Assistant Prof. R. Harikumaran Nair, Mahatma Gandhi U, studies on
liver and lung harm re aspartame -- human harm re wood and paper
mills, home cooking fuels, car exhaust, organic solvents, diabetes, --
which all have methanol/formaldehyde, while MSG is also neurotoxic --
most modern "Diseases of Civilization" are involved via the Monte
methanol/formaldehyde paradigm: Rich Murray 2012.03.30
"Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the
1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats."
Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.
Sauganth Paul MV,
Nair RH. R. Harikumaran Nair <harinair@...
School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University , Kottayam , India.
The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of
aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense
status in the rat brain.
Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three
groups as follows:
The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.);
the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively,
in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and
the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water.
Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days.
The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of
glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of
rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame,
whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed
in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group.
Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the
1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats.
The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of
aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status
in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the
Aspartame water in rats for 6 months causes liver harm, RH Nair et al,
Mahatma Gandhi U, Food Chem Toxicol 2011.03.02: Rich Murray 2011.03.12
"Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in
aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg.b.wt)."
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.
Abhilash M, Paul MV, Varghese MV, Nair RH.
School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University,
Kottayam, Kerala, India, 686560.
The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of
aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and
hepatocellular injury in animal model.
Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150 - 175 g, were randomly
divided into three groups as follows:
first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg.b.wt;
the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg.b.wt;
and controls were given water freely.
Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg.b.wt) in the drinking
water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of
alanine aminotransferase (ALT),
aspartate aminotransferase (AST),
alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and
y-glutamyl transferase (GGT).
The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH)
and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and
glutathione reductase (GR)
were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received
aspartame (1000 mg/kg.b.wt).
Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups.
Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in
aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg.b.wt).
It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption
of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver
antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system.
Copyright 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. PMID: 21376768
Souganth Paul, MV - Research Fellow
Abhilash, M - Research Fellow
Varghese, Mathews V - Research Fellow
School of Bio-Sciences
Name: Dr. R. Harikumaran Nair [ R. Harikumaran Nair
Designation: Assistant Professor
Address: Room No. 5
School of Biosciences,
Mahatma Gandhi University
Priyadarshini Hills. P O. , Kottayam-686 560
Phone: +91- 481- 2731035 Extension: 16
Mobile Phone: +91-94472 60362
In our laboratory, we study the effect of food additives such as
aspartame, drug component arsenic trioxide and other toxins like
organic solvents on different
physiological mechanisms in rats and tissue culture model systems.
Another area of interest
is environmental and occupational stress.
Ph. D-Physiology (2001), School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi
M. Sc- Zoology (1994) University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India,
B. Sc-Zoology (1992) University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India,
*Lecturer in Physiology (Permanent service) - School of Biosciences,
University, Kerala, India. 22nd May 2006 to present
*Lecturer in Physiology (contract service) - School of Biosciences,
University, Kerala, India. 20th November 2003 to 21st May 2006
*Postdoctoral Research fellow- Dept. of Physiology, St. John’s Medical College,
Bangalore, India. 01st March 2002 to 15th July 2002
*Research Fellow – School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University,
India. October 1995- April 2001
Sagi, T.M - Research Fellow
Souganth Paul, M.V - Research Fellow
Abhilash, M .- Research Fellow
Varghese, Mathews V. - Research Fellow
Manju Alex - Research Fellow
1. Abhilash M, Shashidhar S, Harikumaran Nair R.
The role of electrolytes in cataractogenesis and modulation by silver
nitrate in albino rats.
22nd Kerala Science Congress. 28-31 January 2010. KFRI, Peechi,
Thrissur, Kerala, India
2. Sauganth Paul, Harikumaran Nair R, Shashidhar.S.
Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities in hypertensive subjects
of different age group,
Indian Science Congress, Medical Sciences section. 03.01.2010 to
07.01.2010, University of Kerala,
1. Ajitha Kumari R, Shashidar S and Harikumaran Nair R.
Oxidative stress and lung functions in diabetic mellitus.
Biomedicine. 2010 (accepted)
*******2. Pankajam K, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C, Rethamma
KV, and Shashidhar S.
Effects of Automobile exhaust pollution on the pulmonary functions in
Pollution Research. 2005; 24(1): 51-56.
3. Kesavachandran.C, Harikumaran Nair R. and Shashidhar.S.
Pulmonary function studies in Kalarypayathu Practitioners.
Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2004, 48(2), 235-240.
4. Geetha. B., Harikumaran Nair R., Kesavachandran.C.,Susan Chandy and
Pulmonary functions in workers of fertilizer and chemical Industry.
