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Avoiding formaldehyde allergic reactions in children, aspartame, vitamins, shampoo, conditioners, hair gel, baby wipes, Sharon E Jacob, MD, Tace Steele, U. Miami, Pediatric Annals 2007 Jan.: eye contact dermatitis, AM Hill, DV Belsito, 2003 Nov.: Murray

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  • Rich Murray
    Avoiding formaldehyde allergic reactions in children, aspartame, vitamins, shampoo, conditioners, hair gel, baby wipes, Sharon E Jacob, MD, Tace Steele, U.
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 27, 2008
      Avoiding formaldehyde allergic reactions in children, aspartame, vitamins, shampoo, conditioners, hair gel, baby wipes, Sharon E Jacob, MD, Tace Steele, U. Miami, Pediatric Annals 2007 Jan.: eye contact dermatitis, AM Hill, DV Belsito, 2003 Nov.: Murray 2008.03.27
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Thursday, March 27, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1532
      ____________________________________________________


      "It is generally recommended that exposure to products containing
      formaldehyde, FRP's, and aspartame (NutraSweet) be avoided
      in children."

      "Through metabolism, aspartame is converted metabolically
      in the liver to methanol,
      which is in turn metabolized to formaldehyde. 8"


      www.pediatricannalsonline.com/showPdf.asp?rID=21306

      Avoiding formaldehyde allergic reactions in children
      Pediatric Annals. 2007 Jan.; 36(1): 55-6. PMID: 17269284
      Sharon E. Jacob, MD, Director, Contact Dermatitis Clinic,
      Dept. of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, U. of Miami,
      1295 NW 14th St., Miami, FL 33125, fax 305-243-6191
      sjacob@...;

      Tace Steele, BA

      Sharon E. Jacob, MD, is Director, Contact Dermatitis Clinic,
      Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL.
      Tace Steele, BA, is with the Department of Dermatology,
      University of Miami, Miami, FL.
      Address correspondence to: Sharon E. Jacob, MD,
      Director, Contact Dermatitis Clinic, University of Miami,
      Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery,
      1295 NW 14th St, Miami FL 33125; fax 305-243-6191;
      or email: sjacob@....
      The authors disclosed no relevant financial relationship
      http://contactderm.med.miami.edu/x20.xml
      http://contactderm.med.miami.edu/x21.xml [ photos ]
      http://contactderm.med.miami.edu/x11.xml
      Assistant Professor
      Director, Contact Dermatitis Clinic
      Director, Medical Student Education
      1295 NW 14th St.
      South Building Suite L
      Miami, FL 33125 tel: 305-243-6704
      Board Certifications
      Diplomat of the American Board of Dermatology
      Practice Locations
      University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center
      Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center
      Cedars Medical Center
      Education
      Hampshire College
      Amherst, MA Undergraduate
      Temple University, School of Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA Graduate
      Jackson Memorial Hospital, University of Miami
      Affiliated Medical Education Program Residency

      Formaldehyde is a well-known sensitizer in children, and allergy
      to this substance is a more widely recognized problem in recent
      years. 1-3

      In some children, even small amounts of formaldehyde can
      trigger and maintain an eczematoid-type dermatitis, headache,
      or symptoms of asthma. 4-7

      Allergy to formaldehyde is not surprising, given the large number
      of products containing formaldehyde and
      formaldehyde-releasing preservatives (FRPs).

      As with the more immediate allergic reactions that occur to peanuts
      and latex, for example, it is known that an allergic reaction doesn't occur
      at the first exposure to the allergen.

      Rather, with each exposure to the allergen, the person is more likely
      to reach the threshold/dose at which they express the allergic reaction.

      Through metabolism, aspartame is converted metabolically in the liver
      to methanol, which is in turn metabolized to formaldehyde. 8

      Most people with formaldehyde allergy don't recount a specific
      exposure that made them sensitive.

      Following patch testing, the gold standard to diagnose contact dermatitis
      and with subsequent allergen education, patients are often able to identify
      the products in their daily routine that contain formaldehyde.

      It is generally recommended that exposure to products containing
      formaldehyde, FRPs, and aspartame (Nutrasweet)
      be avoided in children.

      Formaldehyde allergy in children is a problem that is potentially
      avoidable by substituting products free of this sensitizing chemical.

