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research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Rich Murray 2004.07.11 2014.01.21

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  • Rich Murray
    research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Rich Murray 2004.07.11 2014.01.21
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      research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Rich Murray 2004.07.11 2014.01.21

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      254-A Donax Avenue, Imperial Beach, CA 91932  619-623-3468

      [ NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951 ]

      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
      Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

      A very detailed, highly credible account of the dubious approval process for
      aspartame in July, 1981 is part of the just released two-hour documentary
      "Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World: An Industry Case Study of a Food Supply
      In Crisis" by Cori Brackett: cori@...
      2301 East Broadway, Suite 111 Tucson, AZ 85719

      three-page review: aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) toxicity:
      Murray 2003.11.22 rmforall

      brief aspartame review: formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.11 rmforall

      aspartame & formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2003.09.09 rmforall

      the 11% methanol component of aspartame becomes formaldehyde, now ruled a
      carcinogen by WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer: Murray
      2004.06.16 rmforall

      26 stevia safety abstracts since 1993: aspartame vs stevia debate on
      alt.support.diabetes, George Schmidt, OD: Murray 2004.05.25 rmforall

      Murray, full plain text & critique:
      chronic aspartame in rats affects memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and
      brain chemistry, Christian B, McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May:
      2004.06.05 rmforall

      Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004 May; 78(1): 121-7.
      Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors
      and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in rats.
      Christian B, McConnaughey K, Bethea E, Brantley S, Coffey A, Hammond L,
      Harrell S, Metcalf K, Muehlenbein D, Spruill W, Brinson L, McConnaughey M.
      Department of Pharmacology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina
      University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA;
      North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics, Durham, NC 27811.
      Mona M. McConnaughey, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor
      Office: Brody Medical Science 6E-120A 252-744-2756

      This study demonstrated that chronic aspartame consumption in rats can lead
      to altered T-maze performance and increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor
      densities in certain brain regions.
      Control and treated rats were trained in a T-maze to a particular side and
      then periodically tested to see how well they retained the learned response.
      Rats that had received aspartame (250 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 3
      or 4 months showed a significant increase in time to reach the reward in the
      T-maze, suggesting a possible effect on memory due to the artificial
      Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label muscarinic
      cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine nonspecific
      binding in whole-brain preparations,
      aspartame-treated rats showed a 31% increase in receptor numbers when
      compared to controls.
      In aspartame-treated rats, there was a significant increase in muscarinic
      receptor densities in the
      frontal cortex, midcortex, posterior cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and
      cerebellum of 80%, 60%, 61%, 65%, 66% and 60%, respectively.
      The midbrain was the only area where preparations from aspartame-treated
      rats showed a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity.
      It can be concluded from these data that long-term consumption of aspartame
      can affect T-maze performance in rats and alter receptor densities or
      enzymes in brain. PMID: 15159141

      A Searle Laboratories team in 1976 reported that in 4 monkeys fed aspartame,
      by 12 hours: "...the major fraction (70%) of the [aspartate] label appeared
      in the expired air (Fig.6)...Urinary and fecal 14C [ aspartate derived ]
      amounted to 4--6% of the administered [ aspartate ] label."

      This gives a total of a maximum 76% excreted aspartate from the aspartame,
      indicating that 24% of this excitotoxin was retained in the body. It is
      reasonable to conclude that daily use of aspartame must lead to substantial
      accumulation of this excitotoxin, aspartate, in body tissues.

      Their 1979 review said: "Aspartame... is hydrolyzed in the gut to yield
      aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol....
      Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
      amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid."

      [ Rich Murray 2014.01.21: this research didn't use methanol-14C, so it
      couldn't trace the resulting retained formaldehyde... ]

      J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Mar-Apr; 2(4): 979-85.
      A review of the metabolism of the aspartyl moiety of aspartame in
      experimental animals and man.
      Ranney RE, Oppermann JA.
      Department of Drug Metabolism and Radiochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
      Skokie, Illinois. Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL

      Aspartame (3-amino-N-(alpha-carboxyphenethyl) succinamic acid, methyl ester;
      the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine, SC-18862) is hydrolyzed in the
      gut to yield aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and methanol.
      This review of the literature describes the metabolic paths followed by
      aspartate in its conversion to CO2 or its incorporation into body
      About 70 percent of 14C from [asp-14C]-aspartame is converted in the monkey
      to 14CO2.
      Some of the aspartate is converted at the intestinal mucosal level to
      alanine by decarboxylation.
      This amino acid may be oxidized to CO2 by entering the tricarboxylic acid
      cycle via pyruvate and acetyl CoA.
      In addition, transamination of aspartate to oxaloacetate permits this
      product also to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
      Aspartate may also be incorporated into body constitutents such as other
      amino acids, proteins, pyrimidines, asparagine, and N-acetylaspartic acid.
      It is concluded that the aspartate moiety of aspartame is metabolized in a
      manner similar to that of dietary aspartic acid.
      Publication Types: Review PMID: 376770

      eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill & DV
      Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 rmforall [ 150 KB ]

      122 members, 1,100 posts in a public searchable archive

      823 members, 17,082 posts in a public, searchable archive

      It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily for
      months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid toxicity.

