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California OEHHA sets methanol ingestion level 23 mg daily, same as from 1 can aspartame diet soda, 10 cigarettes, 3 tomatoes, or 4 cans green beans: Rich Murray 2013.07.03

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  • Rich Murray
    California OEHHA sets methanol ingestion level 23 mg daily, same as from 1 can aspartame diet soda, 10 cigarettes, 3 tomatoes, or 4 cans green beans: Rich
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 3, 2013
      California OEHHA sets methanol ingestion level 23 mg daily, same as from 1
      can aspartame diet soda, 10 cigarettes, 3 tomatoes, or 4 cans green beans:
      Rich Murray 2013.07.03

      "However, the anticipated exposure to methanol from consumption of
      aspartame would not be considered an exposure within the meaning of
      Proposition 65 because aspartame is not listed under Proposition 65. "

      [ Rich Murray: Many pregnant women drink one 12-oz can aspartame diet drink
      daily, with 200 mg aspartame that gives 11% methanol, 22 mg, which is just
      under the OEHHA limit of 23 mg daily.

      The smoke from a pack of cigarettes gives 20 mg methanol, the same as from
      3 full size fresh tomatoes, or 4 cans of green beans. ]

      See also:
      James McDonald to EFSA, outdated aspartame ADI gives methanol 35 times too
      high for human safety, ten minute talk at April 9 public sharing, Brussels:
      Rich Murray 2013.04.15


      Proposition 65


      On March 16, 2012, the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
      (OEHHA) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing
      Maximum Allowable Dose Levels (MADLs)
      for the chemical methanol
      and amending Title 27, California Code of Regulations, section 25805(b).

      A public comment period was provided from March 16 to June 25, 2012.

      A public hearing was held on May 7, 2012.

      Four written comments were received by OEHHA.

      The Office of Administrative Law (OAL) approved the adoption of the MADLs
      for methanol and the amendment to Title 27, California Code of Regulations,
      section 25805(b) on April 10, 2013.

      The regulation was filed with the Secretary of State on April 10, 2013
      and will become effective July 1, 2013.

      OEHHA announces the availability of the regulatory text and the supporting
      rulemaking documents.

      Follow the links below to download copies of the final documents as pdf

      Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

      "NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the Office of Environmental Health Hazard
      Assessment (OEHHA) proposes to establish
      Proposition 65 Maximum Allowable Dose Levels for methanol
      of 47,000 micrograms per day for inhalation [ 0.67 mg/kg body weight ]
      and 23,000 micrograms per day for ingestion [ 0.33 mg/kg body weight ]
      by amending Section 25805(b)."

      16 pages
      Initial Statement of Reasons and Original Proposed Regulatory Text.

      [ 5 Rogers JM, Mole ML, Chernoff N, et al. (1993).
      The developmental toxicity of inhaled methanol in the CD-1 mouse, with
      quantitative dose-response modeling for estimation of benchmark doses.
      Teratology 47:175-188. ]

      13 pages
      Final Statement of Reasons

      "Table 1. Commenters on the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (OAL Notice File
      No. Z-2012-0305-04)

      Date Received;

      Paul Noe and Robert Glowinski;
      American Forest & Paper Association,
      and American Wood Council;
      May 21, 2012

      Gregory Dolan;
      Methanol Institute;
      June 22, 2012

      Haley Curtis Stevens, Ph.D.;
      International Food Additives Council (IFAC);
      June 25, 2012

      Arthur L. Lawyer, Ph.D.;
      Technology Sciences Group, Inc. (TSG) on behalf of (1) Methanol Institute,
      International Food Additive Council (IFAC), (3)
      Consumer Specialty Products Association;
      June 25, 2012

      In addition to the aforementioned comments received by OEHHA during the
      comment period, several emails were received from Mr. Rich Murray.

      None of the emails from Mr. Murray stated an objection to or made any
      recommendation regarding the proposed action.

      The emails contained website URLs and quotes from websites that discuss
      aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

      Methanol is known to be a metabolite of aspartame.

      Because Mr. Murray did not indicate how the information pertains to the
      methanol MADL, and did not otherwise comment on the methanol MADL, no
      formal response is being provided.

      However, the anticipated exposure to methanol from consumption of aspartame
      would not be considered an exposure within the meaning of Proposition 65
      because aspartame is not listed under Proposition 65.

      Further, the level of exposure to methanol from aspartame metabolism among
      pregnant women that consume aspartame can be calculated to fall below the
      oral MADL using information from the National Toxicology Program�s report
      on methanol 3."

      [ Rich Murray: Many pregnant women drink one 12-oz can aspartame diet drink
      daily, with 200 mg aspartame that gives 11% methanol, 22 mg, which is just
      under the OEHHA limit of 23 mg daily.