      SIDEBAR
      Names of Formaldehyde-Releasing Preservatives
      (FRPs) in Personal Hygiene Products and Cosmetics 9

      2-bromo-2- nitropropane-1,3 diol (Bronopol)
      Diazolidinyl urea (Germall II)
      DMDM hydantoin (Glydant)
      Imidazolidinyl urea (Germall)
      Tris (hydroxymethyl) nitromethane (Tris Nitro)
      Quaternium-15 (Dowicil 75, Dowicil 100, Dowicil 200)

      TABLE.
      Examples of Products Containing Formaldehyde or FRPs

      Product

      Type With Formaldehyde/FRPs

      --------- Without Formaldehyde/FRPs

      Shampoo

      Avon Kids 2-in-1 Super Gentle Shampoo for Normal Hair,
      Avon; Dove Shampoo, Extra Volume, Unilever; Johnson's
      Baby Shampoo/Softwash Baby Shampoo, Kissably Baby
      Soft, Johnson & Johnson

      --------- Dhs Regular Shampoo, Person & Covey; Free & Clear
      Shampoo, Pharmaceutical Specialities; Head & Shoulders
      Anti-Dandruff 2-in-1 Shampoo, Smooth & Silky,
      Procter & Gamble

      Conditioner

      Avon Kids Super Gentle Conditioner/Detangler, Avon; Dove
      conditioner, Intense Moisture, Unilever; Nizoral A-D Non-
      Medicated Daily Conditioner, Janssen Pharmaceutica

      --------- Advance Techniques Daily Results Conditioner, Avon;
      Dhs Conditioning Rinse, Person & Covey; Free & Clear
      Conditioner, Pharmaceutical Specialities

      Hair Gel

      Avon Kids Super Gentle 2-in-1 Soft Styling Gel, all hair
      types, Avon; Dove Shape & Lift Volumizing Gel, Unilever; Iso
      Multiplicity Discipline Smoothing Gel, Innovative Styling Options

      --------- Advance Techniques for Men Styling Gel, Avon; Clinique
      Light Control Styling Gel, Estee Lauder; Free & Clear
      Hair Spray, Firm Hold, Pharmaceutical Specialities

      Baby Wipes

      Huggies Natural Care Baby Wipes, Unscented, Kimberly-
      Clark; Huggies Newborn Baby Wipes, Fragrance Free,
      Kimberly-Clark; Pampers One-Ups! Baby Wipes, with Aloe,
      Alcohol Free, Procter & Gamble

      --------- Seventh Generation Unscented Baby Wipes with Aloe
      Vera & Vitamin E, Seventh Generation; Tushies Baby
      Wipes with Aloe Vera; Lansinoh Clean & Condition Cloths

      Vitamins

      Flintstones Children's Complete Multivitamin, Chewable
      Tablets, Bayer; Centrum Kids Complete Vitamins, Chewable
      Tablets, Wyeth; One-A-Day Kids Scooby-Doo! Multivitamin
      plus Calcium, Chewable Tablets, Bayer

      --------- L'il Critters Gummy Vites Kids Multivitamin, Northwest
      General Products; GNC Multiples Multibite Plus Minerals
      & Calcium Multivitamin For Kids, Chewable Orange
      Tablets; Poly-Vi-Sol Multivitamin Supplement Drops for
      Infants and Children, 0 to 3 Years, Mead Johnson


      REFERENCES

      1. Boyvat A, Akyol A, G├╝rgey E.
      Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey.
      Contact Dermatitis. 2005; 52(6): 333-337.

      2. Schnuch A, Geier J, Uter W, Frosch PJ.
      Patch testing with preservatives, antimicrobials and
      industrial biocides: Results from a multicentre study.
      Br J Dermatol. 1998; 138(3): 467-476.

      3. Pratt MD, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, et al.
      North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test
      results, 2001-2002 study period.
      Dermatitis. 2004; 15(4): 176-183.

      4. Shackelford KE, Belsito DV.
      The etiology of allergic-appearing foot dermatitis:
      a 5-year retrospective study.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 47(5): 715-721.

      5. Garrett MH, Hooper MA, Hooper BM, Rayment PR,
      Abramson MJ.
      Increased risk of allergy in children due to formaldehyde exposure
      in homes.
      Allergy. 1999; 54(4): 330-337.

      6. Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT,
      van Belle G, Daling JR, McKnight B.
      Aspartame ingestion and headaches: a randomized crossover trial.
      Neurology. 1994; 44(10): 1787-1793.

      7. Rumchev KB, Spickett JT, Bulsara MK, Phillips MR, Stick SM.
      Domestic exposure to formaldehyde significantly increases the risk
      of asthma in young children.
      Eur Respir J. 2002; 20(2): 403-408.

