California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment deadline May 5 for science re aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity -- folic acid protects: Stephen Fox: Rich Murray 2009.03.24
Tuesday, March 24, 2009
March 11, 2009 at 23:10:52
California Opens Proposition 65 File, Could Lead to aspartame State Suits re: Carcinogenic Properties
Diary Entry by Stephen Fox
California takes the first step towards leading to Big Aspartame suits, like the Big Tobacco suits, based on proven carcinogenic properties of that sweetener; similar suits are ongoing against Whole Foods for a different proven carcinogeni 2,4,5-Chlorade in their line of "organic" skin products.
This notice marks the start of a 60-day public comment period. The comment period ends May 5, 2009. Interested parties may provide comment on the extent of the scientific evidence pertaining to the selection of any of these chemicals for possible preparation of hazard identification materials. OEHHA will forward the comments to the CIC members prior to their meeting.
The CIC meeting will be held in the Sierra Hearing Room of the California Environmental Protection Agency headquarters building located at 1001 I Street, Sacramento. The meeting will begin at 10:00 a.m. and will last until all business is conducted. The agenda for the meeting will be provided in a future public notice published in advance of the meeting.
Copies of the summaries of available scientific information on the chemicals and related attachments are available on OEHHA’s web site above, or may be requested by calling (916) 445-6900. It is requested, but not required, that written comments and supporting documentation be transmitted via email addressed to coshita@...
Comments may also be delivered in triplicate in person or by courier to:
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
Proposition 65 Implementation
P.O. Box 4010 1001 I Street, 19th floor
Sacramento, California 95812-4010
FAX (916) 323-8803 http://www.oehha.org/
In order to be considered by the CIC Members, written comments must be received at OEHHA by 5:00 p.m. on Tuesday, May 5, 2009.
This is their background sheet for aspartame/methanol/formaldehyde/diketopiperazine, only in PDF form:
Chemical for Office of Environmental
CIC Consultation: Health Hazard Assessment
Aspartame pages 1-3 March 2009
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener that is found in more than 6,000 products used by more than 200 million people worldwide.
Typical consumption is 2-3 mg/kg per day, but can be much higher.
Aspartame passed the animal data screen, underwent a preliminary toxicological evaluation, and is being brought to the Carcinogen Identification Committee for consultation.
This is a compilation of relevant studies identified during the preliminary toxicological evaluation.
• Ecological studies
o Time-related studies of brain tumor incidence and consumption of aspartame: Roberts (1991), Olney et al. (1996)
• Cohort study
o Prospective cohort study of aspartame consumption and hematopoietic and brain malignancies: Lim et al. (2006)
• Case-control studies
o Integrated analysis of several Italian case-control studies of various cancers and aspartame consumption: Gallus et al. (2007)
Animal carcinogenicity data
• Long-term diet studies in rats
o Two-year studies in male and female Charles River rats: Hazelton Laboratories (1973)
o Studies in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (eight weeks old at start of treatment, fed for life): Soffritti et al. (2005), Belpoggi et al. (2006), Soffritti et al. (2006)
o Transplacental plus entire lifetime exposure studies in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats: Soffritti et al. (2007)
Other relevant data
o Review: Magnuson et al. (2007)
o Aspartame metabolism to known carcinogens, including methanol and formaldehyde: Soffritti et al. (2006); Magnuson et al. (2007)
• Magnuson et al. (2007)
• Soffritti et al. (2008)
1 Copies of these listed references, as either the abstract, the relevant sections of the publication, or the complete publication, have been provided to members of the Carcinogen Identification Committee.
These references have been provided in the order in which they are discussed in this document.
Belpoggi F, Soffritti M, Padovani M, Esposti DD, Lauriola M, Minardi F (2006). Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassay on Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to aspartame administered in feed. Ann NY Acad Sci 1076:559-577.
Gallus S, Scotti L, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S, Montella M, Giacosa A, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C (2007). Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies. Ann Oncol 18:40-44.
Hazelton Laboratories, Inc. (1973). Two-year toxicity study in the rat, FINAL REPORT, submitted to Searle Laboratories.
Lim U, Subar AF, Mouw T, Hartge P, Morton LM, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Campbell D, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A (2006). Consumption of aspartame-containing beverages and incidence of hematopoietic and brain malignancies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(9):1654-1659.