      The smoke from a pack of cigarettes gives 20 mg methanol, the same as from
      3 full size fresh tomatoes, or 4 cans of green beans. ]

      "Response 1.1

      ...Regarding the �reality test�, OEHHA agrees that an exposure at the MADL
      would likely result in a blood concentration that is lower than background

      The NTP-CERHR Monograph on methanol reports background blood-methanol
      levels of 0.57 to 1.9 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in studies of small
      groups (3 to 22 people) of unexposed humans (NTP-CERHR Table 7.2A, page

      However, the NTP-CERHR document cited the need for further research to
      obtain better data on methanol concentrations in human blood 4."

      "Response 2.3

      In the study by Sweeting et al. (2011) proposed by the commenter as the
      basis for the MADL, rabbits were exposed by intraperitoneal injection to
      2,000 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of methanol twice daily, for a total
      daily dose of 4,000 mg/kg-d
      (the commenter incorrectly identifies the dose in rabbits as 2,000 mg/kg-d).
      There was not a clear no observable effect level (NOEL) in rabbits.

      As noted by the authors of the study:

      �There was an apparent, but non-significant, 4-fold increase in the
      incidence of tail abnormalities (short or absent tails) in MeOH-exposed
      rabbit fetuses.

      While this occurrence was not significantly different from saline treated
      fetuses, it suggests the potential for species-specific differences in the
      spectrum of teratogenic anomalies following MeOH [methanol] exposure.�

      It appears that biologically-significant developmental effects occurred in
      rabbits at this level of exposure.

      Thus, this dose may be considered a LOEL.

      This dose is the same as the LOEL in mice in the study by Rogers et al.
      (1993) that forms the basis for the proposed MADL.

      [ 7 Sweeting, J. N., Siu, M., Wiley, M. J. and Wells, P. G.
      Species- and strain-dependent teratogenicity of methanol in rabbits and
      mice. Reproductive Toxicology. (2011). 31(1): 50-58. ]

      The route of exposure in the Sweeting et al. study is not one by which
      humans will potentially be exposed, so empirical data from the Rogers et
      al. (1993) study on oral exposure to methanol remain the appropriate basis
      for the oral MADL, particularly since the mouse and rabbit LOELs appear to
      be the same."

      "Response 3.2

      Methanol was added to the Proposition 65 list on the basis of formal
      identification as causing developmental toxicity in a final report from the
      NTP-CERHR, a Proposition 65 Authoritative Body10.

      In that report, the NTP stated that:

      �Species differences in methanol metabolism were noted and considered by
      the expert panel.

      In primates, including humans, methanol is converted to formaldehyde by the
      enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.

      In rodents this conversion is made by catalase.

      Metabolism of methanol to formaldehyde and then to formate occurs at
      similar rates in rodents and primates.

      �The expert panel concluded that there was insufficient evidence to
      determine if a human fetus is more or less sensitive than rodents to the
      adverse effects of methanol.�

      OEHHA concurs with the NTP.

      While there are differences in metabolism of methanol between primates,
      including humans, and rodents, these differences are primarily in the
      formation and persistence of specific metabolites of methanol.

      Although these differences likely influence the susceptibility of different
      species to the acute effects of methanol, the commenter offers no data to
      refute NTP�s finding that �it appears that methanol itself results in the
      developmental toxicity observed in rodents�.

      OECD concluded that �rodent data on reproductive and developmental toxicity
      are relevant for humans despite the known differences in methanol
      metabolism between rodents and humans.�

      OECD also stated that �air concentrations up to 1.6 mg/L [1,600 mg/m3]
      resulted in similar blood methanol among rats, monkeys, and humans.�

      The no observable effect level upon which the MADL is based is 1,000 ppm
      (1,330 mg/m3).

      The National Toxicology Program also states that �species differences are
      less obvious at lower exposure levels. �

      At 5,000 ppm the differences between blood methanol levels in rats and mice
      were generally 2-fold or less;

      at 1,000 ppm rat and mouse blood levels were similar.

      The limited data indicate that at 200 ppm rat, monkey, and human blood
      methanol levels were similar.�

      Thus, at exposure levels relevant to development of the MADL, there appears
      to be little or no support for the commenter�s argument that humans are
      less vulnerable than rodents to methanol�s developmental effects.

      The inhalation exposure level identified by the OECD (6.5 mg/L, or 6,500
      milligrams per cubic meter [mg/m3]) is approximately five-fold higher than
      the no observable effect level that forms the basis for the inhalation
      MADL, and any differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between mice and
      humans at such high exposure levels appear to have little relevance to
      exposures which cause no observable effects."