      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol-- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).
      The methanol is immediately released into the body after drinking-- 
      unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in complex molecules inside
      many fruits and vegetables.
      Within hours, the liver turns much of the methanol into formaldehyde, and
      then much of that into formic acid, both of which in time are partially
      eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.

      However, about 30% of the methanol remains in the body as cumulative
      durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily,
      a gram every month, accumulating in and affecting every tissue.

      If only 10% of the methanol is retained daily as formaldehyde, that would
      give 12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation-- about 60 times more than the
      0.2 mg from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in
      drinking water.

      Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is
      1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

      ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999:
      Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

      This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical patterns of
      increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with headache, fatigue, joint
      pain, irritability, memory loss, rashes, and leading to vision and eye
      problems, and even seizures. In many cases there is addiction. Probably
      there are immune system disorders, with a hypersensitivity to these toxins
      and other chemicals.

      J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
      Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
      Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
      Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
      Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
      They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put into
      the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within 8 hours, with little
      additional elimination, as carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in
      the urine.
      They did not mention that this meant that about 30% of the methanol must
      transform into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, both of which must
      remain as toxic products in all parts of the body.
      They did not report any studies on the distribution of radioactivity in body
      tissues, except that blood plasma proteins after 4 days held 4% of the
      initial methanol.
      This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

      The low oral dose of aspartame and for methanol was 0.068 mmol/kg, about 1
      part per million [ppm] of the acute toxicity level of 2,000 mg/kg, 67,000
      mmol/kg, used by McMartin (1979).
      Two L daily use of diet soda provides 123 mg methanol, 2 mg/kg for a 60 kg
      person, a dose of 67 mmole/kg, a thousand times more than the dose in this
      By eight hours excretion of the dose in air and urine had leveled off at
      67.1 +-2.1% as CO2 in the exhaled air and 1.57+-0.32% in the urine, so 68.7
      % was excreted, and 31.3% was retained.
      This data is the average of 4 monkeys.
      "...the 14C in the feces was negligible."

      "That fraction not so excreted (about 31%) was converted to body
      constituents through the one-carbon metabolic pool."
      "All radioactivity measurements were counted to +-1% accuracy..."
      This indicates that the results could not be claimed to have a precision of
      a tenth of a percent. OK, so this is a nit-pick-- but I believe espousing
      spurious accuracy is a sign of scientific insecurity.

      The abstract ends, "It was concluded that aspartame was digested to its
      three constituents that were then absorbed as natural constituents of the
      Thus, the concept is very subtly insinuated that methanol, as a
      constituent of aspartame, is absorbed as a natural constituent of the diet.
      "Dietary methanol is derived in large part from fresh fruits and
      This is a serious error, since the large amounts of methanol in fresh fruits
      and vegetables are not readily released by human digestion. ( Monte WC,
      Nowhere in this report are mentioned the dread words, "formaldehyde" and
      "formic acid".

      Of course, methanol and formaldehyde toxicity studies are highly relevant to
      the issue of aspartame toxicity. [ Aspartame has to be turned into its
      toxic products, formaldehyde and formic acid, in the body, before it is
      toxic, so some pro-aspartame reseach studies test aspartame outside the
      body, and then proclaim that they have proved that it is not toxic. ]

      formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold:
      Wilson: CIIN: Murray 2002.12.12 rmforall

      Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese demonstrated
      the incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the placenta and fetus.
      The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
      at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

      Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
      Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
      Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@...
      Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.

      Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison. Immune activation and
      autoantibodies in humans with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
      Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223. "Immune activation,
      autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies are associated with long-term
      formaldehyde inhalation." PMID: 2400243

      Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
      testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
      peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
      Martin L. Pall: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

      Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Sep; 111(12): 1461-4.
      Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity:
      central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism.
      Pall ML.
      School of Molecular Biosciences, 301 Abelson Hall, Washington State
      University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. martin_pall@...

