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Aspartame-induced apoptosis [cell death] in PC12 cells, Masaaki Kurasaki et al, Hokkaido U, Japan, Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Dec: Rich Murray 2013.12.27

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  • Rich Murray
    Aspartame-induced apoptosis [cell death] in PC12 cells, Masaaki Kurasaki et al, Hokkaido U, Japan, Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2013 Dec: Rich Murray 2013.12.27
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 27, 2013
      Aspartame-induced apoptosis [cell death] in PC12 cells, Masaaki Kurasaki et al, Hokkaido U, Japan, Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2013 Dec: Rich Murray 2013.12.27


      [ If these cells contain ADH1 enzyme without any competent biochemical defenses, the 11% methanol part of aspartame may be quickly made into uncontrolled formaldehyde right inside the cells -- proven to be a potent toxic agent for two key enzymes in mitochondria that are essential for normal aerobic energy ATP metabolism -- explained in detail by Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, Food Science and Nutrition, Arizona State University, retired 2004, in his 2012 January textbook "While Science Sleeps", available as a Kindle ebook for USA $ 3 at amazon.com, with a free online archive of 782 mostly full text medical research references. ]

      Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013 Dec 1;37(1):158-165.
      doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.11.021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.
      Horio Y 1, 
      Sun Y 1, 
      Liu C 1,
      Saito T 2,
      Kurasaki M 1, 3.

      Yukari Horio a,
      Yongkun Sun a, 
      Chuang Liu a,
      Takeshi Saito b,
      Masaaki Kurasaki a, c, <kura@...>,

      1 Environmental Adaptation Science, 
      Division of Environmental Science Development,
      Graduate School of Environmental Science,
      Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.

      2 Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences,
      Faculty of Health Sciences,
      Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

      3 Environmental Adaptation Science,
      Division of Environmental Science Development, 
      Graduate School of Environmental Science, 
      Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan;

      Group of Environmental Adaptation Science, 
      Faculty of Environmental Earth Science,
      Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.
      Electronic address: kura@...

      Abstract

      Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods.

      The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. 

      In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system.

      In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. 

      Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner.

      In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. 

      These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity.

      Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

      KEYWORDS:
      AIF, Apoptosis, Aspartame, Caspases, Cytochrome c, PC12
      PMID: 24355796



      price down to $3 from $20 for While Science Sleeps, Kindle textbook by Woodrow C. Monte, or borrow for free -- 24 of 28 customer reviews are 5 star in 2 years: Rich Murray 2013.12.24


      His website WhileScienceSleeps.com gives free articles, slide shows, videos of talks and interviews, audios of radio interviews, graphs, art, photographs, and an online archive of 782 mostly full text medical research references.

      Amazon.com gives a free download of a Kindle e-book reader.


      While Science Sleeps by Woodrow C. Monte
      $2.99 Kindle purchase

      my comment to theglobeandmail com: Monte: Murray 2013.12.22


      Since fall, 2007 Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, Food Science and Nutrition, Arizona State University, retired 2004, has given a breakthrough paradigm for the severe toxicity of methanol in humans, who are uniquely vulnerable, ten to a hundred times more vulnerable than any other creature -- Briefly, methanol from aspartame or from cigarette smoke quickly enters the blood, reaching every cell in the body every minute, with a half-life of 3 hours -- in 20 specific tissues that have high levels of the ADH1 enzyme, methanol is rapidly made into uncontrolled formaldehyde right inside the cells -- Formaldehyde binds firmly to the nearest DNA, RNA, and protein macromolecules in the cell, harming and killing the cell -- This damage is cumulative, slow, and random, so the results are not noticeable for small doses until after the course of months or years -- This is probably the real factor in cigarette smoke that causes many well known diseases -- WC Monte gives full free information and a free archive of 782 full text medical research references at his site WhileScienceSleeps dot com -- EFSA does not mention him at all in their 263 page aspartame review...



      the first to dig the mine get to share the gold -- 7 recent similar animal research studies indicating much lower aspartame and methanol ADI levels: Rich Murray 2013.12.23


      Aspartame: The hidden danger [methanol/formaldehyde] in our midst and how it kills us, 12 page review of While Science Sleeps text (Woodrow C Monte), International Health News, whole June issue, Editor: William R Ware PhD: Rich Murray 2012.06.08


      Table 5.2 is the key chart -- ADH1 enzyme at high levels in 20 tissues in body and fetus makes methanol into formaldehyde right inside cells, initiating over 20 human diseases, with full text references, WC Monte paradigm: Rich Murray 2013.03.21


      "As a matter of course, every soul citizen of Earth has a priority to
      quickly find and positively share evidence for healthy and safe food,
      drink, environment, and society."


      within the fellowship of service,

      Rich Murray,
      MA Boston University Graduate School 1967 psychology,
      BS MIT 1964 history and physics,
      254-A Donax Avenue, Imperial Beach, CA 91932-1918,

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