      Ms. Susan Luong ,
      Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
      P.O. Box 4010, MS-19B
      Sacramento, California 95812-4010
      (916) 327-3015
      Fax: (916) 323-8803
      Street Address: 1001 I Street
      Sacramento, California 95814

      11% of aspartame is methanol, which becomes free floating formaldehyde
      inside human cells -- methanol also in cigarettes and canned fruits and
      vegetables: Rich Murray 2013.07.03

      The Woodrow C. Monte methanol/formaldehyde toxicity paradigm is that
      concentrations of ADH1 enzyme, well known to exist inside blood vessel
      wall cells in specific tissues, quickly turn methanol into
      formaldehyde inside the vessel cells, in humans only -- the highly
      reactive formaldehyde diffuses to penetrate adjacent tissue cells,
      binding to DNA, RNA, and proteins, attracting macrophages, which die,
      creating complex, expanding micro lesions, leading to many modern
      "diseases of civilization", Alzheimer's, arthritis, diabetes, multiple
      sclerosis, lupus -- as well as later cancers -- also serious birth
      defects in the fetal brain in the fourth week of pregnancy, spinal
      bifida and autism.

      Aspartame is 11% methanol, 22 mg per can of diet drink -- similar
      levels of methanol come from wood and cigarette smoke, heated and
      canned fruits juices vegetables, fermented and smoked foods, some
      wines and liquors, vehicle fuels, many cleaners and solvents, chemical
      medical autopsy mortuary facilities, heated wood in particleboard and
      paper factories, and more.

      similar macular harm in multiple sclerosis as from formaldehyde made
      by ADH enzyme inside retina capillary walls from methanol, Prof.
      Woodrow C. Monte text "While Science Sleeps" 2012 Jan -- some quotes
      re retina harm: Rich Murray 2012.05.10

      aspartame impairment of spatial cognition and insulin sensitivity in
      mice, focus on phenylalanine and aspartate [ methanol also crosses
      placenta into fetus, turning into teratogenic formaldehyde], Kate S.
      Collision et al, PLoS One 2012.04.03: Rich Murray 2012.04.29

      WC Monte submits submits robust evidence for multiple sclerosis, which he
      concludes proves methanol to be the proximate toxic cause, since ADH1
      enzyme is within the cells of the inner linings of brain blood vessels, the
      Purkinje cells of the vermis of the cerebellum, and rods and cones of the
      retina -- ADH1 quickly turns methanol into free floating formaldehyde
      within these cells, disrupting the blood brain barrier...

      Methanol (wood alcohol), from aspartame, cigarette smoke, and unfresh
      fruits juices vegetables cut up and preserved wet at room temperature in
      sealed cans jars plastic containers, goes to all parts of the body every
      minute with the blood flow, with half-life 3 hours -- it readily enters all
      cells in body and fetus, just as does ethanol.

      Humans are uniquely vulnerable, as their cells lack the enzymes that in all
      other animals prevent ADH1 enzyme from rapidly making methanol into free
      floating formaldehyde right inside the cells of 20 specific tissues,
      including the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, where insulin is
      produced. As free floating formaldehyde, molecule by molecule, rapidly
      binds firmly on both sides to the nearest DNA, RNA, and large proteins in a
      cell, the cell malfunctions and dies. Gradually the chronic low level
      toxicity impairs the production and functioning of insulin.

      #6 diabetes 2 risk high for 2 cans aspartame diet drink weekly 14
      years 66K women study, Guy Fagherazzi et al AJCN 2013 Jan -- methanol
      (cigarettes, aspartame) formed into formaldehyde inside cells in
      pancreas by ADH1 enzyme, WC Monte paradigm: Rich Murray 2013.02.13


      ADH1 is "unusually highly concentrated" in the million tiny "isles of
      Langerhans" in the pancreas, where the beta cells make insulin -- cigarette
      use correlates with diabetes 2 risk, with a doubling of risk for smoking
      over a pack daily.
      [ page 172, "While Science Sleeps", 2012 January, Prof. Woodrow C. Monte,
      Food Science and Nutrition, Arizona State University, retired 2004 ]

      WhileScienceSleeps.com includes free online archive of 745 full text
      medical research references:


      http://www.whilesciencesleeps.com/pdf/637.pdf 5 pages

      Baehler R., Pestalozzi D., Hess M., Von Wartburg JP.
      Immunohistochemical localization of alcohol dehydrogenase in human kidney,
      endocrine organs and brain.
      Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1983;
      18 Suppl 1:55-9 1983;18(Suppl 1):55-9.

      http://www.whilesciencesleeps.com/pdf/648.pdf 12 pages

      Willi C., Bodenmann P., Ghali WA., Faris PD., Cornuz J.
      Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and
      JAMA 2007;298(22):2654-64.

      http://www.whilesciencesleeps.com/pdf/283.pdf 5 pages

      Wei M, Gibbons L, Mitchell T, Kampert J, Blair S.
      Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men.
      Diabetes Care 2000;23(1):16-21. Ming Wei

      Many of these diseases, including diabetes 2, are twice as harmful for
      those who never drink ethanol, compared to those who have just one standard
      drink a day, due to the inhibition by ethanol of formation of formaldehyde
      from methanol by ADH1.

