious
      psychological or physical condition. If you are concerned about
      headaches, speak to your physician.

      A carefully controlled clinical study published in the New England
      Journal of Medicine (1) supports the fact that aspartame does not
      cause headaches or migraines. The results showed that 35 percent
      of the subjects had headaches after taking aspartame, compared
      with 45 percent who had headaches after taking the placebo,
      confirming that aspartame does not trigger headaches.

      (1) Schiffman S et al, "Aspartame and susceptibility to headache,"
      New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 317, 1987, pp. 1181-1185.

      Rich Murray: Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
      aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall

      Rich Murray: Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
      aspartame toxicity 6.4.1 rmforall [Excerpt]

      N Engl J Med 1987 Nov 5;317(19):1181-5
      Aspartame and susceptibility to headache.
      Schiffman SS, Buckley CE 3d, Sampson HA,
      Massey EW, Baraniuk JN, Follett JV, Warwick ZS
      Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, N.C. 27710.

      Dr. Susan S. Schiffman Dept. of Psychiatry Duke University
      www.duke edu sss@... 919-684-3303, 660-5657.
      She has over 100 obviously competent experimental studies and
      reviews since 1971 in PubMed. Her major field is the deterioration
      of smell and taste in seniors and AIDS patients from exposure to
      drugs, chemicals, and pollutants-- one wonders if she ever considered
      the effects of aspartame, since smell and tase impairment are known to
      result from exposure to aspartame or formaldehyde.

      "Loss of taste" is one of 90 symptoms from many case reports of
      aspartame toxicity, summarized in:
      Department of Health and Human Services. "Report on All Adverse
      Reactions in the Adverse Reaction Monitoring System." (February 25
      and 28, 1994).

      Abstract (Schiffman et al, 1987):
      We performed a double-blind crossover trial of challenges with 30 mg of
      aspartame per kilogram of body weight or placebo in 40 subjects who
      reported having headaches repeatedly after consuming products
      containing aspartame. The incidence rate
      of headache after aspartame (35 percent)
      was not significantly different from that after placebo (45 percent)
      (P less than 0.50). No serious reactions were observed, and the
      incidence of symptoms other than headache following aspartame was also
      equivalent to that after placebo. No treatment-related effects were
      detected in vital signs, blood pressure, or plasma concentrations of
      cortisol, insulin, glucagon, histamine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine.
      Most of the subjects were well educated and overweight and had a family
      or personal history of allergic reactions. The subjects who had
      headaches had lower plasma concentrations of
      norepinephrine (P less than 0.0002) and epinephrine (P less than 0.02)
      just before the development of headache.
      We conclude that in this population, aspartame is no more
      likely to produce headache than placebo. PMID: 3657889, UI: 88014077

      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame 603-225-2100
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"
      mgold@... 12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301

      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/migraine.html :

      "Scientific Abuse in Migraine/Headache Research Related to Aspartame":

      "Other industry researchers have cited this study as evidence that
      aspartame does not induce headaches (Butchko 1994, Leon 1989, Moser
      1994). In addition, Yost (1989) claimed that aspartame is not more
      likely to cause headache than placebo. Tollefson (1992) of the FDA
      cited this Schiffman study as evidence that aspartame does not cause
      headaches. (The Tollefson review was discussed in detail in the
      Seizure Research Abuse section).

      "What these researchers fail to mention is that the Schiffman (1987)
      research is useless because of major design flaws. It is also
      particularly troubling that none of the above-mentioned authors
      cited the Koehler (1988) double-blind study!

      "Before we discuss the major flaws of the Schiffman study, I will
      present some background information. The study was partially funded
      by Monsanto/NutraSweet and conducted at the Searle Center at Duke
      University. (G.D. Searle is owned by Monsanto.) Susan Schiffman
      performed her research at the "Searle Center" at Duke University.
      The Searle Center is under the guidance of William Anlyan, a former
      G.D. Searle director. Schiffman is a former General Foods and G.D.
      Searle consultant. The FDA helped design the study protocol.
      [Gordon 1987, page 500 of US Senate 1987; Shapiro 1987, page 403
      of US Senate 1987].)

      "Schiffman (1987) major flaws:

      1.The aspartame was given for only one day.

      2.The aspartame was given in encapsulated form which would lower the
      toxicity by eliminating the sudden absorption of the excitotoxic amino
      acid and methanol (Stegink 1987). The absorption of the excitotoxin is
      gradual, somewhat closer to what happens when ingesting food. The
      methanol is absorbed more slowly and that may significantly reduce
      toxicity as happens when food in the stomach slows methanol absorption
      (Posner 1975).