      8. Hill AM, Belsito DV.
      Systemic contact dermatitis of the eyelids caused by formaldehyde
      derived from aspartame?
      Contact Dermatitis. 2003; 49(5): 258-259.

      9. Rietschel RL, Fowler JF.
      Fisher's Contact Dermatitis, 4th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1995.
      ____________________________________________________

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      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1067
      eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill, DV
      Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 [ 150 KB ]

      [ Comments by Rich Murray are in square brackets. To increase the
      readability of the dense, specialized, condensed text of a brief scientific
      letter (usually not peer reviewed), I have added spacing without altering
      text, while correcting minor typos.

      I then offer some critical analyses and extensions of the references, since
      the relevant scientific literature is contaminated by long-term, systematic
      influence by corporate vested interests. ]

      "A 60-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 6-month history
      of eyelid dermatitis...

      By strictly avoiding formaldehyde and all formaldehyde releasers for
      the next 3 weeks, she improved only slightly.

      Her problem, however, was subsequently solved when
      a local pharmacist advised her to avoid aspartame.

      She had begun using an aspartame-based artificial sweetener 5 months
      prior to the onset of her dermatitis. [ 12 months of low-level aspartame
      use until stopping. ]

      Within 1 week of discontinuing the aspartame, her eyelid dermatitis
      resolved completely and has not recurred over 18 months without
      specific treatment....

      Our patient was consuming an average of 80 mg (1.13 mg/kg)
      of aspartame daily, well below the levels previously studied."

      [ A packet of tabletop sweetener gives 37 mg aspartame,
      while a 12 oz diet soda gives 200 mg aspartame. An aspartame reactor
      can have immediate strong symptoms from an under-the-tongue wafer
      with 4 mg aspartame.
      (Appendix A, for comments, abstracts, and links.) ]

      Contact Dermatitis. 2003 Nov; 49(5): 258-9.
      Systemic contact dermatitis of the eyelids caused by formaldehyde
      derived from aspartame?
      Hill AM, Belsito DV. DBelsito@...
      Division of Dermatology, University of Kansas Medical Center,
      3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.
      PMID: 14996049

      A. Michele Hill and Donald V. Belsito
      Division of Dermatology, University of Kansas Medical Center
      3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160, USA [ (Appendix B,
      for more abstracts by Donald V. Belsito, selections, and institutions) ]

      Key Words: allergic contact dermatitis; aspartame; eyelids;
      formaldehyde; systemic contact dermatitis.

      Formaldehyde is a common and ubiquitous contact allergen.
      Sources of exposure include hair and skin care products, cosmetics,
      topical medications, permanent press clothing, cleaning agents,
      disinfectants, paper and even smoke. [ Also, new buildings,
      mobile homes, furniture, carpets, drapes, particleboard,
      medical and mortuary facilities, methanol, aspartame,
      dimethyl dicarbonate, dark wines and liquors ]

      Sensitization is reported in between 2.2 and 9.6% of patients
      patch tested (1,2).
      [ (Appendix C, for abstracts on rates of formaldehyde sensitivity in
      control groups, as a possible first estimate of the impact of widespread
      exposure to aspartame since 1981.) ]

      Case Report

      A 60-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 6-month history
      of eyelid dermatitis.
      A corticosteroid-containing opthalmologic ointment improved
      but did not clear the rash.
      She failed to improve when she discontinued the use of all eyelid
      cosmetics and nail polishes for 2 months.
      She had had a facial dermatitis in 1995, for which she had been
      patch tested and found to be allergic to formaldehyde, quaternium-15
      and fragrances.
      She had also had incidental, non-relevant reactions to neomycin and
      ethylenediamine.
      Her dermatitis had resolved with a change to formaldehyde-,
      quaternium-15 and fragrance-free facial and nail cosmetics.

