Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. 1933-2010 approved aspartame July 1981 -- NY Times says, ""...can sometimes cause cause incapacitating headaches and even seizures.": Rich Murray 2010.03.01
- Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. 1933-2010 approved aspartame July 1981 -- NY Times
says, "...can sometimes cause cause incapacitating headaches and even
seizures.": Rich Murray 2010.03.01
Monday, March 1, 2010
March 1, 2010
Arthur Hayes Jr., Who Led F.D.A. in Tylenol Case, Is Dead at 76
By Dennis Hevesi
Arthur Hayes Jr., who while leading the Food and Drug
Administration during the Reagan administration helped calm
consumer fears after a Tylenol poisoning case and, amid some
controversy, approved the use of the artificial sweetener found
in Equal and Nutrasweet, died Feb. 11 in Danbury, Conn.
He was 76 and lived in Oxford, Conn.
The cause was leukemia, his son, Arthur III, said.
Dr. Hayes, a pharmacological researcher, was appointed
commissioner of the F.D.A. by President Ronald Reagan
in April 1981.
He served until August 1983.
The biggest crisis faced by the agency under Dr. Hayes was a
nationwide alarm in 1982 caused by the deaths of seven people in the
Chicago area who had taken Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules laced
The case remains unsolved.
Under Dr. Hayes's leadership, the government and the drug industry
responded by developing the first federal regulations requiring
tamper-resistant packaging for all over-the-counter drugs.
In 1981, Dr. Hayes granted approval for the use of the sugar
substitute aspartame in dry foods and as a tabletop sweetener.
Research had found that aspartame was associated with high rates of
cancers in rats that had been given large doses, starting at what would
be the equivalent of four to five 20-ounce bottles of diet soda a day
for a 150-pound person.
Dr. Hayes insisted that there was no need for people to avoid the
Marketed as NutraSweet (when used as a food additive) and Equal
(the tabletop version), aspartame is now also used in products like
soft drinks, breakfast cereals, pudding mixes and gum.
Research done after Dr. Hayes's time as commissioner indicated that
aspartame can sometimes cause incapacitating headaches and even
Arthur Hull Hayes Jr. was born in Highland Park, Mich.,
on July 18, 1933, one of four children of Arthur and Florence Gruber
His father was president of CBS Radio.
Dr. Hayes received his bachelor's degree in philosophy in 1955 from
Santa Clara University and then went to Oxford as a Rhodes scholar,
earning a degree in philosophy, politics and economics in 1957.
He returned to the United States to study medicine and graduated
from Cornell University Medical School in 1964.
He served in the Army Medical Corps from 1965 to 1967.
From 1967 to 1981, Dr. Hayes was an assistant professor of
medicine and pharmacology at Cornell.
He later became director of clinical pharmacology at the
Pennsylvania State University medical school.
After leaving the F.D.A., he was dean of New York Medical College
and, in 1986, was named president of E. M. Pharmaceuticals.
Besides his son, Arthur, he is survived by his wife of 49 years,
the former Barbara Anne Carey; two daughters, Lisa Hayes and
Kathy Saracino; two sisters, Mary Ann Kelley and Florence Hayes;
his brother, Joseph; and eight grandchildren.
methanol (11% of aspartame), made by body into formaldehyde in
many vulnerable tissues, causes modern diseases of civilization,
summary of a century of research, Woodrow C Monte PhD,
Medical Hypotheses journal: Rich Murray 2009.11.15
Sunday, November 15, 2009
opportunities re BA Magnuson, GA Burdock et al., Aspartame
Safety Evaluation 2007 Sept., Critical Reviews in Toxicology:
Rich Murray 2008.07.11
Friday, July 11, 2008
[ This part of the Murray critique starts by quoting from the
Magnuson review: ]
Following the approval of aspartame, a formal objection was
submitted to the FDA (FDA, 1981) questioning the conclusions
from the rodent studies on aspartame conducted by Searle, and
proposing that aspartame may have the potential to cause brain
tumors in humans.
This objection resulted in FDA staying the regulation approving the
marketing of aspartame in 1975, and the establishment of a
Public Board of Inquiry to reexamine the studies submitted
by Searle to the FDA.
Prior to the evaluation by the Board, the 15 studies submitted
by Searle were thoroughly audited by the Universities Associated for
Research and Education in Pathology, Inc. (UAREP)
and by the FDA.
The findings of the UAREP, the FDA, and the Public Board of Inquiry
were considered and evaluated by the Commissioner of Food and
Drugs, resulting in the issuance of the commissioner's Final Decision
that at projected levels of consumption, aspartame would not pose a
risk of brain damage and will not cause brain tumors
(FDA docket, 75F-0355, 1981) (FDA, 1981).
This decision resulted in FDA vacating the stay of the original 1974
Objections to the of the use of aspartame were again filed with the
FDA in 1983; however, the regulations approving the use of
aspartame was not stayed following these objections, as the FDA
stated that they failed to create sufficient doubt about the safety of
A response to the objections and a denial for a hearing was issued in
1984 by the Acting Commissioner of Food and Drugs
(FDA docket 75F-0355 and 82F-0305)
(FDA, 1984; Wurtman and Maher, 1987). "
[ In fact the FDA brought suit against Searle for its radically biased,
improper scientific studies.
The industry won by persuading the FDA's two attorneys to let the
legal process languish.
Soon, the attorneys inexplicably found pleasant, prosperous futures
in the industry's networks.
Similar adroit exercises in corporate realpolitic were led by the CEO
of Searle, none other than that modest American hero,
Donald Rumsfeld, who used Reagan's victory to immediately
manipulate the FDA's approval by a brand new Commissioner,
Arthur Hull Hayes, in July, 1981, of aspartame in dry foods, and
soon in beverages two years later, whereupon the fortunate
Commissioner, troubled by hints of political corruption, found a
gracious life with the industry's PR agency.
Donald Rumsfeld CEO 1977-85 G.D. Searle & Co., got new
President Reagan to prohibit FDA opposition to aspartame
1981.01.25, history by lawyer James S. Turner: Murray 2007.10.29
aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06
aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3:
Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10
revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23
Rich Murray, MA
Boston University Graduate School 1967 psychology,
BS MIT 1964, history and physics,
1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505
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