      The elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite and the neural sensitization
      theories of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are extended here to propose
      a central mechanism for the exquisite sensitivity to organic solvents
      apparently induced by previous chemical exposure in MCS.
      This mechanism is centered on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)
      receptors by organic solvents producing elevated nitric oxide and
      peroxynitrite, leading in turn to increased stimulating of and
      hypersensitivity of NMDA receptors.
      In this way, organic solvent exposure may produce progressive sensitivity to
      organic solvents.
      Pesticides such as organophosphates and carbamates may act via muscarinic
      stimulation to produce a similar biochemical and sensitivity response.
      Accessory mechanisms of sensitivity may involve both increased blood-brain
      barrier permeability, induced by peroxynitrite, and cytochrome P450
      inhibition by nitric oxide.
      The NMDA hyperactivity/hypersensitivity and excessive nitric
      oxide/peroxynitrite view of MCS provides answers to many of the most
      puzzling aspects of MCS while building on previous studies and views of this
      condition. PMID: 12948884

      Prof. Pall describes processes by which an initial trigger exposure, such as
      carbon monoxide or formaldehyde, can generate hypersensitivity to many
      substances. He himself had recovered from a sudden, debilitating attack of
      multiple chemical sensitivity in June/July 1997.

      hormesis: possible benefits of low-level aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde)
      use: Calabrese: Soffritti: Murray 2004.03.11 rmforall

      disorders of NMDA glutamate receptors in brain range from high activity
      (MCS, CF, PTSD, FM, from carbon monoxide or formaldehyde (methanol,
      aspartame)-- Pall)
      to low activity (schizophrenia-- Coyle, Goff, Javitts):
      Murray 2004.03.13 rmforall

      aspartame, MSG, excitotoxins, NMDA glutamate receptors, multiple sclerosis:
      Blaylock: Martini: Murray 2004.06.09 rmforall

      Lancet website aspartame letter 1999.07.29:
      Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 2000.01.14 rmforall
      The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)

      Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease Part 1/2:
      Perlmutter 1999.07.15: Murray 2003.01.10 rmforall

      Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates (aspartame releases
      phenylalanine, aspartate, methanol [formaldehyde, formic acid] Bowen &
      Evangelista May 6 2002: Murray 2003.11.10 rmforall

      Brain cell damage from amino acid isolates 5.6.2 41 references
      detailed 22 page review by James D. Bowen, MD and Arthur M. Evangelista,
      former FDA Investigator orwilly@...

      Professional House Doctors: Singer: EPA: CPSC:
      formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 2001.06.10 rmforall

      Diagnose-Me.com: formaldehyde from 11 % methanol part of aspartame:
      recent abstracts for methanol and hangovers: Murray 2004.07.10 rmforall

      Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact disposition of
      toxic metabolites in specific tissues in humans of the 11 % methanol
      component of aspartame, the many studies on morning-after hangover from the
      methanol impurity in alcohol drinks are the main available resource to date.

      This study by Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine with
      100 to 150 mg methanol (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol, 0.01%).
      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol-- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).

      Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
      Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
      Jones AW.
      Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping,
      Sweden. wayne.jones@...

      This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
      volunteers. Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
      consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol) the
      previous evening. [ 100 to 150 mg methanol ]
      The washout of methanol from the body coincided with the onset of hangover.
      The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were determined
      indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
      In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped below the Km of liver alcohol
      dehydrogenase (ADH) of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM), the disappearance half-life
      of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min. in 4 test subjects respectively.
      The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol were 213, 110, 133 and
      142 min. in these same individuals.
      The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used to obtain useful
      data on elimination kinetics of methanol in human volunteers without undue
      ethical limitations.
      Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol or its toxic metabolic
      products, formaldehyde and formic acid, with the pathogenesis of hangover.
      PMID: 3588516

      Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
      Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
      Murray 2004.01.16 rmforall

      hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
      Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18

      DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
      ( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
      2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22 rmforall

      RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
      full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 2002.01.17 rmforall
      Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
      Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
      Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
      The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702-706.
      Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
      BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
      often difficult to treat effectively.
      CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
      for two to 17 years are described.
      All had undergone multiple treatment
      modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
      resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
      glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
      All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
      prior to elimination of MSG.
      All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

      Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. siggy@...
      Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
      Shands Hospital West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629

      A Novel Treatment for Fibromyalgia Imrpoves Clinical Outcomes in a
      Community-Based Study.
      Patricia A. Deuster, Russell M. Jaffe. RJaffe@...
      Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 1998; Vol. 6(2): 133-149.