      There was no personal or family history of atopy or psoriasis.
      Her only oral medication was celecoxib that she had taken for
      years prior to the onset of her blepharitis.
      She had also taken multivitamins, calcium and flaxseed oil
      for many years.
      She worked as a homemaker and library volunteer. [ It is relevant as
      to whether she had the standard urban diet with high protein and animal
      fats, meats, milk products, some inorganic fruits and vegetables, high
      sugars, and processed foods. Mercury dental amalgams and mercury
      contaminated fish could also play a role. Was her water fluoridated or
      otherwise contaminated? Were there toxic mold exposures in her
      environment? Was she exposed to pesticides in her area? ]

      Her eyelid dermatitis was kept clear with tacrolimus
      0.03% ointment X2 daily.
      She underwent patch testing to the North American Contact
      Dermatitis Group standard tray, the University of Kansas' supplemental
      standard tray, and to her cosmetics, cleansers, skin and hair care
      products and topical medications.
      She had relevant positive reactions at days 2 and 4 to
      formaldehyde (++), quaternium-15 (++), diazolidinyl urea (+),
      DMDM hydantoin (+) and imidazolidinyl urea (++),
      her hair care products and cleansers containing multiple sources
      of these allergens.

      She was extensively instructed in avoidance of formaldehyde and
      formaldehyde releasers, as well as that of her multiple, currently
      non-relevant allergens, including fragrance, benzalkonium chloride,
      neomycin, bacitracin, p-phenylenediamine and black rubber mix.
      [ As a medical layman, I'm disturbed to see all these chemicals
      that I know nothing about. ]

      By strictly avoiding formaldehyde and all formaldehyde releasers for the
      next 3 weeks, she improved only slightly.

      Her problem, however, was subsequently solved when
      a local pharmacist advised her to avoid aspartame.

      She had begun using an aspartame-based artificial sweetener 5 months
      prior to the onset of her dermatitis. [ 12 months of low-level aspartame
      use until stopping. Aspartame reactors discover this possibility usually
      from the Net, alternative medicine providers, media, nurses, friends,
      and pharmacists, rarely from physicians. ]

      Within 1 week of discontinuing the aspartame, her eyelid dermatitis
      resolved completely and has not recurred over 18 months without
      specific treatment. [ This quick healing response is typical of cases
      of low-level use with few symptoms. Long-term heavy users,
      above 2 L, about 6 12-oz cans daily for years, often have severe
      craving and withdrawal symptoms for weeks, with gradual recovery
      for months. H. J. Roberts, MD has summarized over 1200 cases.
      (Appendix H) Three recent case reports are added here. (Appendix I) ]

      Unfortunately, she refused to undergo rechallenge with the sweetener.
      [ This is usually the case. Commonly, there is inadvertent reexposure,
      with immediate painful symptoms, even with low doses. ]

      Discussion

      The artificial sweetener, aspartame, is consumed by
      54% of adults in the USA (3).

      It has been reported to cause dry eyes and difficulty in wearing contact
      lenses (3) but never allergic contact dermatitis. [ Reference (3) is given
      in full here. (Appendix H) Roberts H J. Dry eyes from use of aspartame
      (Nutrasweet): Associated insights concerning the Sjogren syndrome.
      The Townsend Letter for Doctors, January 1994. Appendix H also
      quotes several cases of eyelid dermatitis from his review of 1200 cases
      in Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic (2001). ]

      Aspartame, an L-aspartyl-L-phynylalanine methyl ester, is hydrolysed
      in the intestine to phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%)
      and methyl ester (10%).

      The methyl ester is then converted to methyl alcohol (methanol)
      and carried by the portal vein to the liver.

      Methanol is there oxidized to formaldehyde that is converted into
      formic acid (formate) by alcohol dehydrogenase,
      aldehyde dehydrogenase and the microsomal oxidase pathway.

      This occurs not only in the liver, but also in other organs containing
      high levels of these enzymes, including the eye (4,5).

      Formaldehyde binds proteins and nucleic acids, forming adducts
      difficult to eliminate via metabolism.

      Trocho et al. (6) demonstrated the formation of formaldehyde adducts
      with DNA and proteins after administration of 20 mg/kg 14C-labelled
      aspartame to rats, concluding that these adducts were responsible for
      functional alterations of proteins and for DNA mutations leading to
      autoimmunity, cell death or malignant transformation.
      [ (Appendix E) gives links, comments, and quotes for the debate
      on the key Trocho study. ]

      In contrast to Trocho et al. (6), McMartin et al. (7) studied formaldehyde
      levels after large doses (3,000 mg/kg) of 14C-labelled methanol and
      14C-labelled formaldehyde in monkeys, which unlike rats
      are sensitive to the toxicities of methanol.

      No increased formaldehyde derived from methanol was found.

      High levels of formic acid were found in all monkeys that were given
      methanol or formaldehyde.