5. Geetha B., Harikumaran Nair R., Kesavachandran,C and Shashidhar, S.,
Respiratory Function Studies in Rare Earth Factory Workers.
Pollution Research 2001: 20(1):115-119.
6. Kesavachandran.C., Harikumaran Nair R.,and Shashidhar.S..
Lung Volumes in Swimmers performing different strokes.
*******7. Reethamma K.V., Harikumaran Nair R., Kesavachandran C and
Effect of Wood Dust on Lung Functions.
Pollution Research 2000:19(4):693-699.
8. Harikumaran Nair R., Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S..
Spirometric Impairments in Undernourished Children.
9. Harikumaran Nair R.,Kesavachandran C.,Sanil R.,Sreekumar R and Shashidhar S.
Prediction Equation for Lung Functions in South Indian Children.
10. Kesavachandran C., Sanil R., Harikumaran Nair R.,Arun A.Rauf and
Pulmonary Function Studies in Rowers.
*******11. Bindu K.Pazhur,Susan Chandy, Harikumaran Nair R.,and Shadhidhar S.
Effect of Domestic Cooking Fuels on Lung Functions in Women.
Pollution Research 1997, 16(3):149-154.
Scientific Papers in International Conference:
*******1. Geetha B, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S.
Respiratory Function Studies on Newsprint Factory workers.
International Conference on Health, Occupation and Environment in
Unorganized sector -- problems and Road maps (ICHOE 2004). November
1-3, 2004, Industrial
Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC, CSIR), Lucknow, INDIA.
*******2. Rethamma K V, Harikumaran Nair R, Kesavachandran C and Shashidhar S.
Pulmonary function status among Wood workers.
International Conference on Health, Occupation and Environment in
Unorganized sector -- problems and Road maps (ICHOE 2004). November
1-3, 2004, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC, CSIR),
Academic & Administrative Duties
• Chairman, B Sc Biophysics Board of Examinations, University of
Calicut, Kerala, India
• Convenor & Member, Institutional Animal Ethics Committee, Mahatma
Gandhi University, Kerala, India
• Member Secretary, Institutional Human Ethics Committee, Mahatma
Gandhi University, Kerala, India
• External Examiner in Fundamentals of Physiology, School of Medical
Education, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India
• Member, Campus Development Committee, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala, India
Training undertaken :( 2007 Onwards)
• Refresher Course in Lifesciences. 08.12.2009 to 29.12.2009. UGC
Academic Staff College, University of Kerala, Kerala
• University workshop on Research Projects, 02.04.2009. Mahatma Gandhi
• UGC sponsored short term course for Research Guides. 23.03.2009 to
28.03.2009, UGC Academic Staff College, University of Kerala, Kerala.
• Workshop on Curriculum Design for B.Sc. Biophysics Course. Kerala
State Higher Education Council and the University of Calicut, Kerala,
24.02.2009 to 28.02.2009
IITR- Lucknow,UP, India
NIIST- Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
©2010 MG University, All Rights Reserved. Content by PRD. Supported by
System Administration Team, M.G.University
Advanced Centre of Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development
School of Environmental Sciences, M.G. University
P.D. Hills P.O ,Kottayam, Kerala
India, PIN 686 560
+91 481 2732120 (Office)
+91 481 2732620 (Fax)
+91 9447473830 (Director Mob)
Polylectrolyte multilayer membranes for environmental applications .....
d. Improvement of the fuel efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)” using methanol as fuel is a
promising candidate to compete with conventional batteries.
The technology behind DMFC is still in the early stages of
development, but it has been successfully demonstrated powering mobile
phones and laptop computers --potential target end uses in future
years. Improvements in catalysts and other recent developments have
increased power density 20-fold and the efficiency may eventually
Recently, layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of polyelectrolytes on ionomer
membranes have shown to be an efficient method to improve the
performance of DMFC.
With the development of self assembled (multilayered) membranes, we
can very well incorporate naturally occurring bio degradable materials
to modify the existing membranes and render them the properties
suitable for variety of purposes in an economical fashion.
The power density of DMFC is expected to increase by deposition of
suitable polyelectrolyte as very thin layers.
By suitable architecture of surface layers methanol permeability can be tuned.
Later on nafilms will be replaced by other good proton conducting
membranes and the suitability of this as DMFC will be studied."
The Advanced Centre of Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development
The Advanced Centre of Environmental Studies and Sustainable
Development (ACESSD) is an Inter-university Centre aims to integrate
Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development.