Roberts HJ (1991). Does aspartame cause human brain cancer? J Advance Med 4(4):231-241.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, Lambertini L (2005). Aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats. Eur J Oncol 10(2):107-116.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, Lambertini L, Tibaldi E, Rigano A (2006). First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ Health Perspect 114(3):379-385.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M (2007). Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats. Environ Health Prespect 115(9):1293-1297.
Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Esposti DD, Falcioni L, Bua L (2008). Consequences of exposure to carcinogens beginning during developmental life. Basic Clinical Pharmacol Toxicol 102:118-124.
Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, Kroes RM, Marsh GM, Pariza MW, Spencer PS, Waddell WJ, Walker R, Williams GM (2007). Crit Review Toxicol 37:629-727.
Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN (1996). Increasing brain tumor rates: is there a link to aspartame? J Neuropath Experimental Neurol 56(1):1115-1123.
formaldehyde, aspartame, and migraines, the first case series, Sharon
E Jacob-Soo, Sarah A Stechschulte, UCSD, Dermatitis 2008 May: Rich
Friday, July 18, 2008
High levels of folic acid, a safe, affordable vitamin in fruits and
vegetables, largely prevents formaldehyde and formic acid toxicity in
It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily
for months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid
Fully 11 % of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 liters
diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood
alcohol). The methanol is immediately released into the body after
Within hours, the liver turns much of the methanol into formaldehyde,
and then much of that into formic acid, both of which in time are
partially eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.
However, about 30 % of the methanol remains in the body as cumulative
durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde and formic acid -- 37 mg
daily, a gram every month, accumulating in and affecting every tissue.
If only 10 % of the methanol is retained daily as formaldehyde, that
would give 12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation -- about 60 times
more than the 0.2 mg from 10 % retention of the 2 mg EPA daily limit
for formaldehyde in drinking water.
Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is
1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 liters of
formaldehyde and formic acid in FEMA trailers and other sources
(aspartame, dark wines and liquors, tobacco smoke): Murray 2008.01.30
Wednesday, January 30, 2008
The FEMA trailers give about the same amount of formaldehyde and
formic acid daily as from a quart of dark wine or liquor, or two
quarts (6 12-oz cans) of aspartame diet soda, from their over 1 tenth
gram methanol impurity (one part in 10,000), which the body quickly
makes into formaldehyde and then formic acid -- enough to be the major
cause of "morning after" alcohol hangovers.
Methanol and formaldehyde and formic acid also result from many fruits
and vegetables, tobacco and wood smoke, heater and vehicle exhaust,
household chemicals and cleaners, cosmetics, and new cars, drapes,
carpets, furniture, particleboard, mobile homes, buildings, leather...
so all these sources add up and interact with many other toxic
opportunities re BA Magnuson, GA Burdock et al., Aspartame Safety
Evaluation 2007 Sept., Critical Reviews in Toxicology:
Rich Murray 2008.07.11
Friday, July 11, 2008
details on 6 epidemiological studies since 2004 on diet soda
(mainly aspartame) correlations, as well as 14 other mainstream
studies on aspartame toxicity since summer 2005: Murray 2007.11.18
Wednesday, November 14, 2007
old tiger roars -- Woodrow C Monte, PhD -- aspartame causes
many breast cancers, as ADH enzyme in breasts makes methanol
from diet soda into carcinogenic formaldehyde -- same in dark
wines and liquors, Fitness Life 2008 Jan.: Murray 2008.02.11
Monday, February 11, 2008
role of formaldehyde, made by body from methanol from foods
and aspartame, in steep increases in fetal alcohol syndrome, autism,
multiple sclerosis, lupus, teen suicide, breast cancer, Nutrition
Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, retired, Arizona State U., two reviews,
190 references supplied, Fitness Life, New Zealand
2007 Nov, Dec: Murray 2007.12.26
Wednesday, December 26 2007
Monte WC., Is your Diet Sweetener killing you? Fitness Life. 2007 Nov;
Monte WC., A Deadly Experiment. Fitness Life. 2007 Dec; 34: 38-42.
Monte WC., Bittersweet: Aspartame Breast Cancer Link. Fitness Life.