      Using blood tests, the researchers ran a panel of 350 antigens including
      environmental chemicals, food additives and preservatives, crustaceans,
      diary products, fish, fruits, grains, meats, mollusks, and oils.

      Normal, healthy people react to only two or less of this panel. The greatest
      offenders were:

      MSG 42.5 % (17 out of 40 patients)
      Candida albicans 37.5
      Caffeine 37
      Chocolate/cocoa 37
      Food colorings 37
      Cola beverages 37
      Cow Dairy Products 25
      Sulfite/metabisulfite 22.5
      Xylene 22.5
      Yogurt 22.5
      Aspartame 20
      BHA 20
      Cadmium 20
      Lead 20
      Tylenol 20
      Yeast 20
      Sodium benzoate 20
      Orange 20

      C. Trocho (1998):
      "In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
      label, half of it in the liver."

      They used a very low level of aspartame ingestion, 10 mg/kg, for rats, which
      have a much greater tolerance for aspartame than humans.
      So, the corresponding level for humans would be about 1 or 2 mg/kg.
      Many headache studies in humans used doses of about 30 mg/kg daily.

      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22 rmforall

      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in
      Life Sci June 26 1998; 63(5): 337-49.
      Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular,
      Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
      http://www.bq.ub.es/cindex.html Línies de Recerca: Toxicitat de
      Sra. Carme Trocho, Sra. Rosario Pardo, Dra. Immaculada Rafecas,
      Sr. Jordi Virgili, Dr. Xavier Remesar, Dr. Jose Antonio
      Fernandez-Lopez, Dr. Marià Alemany [male]
      Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021521, FAX: (93)4021559
      Sra. Carme Trocho "Trok-ho" Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021544,
      FAX: (93)4021559

      Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame,
      14C-labeled in the methanol carbon.
      At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several
      organs was investigated.
      Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to
      Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total
      radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time.
      Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and
      retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12th to 1/10th of that
      of liver.
      In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
      label, half of it in the liver.

      The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform.
      The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from
      methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to
      labeled formaldehyde.
      DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base,
      different from the normal bases present in DNA.
      The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence
      of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures.

      The administration of labeled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats
      resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests
      that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde
      formation from aspartame and binding to biological components.

      The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labeled
      aspartame during 10 days results in the accumulation of even more label when
      given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde
      adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be

      It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because
      of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID: 9714421

      [ Extracts ]
      "The high label presence in plasma and liver is in agreement with the
      carriage of the label from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein.
      The high label levels in kidney and, to a minor extent, in brown adipose
      tissue and brain are probably a consequence of their high blood flows (45).
      Even in white adipose tissue, the levels of radioactivity found 6 hours
      after oral administration were 1/25th those of liver.
      Cornea and retina, both tissues known to metabolize actively methanol
      (21,28) showed low levels of retained label.
      In any case, the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins was
      widespread, affecting all systems, fully reaching even sensitive targets
      such as the brain and retina....

      The amount of label recovered in tissue components was quite high in all the
      groups, but especially in the NA rats.
      In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the
      methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame, and the rest of
      the body stored an additional 2 % or more.
      These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
      substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also
      been considered carcinogenic (34,47).
      The repeated occurrence of claims that aspartame produces headache and other
      neurological and psychological secondary effects-- more often than not
      challenged by careful analysis-- (5, 9, 10, 15, 48) may eventually find at
      least a partial explanation in the permanence of the formaldehyde label,
      since formaldehyde intoxication can induce similar effects (49).

      The cumulative effects derived from the incorporation of label in the
      chronic administration model suggests that regular intake of aspartame may
      result in the progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts.
      It may be further speculated that the formation of adducts can help to
      explain the chronic effects aspartame consumption may induce on sensitive
      tissues such as brain (6, 9, 19, 50).
      In any case, the possible negative effects that the accumulation of
      formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously, long-term.
      The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs some time to
      induce substantial effects.
      The damage to nucleic acids, mainly to DNA, may eventually induce cell death
      and/or mutations.
      The results presented suggest that the conversion of aspartame methanol into
      formaldehyde adducts in significant amounts in vivo should to be taken into
      account because of the widespread utilization of this sweetener.
      Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to determine the
      extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption poses for humans."

      Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
      adducts in rats: Murray 2002.09.08 rmforall
      Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
      against criticism:
      Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
      Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
      available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
      "When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
      premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
      clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
      regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
      [ They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
      in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
      aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by W.C. Monte. ]
      In the same report, Schiffman concludes on page S49, not citing any
      research after 1997, "Thus, the weight of the scientific evidence
      indicates that aspartame does not cause headache."
      Dr. Susan S. Schiffman, Dept. of Psychiatry, Duke University

      RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

      aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
      AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
      J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
      Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

      Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
      in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
      Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
      [ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
      while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
      Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
      Department of Neurology newmanache@...
      Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
      Innovative Medical Research RLipton@...

      Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
      Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
      Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
      Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
      Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@...
      Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
      susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
      with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
      gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum ]

      Subject: Re: Murray: Butchko:

      Tephly: critique of Trocho report Apr 2002 8.29.2
      Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 09:49:56 +0200
      From: Marià Alemany alemany@...
      To: Rich Murray rmforall@...
      References: 1

      Dear Rich,

      Thank you for the opportunity to say something about the "paper" by Tephly
      that followed our study on the incorporation of aspartame-derived methanol
      label into DNA and protein of rats.
      I don't know if responding to that publication is worth the effort.

      Surprisingly, a serious journal, such as Life Sciences published a rebuttal
      of our previous paper as a normal "research paper", but including no new
      information neither experimental work.
      This is only a sample of the "scientific" power of the advocates of

      Anybody can extract conclusions from this anomaly, but it seems to me that
      there was nothing new in that pamphlet that may add information to what we
      already explained in our paper.
      The responses to the questions raised by Tephly are already in our paper,
      which means that either that it was not read or, worst, it was misread.

      The presence of aspartame-derived label in DNA and protein adducts is
      unquestionable and unquestioned, and agrees with previous studies.
      Then, what importance has the mechanism of incorporation?
      There were adducts, and they represent loss of function and mutation.
      That was our thesis.

      The reference to previous studies showing very low levels of formaldehyde in
      blood do not refute our data.
      First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky,
      and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of
      detection for most of the methods used.
      That is the current explanation for the low levels of methanol in plasma
      after aspartame loading: they are zero, using most of the methods available
      for methanol, since the expected levels are currently below the limit of

      In addition, it is not logical to expect to find measurable levels of
      formaldehyde in a medium (blood) containing a huge amount of protein.
      Formaldehyde reacts immediately with proteins because it is highly reactive:
      that is the reason why we have found it in cell protein and DNA.
      It is absurd to expect it to forfeit binding with cell proteins and go all
      the way into the bloodstream!
      Remember that formaldehyde is used to preserve corpses precisely because it
      binds protein (including those of putrefactive bacteria) and prevents its

      The "alternative" point expressed by Tephly, suggesting that aspartame
      methanol-label goes all the way into formic acid and the C1 pathway was
      thoroughly refuted by us, using experimental data.
      There was no labelled methionine nor thymine in protein and DNA respectively
      in the rat protein we recovered from rats treated with aspartame.
      This means--unequivocally-- that the label present in DNA and protein
      adducts was NOT incorporated into amino acids or nucleic acid bases.

      The only explanation for our data was that the label was in the form of
      formaldehyde adducts.

      If this explanation does not satisfy other scientists, they are free to
      repeat the experiment and show where we went wrong, or to probe and prove
      experimentally their hypotheses. Otherwise, our results stand unchecked
      and, consequently, should be deemed true.

      I hope that this information will help any attentive reader understand why
      we have left for good this field of study.

      Best regards.
      Prof. Dr. Marià Alemany
      Grup de Recerca Nitrogen-Obesitat
      Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia
      Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona
      Av. Diagonal, 645; 08028 Barcelona Espanya/España/Spain

      Life Sci 1999; 65(13): PL157-60. [ letter, usually not peer reviewed ]
      Comments on the purported generation of formaldehyde and adduct
      formation from the sweetener aspartame.

      Tephly TR Thomas R. Tephly 319-335-7979 thomas-tephly@...
      ttephly@... Department of Pharmacology
      The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

      A recent paper by Trocho et al. (1) describes experiments meant to show that
      formaldehyde adducts are formed when rats are administered the sweetener
      These authors assume that the methanol carbon of aspartame generates
      formaldehyde which then forms adducts with protein, DNA, and RNA.
      Doses employed range widely.
      In this letter, studies which have been published previously and which were
      not cited by these authors are reviewed in order to put into perspective the
      disposition of methanol and formaldehyde in monkeys and humans, species
      relevant to the toxicity of methanol and its toxic metabolite, formic acid.
      PMID: 10503962, UI: 99431287

      [ A number of pro-aspartame studies by Tephly and associates, invariably
      funded by the aspartame industry (Monsanto, NutraSweet) are criticized in
      detail at:

      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
      properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
      carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
      tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
      Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
      methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water supplied
      ad libitum at concentrations of 1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
      to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
      seven weeks of age.
      Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
      Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley
      rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of 2,500, 1,500,
      500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase in total
      malignant tumors in the treated groups and showed specific carcinogenic
      effects on various organs and tissues. PMID: 12562630

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.