      [ (Appendix F) reviews the major studies. Oppermann et al (1973, 1976)
      found that 30% of the methanol from aspartame fed to monkeys remained in
      body tissues, indubitably as toxic products of formaldehyde and formic acid.
      They did not test methanol product retention in humans. McMartin et al
      (1979) reported significant formaldehyde retention in the midbrain of one
      monkey from oral aspartame, and substantial formic acid in liver, kidney,
      optic nerve, cerebrum, and midbrain in two other monkeys. It is clear that
      his formaldehyde assays were too insensitive to give valid measurements.
      There has been a dearth of relevant primate and human studies ever since. ]

      Based on the work of McMartin and al. (7), Tephly (8) concluded that the
      radioactive carbon from methanol, which was found in DNA and protein by
      Trocho et al., was due to the normal physiologic flow of single-carbon units
      through the folate pathway.

      Stegink et al. (9) have shown that doses of 100 mg/kg or greater of
      aspartame are required to increase methanol blood levels (and thus,
      presumable formaldehyde formic acid levels) above control.

      This would be equivalent to consuming 35 cans of diet beverage at one
      sitting for a 70 kg person. [ This is a typical aspartame industry PR ploy,
      well designed to plant the impression that only absurdly huge amounts of
      diet soda might supply damaging amounts of methanol-derived
      formaldehyde and formic acid toxic residuals in body tissues, thus
      reducing methanol blood levels. So, it is a classic red herring tactic
      to focus on methanol blood levels.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/910
      formaldehyde & formic acid from methanol in aspartame:
      Murray: 2002.12.09

      It is certain that high levels of aspartame use, above 2 liters daily
      for months and years, must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid
      toxicity, since 11% of aspartame (1,120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz
      cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the
      body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in
      molecules inside many fruits), then quickly transformed into
      formaldehyde, which in turn becomes formic acid, both of which in
      time are partially eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.

      However, about 30% of the methanol remains in the body as cumulative
      durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde and formic acid-- 37 mg daily,
      a gram every month. [Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
      Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
      J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.]
      If 10% of the methanol is retained as formaldehyde, that would give
      12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation, about 60 times more
      than the 0.2 mg from 10% retention of the 2 mg EPA daily alarm limit
      for formaldehyde in drinking water.

      Bear in mind that the EPA alarm limit for formaldehyde in drinking water
      is 1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

      [ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
      RTM: ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water
      July 1999 2002.05.30 ]

      This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical patterns
      of increasingly severe complex symptoms, starting with headache, fatigue,
      joint pain, irritability, memory loss, and leading to vision and eye
      problems,
      and even seizures. In many cases there is addiction. Probably there are
      immune system disorders, with a hypersensitivity to these toxins and other
      chemicals. (Appendixes D, E, F, G, H, I, J) ]

      Leon et al. (10) studied doses of 75 mg/kg of aspartame daily for 24
      weeks and found no change in blood or urine methanol levels and no
      symptoms of methanol toxicity.

      The dose used in Leon's study is 25 times the 90th percentile daily
      consumption of aspartame (11). [ Appendix E gives an abstract by
      Davoli (1986), using a properly sensitive assay, that proved a temporary
      rise in blood methanol levels in humans from a single aspartame dose.
      Trocho pointed out that formaldehyde adducts are persistent and thus
      cumulative. It is reasonable to state that with long-term chronic
      formaldehyde exposure, it may take a long time to both accumulate
      adducts and develop markedly increased sensitivity and a series of
      complex symptoms . Adequate studies would have to test substantial
      exposures over a year or longer with large numbers of vulnerable types
      of people and record all symptoms. ]

      Our patient was consuming an average of 80 mg (1.13 mg/kg) of
      aspartame daily, well below the levels previously studied.
      [ A packet of tabletop sweetener gives 37 mg aspartame,
      while a 12 oz diet soda gives 200 mg aspartame. An aspartame reactor
      can have immediate strong symptoms from an under-the-tongue wafer
      with 4 mg aspartame.
      (Appendix A, for comments, abstracts, and links.) ]

      However, it is possible that the eye, with its high level of metabolic
      activity, could be affected by methanol (and subsequently
      formaldehyde) released from these low levels of aspartame and
      respond as a localized target organ to minute amounts of her known
      allergen, formaldehyde, or its metabolite, formate.