It has been envisaged as a common centre where all branches of
Science, Social Science as well as Humanities converge so as to
facilitate the conduct of programmes with inter-disciplinary
The Centre also visualizes the presence of multidisciplinary scholars,
scientists, educators, development practitioners, international
experts and professionals who could discuss and find solutions to
issues of sustainable development from an environmental and holistic
perspective to suit the developmental needs in the regional, national
and international levels.
The Centre has taken up activities under Academic, Research and
Extension programmes with specific objectives.
The areas identified for the programmes include,
Sustainable water resource management, Sustainable energy use, Public
health and sanitation, Waste management, Pollution studies, Climate
change, Disaster management, Mountain and forest studies, Tribes and
marginalised people, Sustainable agriculture, Bio diversity
conservation and management, Sustainable tourism, Environmental
education and governance, Sustainable consumption, Eco-friendly
The centre is housed in the School of Environmental Sciences of
Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
There are Science and Social Science groups to coordinate the
academic, research and extension programmes envisaged.
The Centre has the state-of-the-art facilities for advanced level research.
It works with an open-minded approach and established linkages with
various National and International Institutes and Universities for
collaborative works and exchange programmes.
Researchers and professionals under the International, National and
Regional Desks of the Centre give the strength and motivation for the
The Centre has a good library with sufficient journals and advanced volumes.
Network facilities are available to all the personnel and due efforts
are given for proper documentation.
Proper communication facilities at par with other higher centres are
To evolve sustainable development strategies to support life and
earth's life supporting systems integrating environmental, social and
Development should be socially acceptable, economically feasible and
To facilitate and promote human resource development for the
sustainable management of natural resources through education and
To establish advanced facilities and promote research and extension
activities in specific areas.
To establish linkages with National and International Institutions for
collaborative academic and research programmes.
To impart training to personnel of NGOs, institutions, students,
teachers, farmers and other groups.
To promote the values of sustainable development through updation and
dissemination of traditional environmental wisdom and practices
To provide consultancy services in environmental and sustainable
To address environmental and human problems based on holistic approach
and interdisciplinary studies for evolving sustainable solution.
MS toxin: methanol from wood and cigarette smoke, dark wines and
liquors, aspartame -- in humans only, made by ADH enzyme into
formaldehyde within and next to brain blood vessels and neurons --
forming cumulative micro lesions in MS and Alzheimer's: Woodrow C.
Monte text "While Science Sleeps": Rich Murray 2012.03.29
The paradox of the U-shaped curve for many modern "Diseases Of
Civilization" for no alcohol to little alcohol to heavy alcohol
long-term use is that ethanol prevents the ADH enzyme from turning the
methanol into formaldehyde. Having a 2.5 hour half-life in blood,
enough methanol remains in the blood after all the ethanol has been
made into mildly toxic acetaldehyde -- then production of formaldehyde
starts in all sites with high ADH levels, notably brain blood vessels
in some key locations for multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's.
At the fourth week of pregnancy, the fetus is vulnerable to spina bifida
and other birth defects, such as autism and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.
This is why methanol, itself as fairly nontoxic in small doses as
alcohol is, only shows toxic symptoms a dozen hours after ingestion.
Hospitals treat methanol toxicity with ethanol to shut down the
production of formaldehyde.
Fruits and vegetables have enough ethanol to mitigate the conversion
of methanol into formaldehyde.
Bacteria in the colon can also give this low level of protective ethanol.
As always in medical science, there are vast individual differences in
the presentation of chronic methanol toxicity.
However, since 1806 with canning, methanol, from pectins in fruits and
vegetables, heated in sealed cans and jars, steadily grew in urban
human diets, with the first cases of MS and Alzheimer's being found
within a few decades.
Formaldehyde quickly binds to adjacent DNA, RNA, and proteins, and,
until recently, remaining invisible to scientific detection.
Woodrow C. Monte, Emeritus Prof. Nutrition, Arizona State University,
has honed this paradigm since his pioneer review in 1984, "Aspartame,
Methanol, and the Public Health", and has now responsibly released his
new comprehensive review for intelligent citizens, "While Science
Sleeps", with 740 free online full text pdf scientific references on
his site: www.WhileScienceSleeps.com .
methanol/formaldehyde paradigm for multiple sclerosis, free full 56
page chapter 9 pdf, While Science Sleeps, 146 full text references
online, Prof. Woodrow C. Monte: Rich Murray 2012.03.20
Multiple Sclerosis: The Cause and the Solution Uncovered -- at Last!
An exhaustive analysis of the medical and scientific literature,
authored by a uniquely qualified food scientist, persuasively reveals
the cause of MS and describes a path to recovery and prevention.
The symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis are identical to those of an
uncommon form of poisoning -- methanol poisoning.
Individuals who have been exposed to this poison over a long period of
time, in fact, develop MS.
This poison -- methanol -- is a major component of cigarette smoke,
which, until now, has been the only known cause of Multiple Sclerosis.
Dr. Monte's compelling work reveals that this poison is also contained
in certain foods that are canned and smoked or have had the insidious
sweetener, aspartame, added to them.
Unfortunately, the truth has been obscured due to the fact that
methanol is a poison only to humans and not to (laboratory) animals.
If you have MS, or love someone who does, you and your physician
should read what Dr. Monte has to say about methanol and its link to
To expedite the free exchange of what might be lifesaving information
about this disease, there is a file attached below to his website that
contains a full copy of Chapter 9 of his book, While Science Sleeps.
This chapter examines the cause of MS and posits the simple dietary
changes that can save your life.
Download a free copy of Chapter 9 and have a read
[ 99 pages, including list of all 740 full text online references for
book -- Chapter 9 has 146 references ]:
The references are located on his website:
as are the simple dietary changes that you must follow because your
life may depend on it:
Everything you need to know about MS is in Chapter 9.
If you are interested in knowing more about methanol poisoning and its
link to other diseases of civilization, you will want to read the
entire book, While Science Sleeps, by Woodrow C. Monte PHD, Emeritus
Professor of Nutrition and Food Science, Arizona State University.
The Conflagration that is Multiple Sclerosis;
Listening to Nature's Whispers;
The Scene of the Crime;
Location, Location, Location;
Details of Plaque Formation;
The Look, Touch, Taste and Smell of Multiple Sclerosis;
The Kitchen Autopsy;
The Cause of MS is within the Thickening Blood Vessels;
Symptoms Mean Little Unless They Are Identical in All Ways...Then They
Learn a Little About Arginine;
Myelin Basic Protein (MBP);
Looking for the Shadow of Formaldehyde;
"Woody... They Have Done Our Experiment for Us.... But They Just Don't Get It!";
Finding the Shadow of Formaldehyde in the MS Brain: The Smoking Gun (a
Triple Blind Study);
Evidence That Methanol Causes MS;
The Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis -- Follow the Methanol;
A Food Scientist's Nightmare Called Aspartame;
MS: a Disease of Colder Climates and Flush Toilets -- Before Aspartame;
A World Awash in MS after Aspartame;
Change in Frequency of MS by Sex:
the Methanol Source -- Food or Smoke -- Makes All the Difference;
Can Methanol Really Cause MS?;
MS Can Be Found in Some Places, but Cannot be Found in Others;
Industrial Exposure to Methanol -- Jobs that Can Last for an Eternity;
MS Treatment -- Pharmaceutical Placeboes or Perhaps Worse;
Conclusion and Review;
Conclusion and Review
You can see for yourself now that the daily administration of methanol
to the human organism does not go unnoticed by the immune system.
The evidence is simply far too overwhelming for the pharmaceutical
industries to credibly justify ignoring it any longer.
As a scientist I can do little more than present a coherent molecular
theory, and then prove the hypothesis using three paradigms with two
distinct methods of methanol administration.
Viewing methanol toxicity as the etiologic cause of MS answers all of
the nagging questions and unexplained anomalies that have stalled the
search for the cause of this disease.
I realize that absolutely nothing can convince the pharmaceutical
giants, who are now heavily invested in developing their own useless
palliatives for MS, to give them up and rally around the methanol
In the end, however, I believe that the truth will win out.
Henry Miller prophesied over 50 years ago:
It is possible that the cause of multiple sclerosis lies buried
somewhere in these lengthy protocols waiting to be found by someone
ingenious enough to unearth it.[#306]
1. MS is a disease that begins around brain blood vessels, adjacent to
the exact locations where methanol converts to formaldehyde, very much
like Alzheimer's Disease.
2. MS was first discovered long before formaldehyde, making the
determination of its cause impossible.
3. The vast majority of early researchers believed that the cause of
MS was a "toxic substance" that forms in and is distributed via the
blood vessels of the brain. "Whatever is being produced within the
vessel walls is the cause of the disease."
4. All symptoms of MS can be found during the course of methanol
poisoning if the patient lives long enough.
5. Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) is the protein of the myelin sheath that
is removed during MS plaque development.
MBP contains a high percentage of arginine, which acts as a trap for
The MBP of MS patients has been shown to have reacted with
formaldehyde and cause a marked increase of the methylation of its
6. The MBP of MS brain tissue has been shown to be severely deficient
in phosphorylation, which we know can be caused by formaldehyde.