      Many people are protected by ethanol in their blood from fermentation by
      bacteria in the GI tract.

      The public EFSA session on aspartame safety on April 9 for 5 hours included
      an audience of about 50 experts and 10-20 ESFA staff in Brussels.

      The release of the final EFSA review on aspartame safety will be delayed
      from April 15 to November, 2013.

      Extremely cogent multiple lines of robust evidence were briefly described
      that strongly support the methanol formaldehyde toxicity paradigm of Prof.
      Woodrow C. Monte, Prof. Food Science and Nutrition, Arizona State
      University, retired 2004 -- supported by an online archive of 745 free full
      text medical research references at www.WhileScienceSleeps.com .

      It is clear that methanol is far more dangerous for chronic low level
      exposures than realized since 1890.

      Major sources include the smoke from a pack of cigarettes, 40 mg
      methanol,the same as from 2 cans aspartame diet drink. It now seems likely
      that most cigarette diseases are actually methanol toxicity...

      Methanol stays in the blood with a half-life of 3 hours, reaching every
      part of the body and the fetus with the bloodstream, and readily entering
      all cells.

      Humans are uniquely vulnerable to methanol formaldehyde toxicity, as they
      lack a functioning catalase enzyme system, that in all other creatures
      serves to protect each cell against the rapid conversion of methanol into
      free floating formaldehyde right inside the cells of 20 specific tissues
      that have high levels of ADH1 enzyme.

      The effects are used to good advantage in embalming and disinfection, as
      formaldehyde immediately bonds to and impairs DNA, RNA, and proteins,
      permanently disrupting cell biochemistry, cell by cell, as long as methanol
      is ingested -- leading to 20 specific chronic modern novel "diseases of
      civilization", that progress slowly and erratically, according to the
      ingestion of methanol from a variety of modern sources:

      smoke from cigarettes, wood, and peat;

      since 1983, aspartame, including from most chewing gums;

      fresh tomatoes and black currants;

      unfresh fruits juices vegetables cut up and preserved wet at room
      temperature in sealed cans jars plastic containers;

      jams jellies marmalades;

      smoked fermented spoiled foods;

      many dark wines and liquors;

      work at paper and wood factories, mortuaries, medical and chemical

      Research since 2012 specifically shows the presence of formaldehyde bonded
      to cellular macromolecules inside cells after methanol ingestion -- the
      paradigm will be confirmed in detail very quickly, as science exponentially
      explores this simple breakthrough.

      This presents the world food industry with an unprecedented opportunity to
      serve the huge public good by collaborating vigorously to eliminate all
      methanol exposures from foods and beverages. The Net guarantees that the
      news and evidence will spread explosively everywhere.

      Paul Thomas MD Pediatrics & Integrative Medicine, Portland OR, praises
      "While Science Sleeps" at Amazon.com -- WC Monte paradigm of methanol
      formaldehyde toxicity via ADH1 enzyme in 20 human tissues, including fetus:
      Rich Murray 2013.04.03

      autism as a birth defect from epigenetic methylation by formaldehyde made
      from methanol by ADH1 enzyme inside Purkinje cells in vermis in cerebellum
      and in inner walls of brain blood vessels -- Prof. WC Monte paradigm: Rich
      Murray 2013.04.26

      highly competent, pithy analysis of aspartame cancer study by Eva S.
      Schernhammer at Harvard, William R. Ware, PhD, showing relevance of
      Woodrow C. Monte methanol-formaldehyde toxicity paradigm: Rich Murray

      Prof. Resia Pretorius letter re aspartame to EJCN cites Prof. Woodrow C.
      Monte "While Science Sleeps" text, re methanol/formaldehyde toxicity
      paradigm: Rich Murray 2012.05.21

      Aspartame: The hidden danger [methanol/formaldehyde] in our midst and how
      it kills us, 12 page review of While Science Sleeps text (Woodrow C Monte),
      International Health News, whole June issue, Editor: William R Ware PhD:
      Rich Murray 2012.06.08

      Table 5.2 is the key chart -- ADH1 enzyme at high levels in 20 tissues in
      body and fetus makes methanol into formaldehyde right inside cells,
      initiating over 20 human diseases, with full text references, WC Monte
      paradigm: Rich Murray 2013.03.21

      "As a matter of course, every soul citizen of Earth has a priority to
      quickly find and positively share evidence for healthy and safe food,
      drink, environment, and society."

      within the fellowship of service,

      Rich Murray,
      MA Boston University Graduate School 1967 psychology,
      BS MIT 1964 history and physics,
      254-A Donax Avenue, Imperial Beach, CA 91932-1918,
      505-819-7388 cell,
      619-623-3468 home,

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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