2008 Feb; 34: 21-22.
Article 1 http://www.thetruthaboutstuff.com/review1.shtml
Article 2 http://www.thetruthaboutstuff.com/review2.shtml
Article 3 http://www.thetruthaboutstuff.com/review3.shtml
223 references with
abstracts or full and partial texts
cofactors re folic acid antagonist research include
methanol (quickly turns into formaldehyde and then formic acid in
humans) from tobacco and wood smoke, alcohol beverages, aspartame,
demethylation of caffeine: Rich Murray 2008.12.01
Monday, December 1, 2008
Public release date: 1-Dec-2008
Contact: Kim Barnhardt kim.barnhardt@...
Canadian Medical Association Journal
Maternal exposure to folic acid antagonists increases risks
Exposure to folic acid antagonists during pregnancy is associated with
a higher risk of placenta-mediated adverse outcomes such as
preeclampsia, placental abruption, fetal growth restriction or fetal
death reports a retrospective cohort study published in CMAJ
Folic acid antagonists include a broad range of drugs used to treat
epilepsy, mood disorders, hypertension and infections. As
approximately 50% of pregnancies in industrialized countries like
Canada are unplanned, there is a risk of unintended exposure to these
methanol impurity in alcohol drinks [ and aspartame ] is turned into
neurotoxic formic acid, prevented by folic acid, re Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome, BM Kapur, DC Lehotay, PL Carlen at U. Toronto,
Alc Clin Exp Res 2007 Dec. plain text: detailed biochemistry,
CL Nie et al. 2007.07.18: Murray 2008.02.24
Sunday, February 24, 2008
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 31 Issue 12 Page 2114-2120, December 2007
Bhushan M. Kapur, b.kapur@...
Arthur C. Vandenbroucke, PhD, FCACB
Denis C. Lehotay, dlehotay@...
Peter L. Carlen carlen@...
(2007) Formic Acid, a Novel Metabolite of Chronic Ethanol Abuse,
Causes Neurotoxicity, Which Is Prevented by Folic Acid
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31 (12), 2114-2120.
Methanol is endogenously formed in the brain and is present as a
congener in most alcoholic beverages.
Because ethanol is preferentially metabolized over methanol (MeOH) by
alcohol dehydrogenase, it is not surprising that MeOH accumulates in
the alcohol-abusing population.
This suggests that the alcohol-drinking population will have higher
levels of MeOH's neurotoxic metabolite, formic acid (FA).
FA elimination is mediated by folic acid.
Neurotoxicity is a common result of chronic alcoholism.
This study shows for the first time that FA, found in chronic
alcoholics, is neurotoxic and this toxicity can be mitigated by folic acid
To determine if FA levels are higher in the alcohol-drinking
population and to assess its neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal rat brain slice
Serum and CSF FA was measured in samples from both ethanol abusing and
control patients, who presented to a hospital emergency department.
[ CSF = Cerebral Spinal Fluid ]
FA's neurotoxicity and its reversibility by folic acid were assessed
using organotypic rat brain hippocampal slice cultures using clinically
Serum FA levels in the alcoholics (mean ± SE: 0.416 +- 0.093 mmol/l, n
= 23) were significantly higher than in controls (mean ± SE: 0.154 +- 0.009
mmol/l, n = 82) (p < 0.0002).
FA was not detected in the controls' CSF (n = 20), whereas it was
>0.15 mmol/l in CSF of 3 of the 4 alcoholic cases.
Low doses of FA from 1 to 5 mmol/l added for 24, 48 or 72 hours to the
rat brain slice cultures caused neuronal death as measured by propidium
When folic acid (1 umol/l) was added with the FA, neuronal death was
prevented. [ umol = micromole ]
Formic acid may be a significant factor in the neurotoxicity of
This neurotoxicity can be mitigated by folic acid administration at a
clinically relevant dose.
Formic Acid, Folic Acid, Methanol, Neurotoxicity, Alcoholism......
aspartame ban bill, with 22 supporting Representatives, approved by
Hawaii House Health Committee -- next is House Finance Committee:
Stephen Fox: Rich Murray 2009.03.20
Friday, March 20, 2009
"Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority,
to enjoy peace, joy, and love by helping to find,
quickly share, and positively act upon evidence
about healthy and safe food, drink, and environment."
Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505
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