7. The Smoking Paradigm: Cigarette smoke is high in methanol and is
the only etiological cause of MS that is generally accepted by the
8. Consistent circumstantial evidence links increases in
methanol-containing food consumption and in industrial use of methanol
to corresponding increases in MS incidence during the transition from
the 19th century into the 20th century.
9. The advent of aspartame, a methanol carrier, has introduced an
opportunity to quantify additional methanol in the food supply since
10. The Aspartame Paradigm: statistics show convincingly that as more
and more aspartame is consumed by the US population the incidence of
-- and perhaps more importantly the death rate from -- MS has also
11. The higher incidence of MS in colder climates was due to the
higher consumption levels of canned fruits and vegetables in temperate
This began reversing shortly after methanol-containing diet sodas and
other thirst quenching products became popular and inexpensive in the
12. MS was at one time a disease of men when it was caused by
It is increasingly more of a women's disease.
When methanol is inhaled as a gas during cigarette smoking or
industrial contamination the distribution tends to be equal between
The stomach of the man, however, has 4 or 5 times more ADH in its
lining than that of a woman.
When methanol is consumed via diet soda, the ADH removes methanol
before it can get to the brain, so less of it reaches men's brains
than women's brains.
As more and more methanol has become a dietary poison, the shift from
male to female disease has followed.
13. The Faroe Islands are surrounded by countries with very high
incidence of MS, yet the country traditionally did not have the
disease represented in its population until after the occupation of
large numbers of British Troops during the Second World War.
Faroes have no trees or peat deposits and, therefore, developed
methods to salt and air dry fish and other meats for preservation,
unlike its neighbors, who dine on smoked foods at each meal.
The indigenous diet of the Faroans contains no methanol.
14. The Village of Wellington, Ohio experienced an epidemic of MS that
should have been traced to the escape of methanol fumes from a
foundry, affecting the populace located downwind of it.
15. Professions such as shoe making and papermaking that have been
shown to have high incidence of MS can also be shown to have exposed
their workers to levels of methanol.
16. The Teaching Paradigm:
The US teaching profession might just be the best profession to use to
link methanol exposure to increased incidence of MS.
Secondary school teachers suffer an incidence of MS almost twice as
high as their professional counterparts.
They also can be shown to have had consistent workday exposure to
methanol fumes by the ubiquitous use of Ditto machines that use high
concentrations of methanol as a print transfer agent.
It has been over 30 years since I heard my first unsolicited plea for
help from an aspartame consumer who had linked consumption of the
product to her suffering. My first thought after an hour's listening
was that this courageous young woman would soon be diagnosed with
It is in her honor and in the memory of my friend from Wellington,
Colorado that I seek to explain the compelling link between methanol
224. Kim J, Mastronardi F, Wood D, Lubman D, Zand R, Moscarello M.
Multiple Sclerosis: An important role for post-translational
modifications of myelin basic protein in pathogenesis.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 2003;2(7):453-62.
free html rich full text version ]
The Monte methanol paradigm posits a simple, obvious major co-factor
for many novel diseases of civilization -- vastly increasing the
opportunity for extremely positive social service via avoiding all
methanol sources: Rich Murray 2012.02.06
Methanol from smoking and aspartame, in humans alone, is always made
into formaldehyde via the ADH enzyme inside the cells of blood vessels
and many tissues -- a little alcohol protects.
Many novel diseases of civilization result since 1800 -- heart,
stroke, Alzheimers, cancers, MS, autism, spina bifida -- increasing
rapidly with aspartame since 1981.
4 more positive reviews for While Science Sleeps, Prof. Woodrow C.
Monte, on Amazon.com: Rich Murray 2012.02.26
While Science Sleeps, methanol from cigarettes and aspartame becomes
formaldehyde inside human cells -- Table of Contents, WC Monte bio,
Kindle electronic book version $ 9.80 Amazon.com: Rich Murray
new book, concise opus "While Science Sleeps" life saving facts re
aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) -- 740 full text references are
free online -- Woodrow "Woody" C. Monte, retired Prof. of Nutrition,
Arizona State University: Rich Murray 2012.01.03
$ 37.98 text 236 pages -- 740 full text references free online --
Kindle electronic book, $ 9.80
see slide show of 18 research studies re huge increases of MS in women
in warm countries since aspartame diet drinks started in USA July,
1983, especially in hot summer months:
MA Boston University Graduate School 1967 psychology,
BS MIT 1964 history and physics,
254-A Donax Avenue, Imperial Beach, CA 91932-1918