      3.There was no baseline frequency of headaches determined before
      administering aspartame or placebo.

      "It is very important to note the main distinction between the Koehler
      (1988) study and the Schiffman (1987) study. While both studies used
      capsules, which would be expected to significantly reduce aspartame
      toxicity, and both studies used subjects who claimed to have headaches
      from aspartame, the Koehler (1988) study administered aspartame for
      four weeks, while the Schiffman (1987) study administered the
      aspartame for only one day!

      "When one examines the double-blind studies funded by the aspartame
      industry, a pattern develops. Industry-supported research on subjects
      who have reported serious reactions to aspartame is almost always
      one day long and the aspartame is administered in capsules (e.g.,
      Hertelendy 1993, Rowen 1995, Schiffman 1987). Industry-supported
      research that lasts several weeks is usually performed on individuals
      that might be expected to experience adverse reactions after at least
      several months of aspartame use (e.g., Shaywitz 1994) or on individuals
      even less susceptible to short-term aspartame toxicity, but where more
      sensitive neurological tests were conducted (e.g., Spiers 1998). The
      longer (but still relatively short) industry-supported research
      (3-6 months) usually uses healthy subjects who would likely only
      experience serious adverse reactions after many months or several
      years of aspartame use (e.g., Leon 1989, Trefz 1994). While the length
      of the study is not the only flaw in these industry-sponsored studies,
      there appears to be an obvious pattern of exceptionally short studies
      used on more susceptible subjects. It would appear that the
      manufacturer funds research with protocol designs virtually guaranteed
      to find no adverse reactions!" [end of Gold quote]

      Consumer Center
      All About NutraSweet
      NutraSweet Content

      For specific information regarding individual products, the
      manufacturer should be contacted as exact formulations differ
      with each manufacturer. Here is approximate aspartame
      content in several product categories.

      Product Category Serving Size App. Aspartame
      Carbonated Soft Drinks 12 ounces 180 mg.
      Gelatin Dessert 4 ounces 95 mg.
      Powdered Soft Drink 8 ounces 120 mg.
      Hot Chocolate 6 ounces 50 mg.
      Pudding 4 ounces 25 mg.
      Frozen Novelty 2 - 3 ounces 50 mg.
      Fruit Drink (10% juice) 6 ounces 70 mg.
      Breath Mints 1 mint 1.5 mg.
      Vitamins 1 vitamin 4 mg.
      Ice Cream 4 ounces 50 mg.
      Yogurt 8 ounces 124 mg.
      Gum 1 stick 6-8 mg.

      Subject: Aspartame Support] Wrigley's gums
      Date: Sat, 27 Jul 2002 15:12:32 -0500
      From: "Mitchells" <bmitchel@...>
      To: <aspartame@yahoogroups.com>

      I've noticed that Wrigley's gums are getting new packaging
      and the labels on Doublemint, Juicy Fruit, Spearmint & Winterfresh
      include Aspartame & Acesulfame-K.

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe NM USA 87505 505-986-9103

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages for 855 posts
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/657 45K post
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/763 30K post

      RTM: Tholen: Diet Coke has 5 ppm formaldehyde from aspartame
      5.29.2 rmforall
      For 6 cans of diet soda, this is 5 times the daily limit of 1 PPM for
      formaldehyde in drinking water, set by the EPA and the
      California Dept. of Health Services,
      Div. Drinking Water and Environmental Management (916) 323-2308
      Drinking Water Action Levels: Contaminants of Current Interest
      Last Update: May 2, 2002

      http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
      "Aspartame (NutraSweet) Addiction"
      H.J. Roberts in "Townsend Letter", Jan 2000 HJRobertsMD@...
      http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@...
      Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
      800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

      1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
      published May 30 2001 $ 85.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
      available at http://www.amazon.com
      over 600 references from standard medical research
      http://www.aspartameispoison.com/contents.html 34 chapters
      RTM: Moseley:
      review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic" 2.7.2 rmforall

      Ann Pharmacother 2001 Jun;35(6):702-6
      Relief of fibromyalgia symptoms following
      discontinuation of dietary excitotoxins.
      terpening@... cterpeni@...
      Smith JD, Terpening CM, Schmidt SO, Gums JG.
      Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
      gums@... siggy@...

      RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
      full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 1.17.2 rmforall

      RTM: Newman & Lipton:
      3.75 mg aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine Oct 2001
      7.28.2 rmforall
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