      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water supplied ad libitum at
      doses of 20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
      Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
      concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
      female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in the
      Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
      or from embryo life (offspring) and lasted until their spontaneous death.
      Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
      were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
      They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
      In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
      tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
      These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by epidemiologic
      studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

      Surely the authors deliberately emphasized that aspartame is well-known
      to be a source of formaldehyde, which is an extremely potent, cumulative
      toxin, with complex, multiple effects on all tissues and organs.

      This is even more significant, considering that they have already tested
      aspartame, but not yet released the results:

      p. 29-32 Table 1: The Ramazzinni Foundation Cancer Program
      Project of [200] Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassays: Agents Studied

      No. No. of Bioassays Species No. Route of Exposure
      108. "Coca-Cola" 4 Rat 1,999 Ingestion, Transplantal Route

      109. "Pepsi-Cola" 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      110. Sucrose 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      111. Caffeine 1 Rat 800 Ingestion
      112. Aspartame 1 Rat 1,800 Ingestion

      Soffritti said that Coca-Cola showed no carcinogenicity.

      It may be time to disclose these important aspartame results.

      Finally, an intripid and much published team in Japan has found DNA damage
      in 8 tissues from single non-lethal doses of aspartame (near-significant
      high levels of DNA damage in 5 tissues) and many other additives in groups
      of just 4 mice:

      Mutat Res 2002 Aug 26; 519(1-2): 103-19
      The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food
      Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K,
      Taniguchi K, Tsuda S.
      Laboratory of Genotoxicity, Faculty of Chemical and Biological
      Engineering, Hachinohe National College of Technology,
      Tamonoki Uwanotai 16-1, Aomori 039-1192, Japan.

      We determined the genotoxicity of 39 chemicals currently in use as food
      They fell into six categories-dyes, color fixatives and
      preservatives, preservatives, antioxidants, fungicides, and sweeteners.

      We tested groups of four male ddY mice once orally with each additive at
      up to 0.5xLD(50) or the limit dose (2000 mg/kg) and performed the comet
      assay on the glandular stomach, colon, liver, kidney, urinary bladder, lung,
      brain, and bone marrow 3 and 24 h after treatment.

      Of all the additives, dyes were the most genotoxic.
      Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, Tartrazine, Erythrosine, Phloxine, and
      Rose Bengal induced dose-related DNA damage in the glandular stomach, colon,
      and/or urinary bladder.
      All seven dyes induced DNA damage in the gastrointestinal organs at a low
      dose (10 or 100 mg/kg).

      Among them, Amaranth, Allura Red, New Coccine, and Tartrazine induced
      DNA damage in the colon at close to the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs).

      Two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated
      hydroxytoluene (BHT)), three fungicides (biphenyl, sodium
      o-phenylphenol, and thiabendazole), and four sweeteners (sodium
      cyclamate, saccharin, sodium saccharin, and sucralose) also induced DNA
      damage in gastrointestinal organs.

      Based on these results, we believe that more extensive assessment of
      food additives in current use is warranted. PMID: 12160896

      24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
      Murray 2002.12.31 rmforall

      Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
      mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01 rmforall
      [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
      using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
      liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
      a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of aspartame that can lead
      to DNA damage. ]

      genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
      sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
      Murray 2003.01.27 rmforall [A detailed look at the data] ]

      aspartame toxicity coverup increases danger of corporate meltdown:
      Michael C. Carakostas of Coca-Cola: Murray 2003.08.11 rmforall

      www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31 rmforall

      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01 rmforall

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,

      Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
      aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall four double-blind studies

      Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
      The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
      Koehler SM, Glaros A PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
      Shirley M. Koehler, Ph.D. Department of Psychology
      Brooks Rehabilitation Hospital
      3599 University Boulevard, South Jacksonville, Florida 32216
      Alan Glaros glarosa@... 816-235-2074

      They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
      a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
      migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
      analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
      their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
      aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg. The placebo
      group had no increase in headaches. Approximately half of the subjects
      (5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
      (p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
      intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo. Only 11 of
      25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
      medications, 2 had incomplete records. They were at home.
      Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
      to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid? To achieve statistical
      signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
      aspartame is very high, about 1/2, for migraine cases who believe
      that they are hurt by aspartame.

      eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
      MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

      Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
      patients from a vulnerable population," 1993, with Robert Hudak and
      Ruth J. Green-Waite, Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
      OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...

      Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
      ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
      aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
      opposite. Each got 2100 mg aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
      equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon. Despite the
      very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
      statistically significant. The eight depressed patients reported with
      aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
      trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
      symptom, p<0.01) The five normals did not report strong enough
      differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
      Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
      Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
      depressed patients.

      Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
      "In this study, patients most often began to report significant
      symptoms after day 2 or 3." The incidence rate is very high,
      indeed, about 1/3. The most common symptoms are entirely typical
      of thousands of case histories.

      Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
      G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
      headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
      Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD 550-450-2202
      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
    • Rich Murray
      [ As part 2, this is the rest of the preceding post, which is part 1 -- the entire post is on my blog at:
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 22, 2014
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        [ As part 2, this is the rest of the preceding post, which is part 1 -- the entire post is on my blog at:

        This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
        about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
        million cases. It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
        and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure. These three flames
        should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
        much more careful study of thousands of case histories. But these
        little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
        funded fluff:

        Simmons: Gold: Schiffman: Spiers:
        aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall two double-blind studies

        Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
        Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@...
        Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416

        1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
        published May 30 2001 $ 60.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
        over 600 references from standard medical research

        Moseley: review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic":
        Murray 2002.02.07 rmforall

        Roberts, Hyman J., 1924- ,
        Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
        anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
        aspartame disease, pages 627-685, 778-780

        Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician: aspartame toxicity:
        Murray 2002.08.02 rmforall

        critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA 2002.05.07
        aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
        Murray 2004.04.13

        safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
        Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

        Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
        Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

        the European Union Parliament voted 440 to 20 to approve sucralose,
        limit cyclamates & reevaluate aspartame & stevia: Murray 2003.04.12 rmforall
        There is an astonishing amount of positive research about stevia, banned in
        the EU, and not allowed to be claimed as a sweetener in the USA:

        J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
        Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
        nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

        critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
        Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14 rmforall

        http://www.dorway.com ( David O. Rietz, died 2003 ) over 12,000 print
        pages Mission-Possible-USA Betty Martini 770-242-2599
        What many informed doctors are saying/have said about aspartame

        Mary Nash Stoddard
        Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame"
        Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [since 1987]
        PO Box 780634 Dallas TX 75378-0634

        Dr. Janet Starr Hull, PhD, CN jshull@...

        Ive: UK Daily Mirror Magazine: aspartame toxicity:
        Murray 2002.02.18 rmforall

        aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
        Murray 2000.07.10 rmforall

        aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06 rmforall

        revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

        RTM: Merisant Co., MSD Capital, Dell Computer Corp., NutraSweet Co.,
        JW Childs Assc.: aspartame-neotame toxicity 2002.07.10 rmforall

        hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
        aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 2002.10.09 rmforall

        re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame toxicity:
        Murray: 2002.02.24 2002.09.29 rmforall

        politicians and celebrities hooked on diet sodas (aspartame):
        Murray 2004.03.24 rmforall

        http://google.com gives 247,000 websites for "aspartame" , with the top
        8 of 10 listings being anti-aspartame, while
        http://groups.google.com finds on 700 MB of posts from 20 years of
        Usenet groups, 92,300 posts, the top 10 being anti-aspartame.
        http://news.google.com 33 recent aspartame items from 4500 sources.
        http://www.AllTheWeb.com gives 43,913, the top 8 of 10 anti.
        http://teoma.com/index.asp gives 78,200 websites, top 8 of 10 anti.
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed lists 762 aspartame items.

        Many scientific studies and case histories report: * headaches * many body
        and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching, spasms, cramps,
        stiffness, numbness, difficulty swallowing) * fever, fatigue, swollen
        glands * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
        irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, sexual
        problems, poor vision, hearing (deafness, tinnitus), or taste * red face,
        itching, rashes, allergic dermatitis, hair loss, burning eyes or throat, dry
        eyes or mouth, mouth sores, burning tongue * obesity, bloating, edema,
        anorexia, poor appetite or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing
        problems, shortness of breath * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness
        * sweating * racing heart, low or high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar
        levels * hypothryroidism or hyperthyroidism * seizures * birth defects
        * brain cancers * addiction * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies,
        lupus, ADHD, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical
        sensitivity, multiple sclerosis, pseudotumor cerebri and interstitial
        cystitis (bladder pain).

        Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984: Monte:
        Murray 2002.09.23 rmforall

        Dr. Woodrow C. Monte Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
        Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984; 36 (1): 42-54.
        (62 references) Professsor of Food Science [retired 1992]
        Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 woodymonte@...
        The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
        112 mg, 10% of the aspartame.
        The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily for methanol (wood alcohol), a
        deadly cumulative poison.
        Many users drink 1-2 L daily.
        The reported symptoms are entirely consistent with chronic methanol
        toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but, like all juices, has 16
        times more ethanol, which strongly protects against methanol.)

        "The greater toxicity of methanol to man is deeply rooted in the limited
        biochemical pathways available to humans for detoxification.
        The loss of uricase (EC,
        formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (EC (42)
        and other enzymes (18) during evolution sets man apart from all
        laboratory animals including the monkey (42).

        There is no generally accepted animal model for methanol toxicity (42, 59).

        Humans suffer "toxic syndrome" (54) at a minimum lethal dose
        of <1 gm/kg, much less than that of monkeys, 3-6 g/kg (42, 59).

        The minimum lethal dose of methanol
        in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9.5, 7.0 , and 8.0 g/kg, respectively (43);
        ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43)."

        "Fruit and vegetables contain pectin with variable methyl ester content.
        However, the human has no digestive enzymes for pectin (6, 25) particularly
        the pectin esterase required for its hydrolysis to methanol (26).

        Fermentation in the gut may cause disappearance of pectin (6) but the
        production of free methanol is not guaranteed by fermentation (3).
        In fact, bacteria in the colon probably reduce methanol directly to formic
        acid or carbon dioxide (6) (aspartame is completely absorbed before
        reaching the colon).
        Heating of pectins has been shown to cause virtually no demethoxylation;
        even temperatures of 120 deg C produced only traces of methanol (3).
        Methanol evolved during cooking of high pectin foods (7) has been accounted
        for in the volatile fraction during boiling and is quickly lost to the
        atmosphere (49).
        Entrapment of these volatiles probably accounts for the elevation in
        methanol levels of certain fruits and vegetable products during canning (31,

        Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the
        methanol to formaldehyde toxic process:

        "The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their Multimedia
        Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment recommends a minimum
        acute toxicity concentration of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts
        per million, with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day (8).
        This report clearly indicates that methanol:

        "...is considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion
        once it is absorbed. In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde
        and formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic." (8)...

        Recently the toxic role of formaldehyde (in methanol toxicity) has been
        questioned (34).
        No skeptic can overlook the fact that, metabolically, formaldehyde must be
        formed as an intermediate to formic acid production (54).

        Formaldehyde has a high reactivity which may be why it has not been found in
        humans or other primates during methanol poisoning (59)....

        If formaldehyde is produced from methanol and does have a reasonable half
        life within certain cells in the poisoned organism the chronic toxicological
        ramifications could be grave.

        Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen (57) producing squanous-cell carcinomas
        by inhalation exposure in experimental animals (22).
        The available epidemiological studies do not provide adequate data for
        assessing the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in man (22, 24, 57).

        However, reaction of formaldehyde with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has
        resulted in irreversible denaturation that could interfere with DNA
        replication and result in mutation (37)..."

        Dr. J. Barua (ophthalmic surgeon), Dr. Arun Bal (surgeon)
        Emerging facts about aspartame.
        Journal Of The Diabetic Association Of India 1995; 35 (4):
        (79 references) barua@...
        "...the total amount of methanol absorbed will be approximately 10% of
        aspartame ingested. An EPA assessment of methanol states that methanol, 'is
        considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is
        absorbed. The absorbed methanol is then slowly converted to
        "Reaction of formaldehyde with DNA has been observed, by spectrophotometry
        and electron microscopy, to result in irreversible denaturation."
        "DKP [from aspartame] has been implicated in the occurence of brain

        aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
        Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
        Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
        Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
        its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
        Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
        K.H. Schulpis inchildh@... ; G.J. Reclos reklos@...

        aspartame & MSG: possible role in autoimmune hepatitis:
        Prandota Jan 2003: Murray 2003.01.15 rmforall

        aspartame harms mice brain cells: Hetle & Eltervaag: 2001 thesis
        abstract: Sonnewald 1995 study, full text: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall

        WebMD: Barclay: Barth:
        survey shows aspartame hurts memory in students 2000.11.09
        Timothy M. Barth Department of Psychology t.barth@...
        Texas Christian University

        Adrienne Samuels PhD tells how toxic MSG, like aspartame, is promoted by vested interests and hidden with 52 names, in brief TV interview Saturday Jan 25 2014, detailed website and book: Rich Murray 2014.01.19

        [ end of part 2 of 2 -- the entire post is on my blog at:

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