      It is also possible that the amplifying effects of cell-mediated immunity
      might detect trace amounts of a chemical not identified by more standard
      assays, such as blood or urine levels. [ (Appendix D gives Thrasher's data
      about immune system reactions from long-term, low-level formaldehyde
      exposure, while Martin Pall gives a complex general theory, specifically
      discussing formaldehyde as a major trigger.)

      http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html full text
      Jack Dwayne Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison.
      Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans with long-term
      inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
      Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223.
      "Immune activation, autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HAS
      antibodies are associated with long-term formaldehyde inhalation."
      PMID: 2400243

      Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/909
      testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
      peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
      Martin L. Pall: Murray: 2002.12.09

      FASEB J 2002 Sep; 16(11): 1407-17.
      NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and
      organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple
      chemical sensitivity.
      Pall ML. PMID: 12205032 [ 162 references, received 1.3.2 ]
      School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University,
      Pullman, Washington 99164-4660, USA. martin_pall@... ]

      Such a hypothesis might explain why her dermatitis was limited to the
      eyelids and give clinical support to Trocho's theory of formaldehyde
      adducts.

      Unfortunately, without rechallenging her with aspartame,
      we cannot test this hypothesis.

      Nonetheless, her long-lasting remission following discontinuation of
      aspartame intake suggests that its breakdown to formaldehyde may have
      been a possible mechanism for her prior blepharitis.

      References

      1. Christophersen J, Menne' T, Tanghoj P, Andersen K E, Brandrup F.
      Clinical patch test data evaluated by multivariate analysis.
      Contact Dermatitis 1989: 21: 291-299.

      2. Fransway AF, Schmitz N A.
      The problem of preservation in the 1990s.
      II. Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing biocides: incidences of
      cross-reactivity and the significance of the positive response to
      formaldehyde.
      Am J Contact Dermat. 1991: 2: 78-88.

      3. Roberts H J. Dry eyes from use of aspatame (Nutrasweet):
      Associated insights concerning the Sjogren syndrome.
      The Townsend Letter for Doctors, January 1994.
      [ full text in Appendix H ]

      4. Murray T G, Burton T C, Rajani C, Lewandowski M F,
      Burke J M, Eells J T.
      Methanol poisoning: A rodent model with structural
      and functional evidence for retinal involvement.
      Arch Opthalmol 1991: 109: 1012-1016.

      5. Eells J T.
      Methanol-induced visual toxicity in the rat.
      J. Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991: 257: 56-63.

      6. Trocho C., Pardo R, Fafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar X,
      Fernandez-Lopez, J A.
      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue
      components in vivo.
      Life Sci 1998 1988: 63: 337-349.
      [ abstract and quotes in Appendix E )

      7. McMartin K E, Mrtin-Amat G, Noker P E, Tephly T R.
      Lack of a role for formaldehyde in methanol poisoning in the monkey.
      Biochem Pharmacol 1979: 28: 645-649.
      [ abstract, quotes, discussion, related studies in Appendix F ]

      8. Tephly T R: Comments on the purported generation of
      formaldehyde from the sweetener aspartame.
      Life Sci 1999: 65: 157-160. [ letter, usually not peer-reviewed,
      abstract in Appendix E ]

      9. Stegink L D, Brummel M C, McMartin-Amat G., Filer L J,
      Baker G L, Tephly T R.
      Blood methanol concentrations in normal adult subjects administered
      abuse doses of aspatame.
      J Toxicol Environ Health 1981: 7: 281-290.

      10. Leon A S, Hunninghake D B, Bell C, Rassin D K, Tephly T R.
      Safety of long-term large doses of aspartame.
      Arch Intern Med 1989: 149: 2318-2324.

      11. Tschanz C., Butachko H, Stargel W, Kotsonis F N (eds).
      The Clinical Evaluation of a Food Additive: Assessment of Aspartame
      Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1996.
      ____________________________________________________


      Appendix A:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/846
      aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
      AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
      J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
      Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 7.16.2 rmforall

      Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
      in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
      Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
      [ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
      while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
      Headache Institute,
      St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
      Department of Neurology newmanache@...
      Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
      Innovative Medical Research RLipton@...

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/855
      RTM: Blumenthall & Vance:
      aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997 2002.07.28

      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
      Chewing Gum Headaches.
      Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
      Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
      Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@...
      Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
      susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
      with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by
      chewing gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick
      chewing gum ]

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/782
      RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
      full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 1.17.2 rmforall

      Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt,
      and John G Gums
      Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following Discontinuation of Dietary
      Excitotoxins.
      The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702-706.
      Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
      BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder
      that is often difficult to treat effectively.
      CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia
      syndrome for two to 17 years are described.
      All had undergone multiple treatment modalities with limited success.
      All had complete, or nearly complete, resolution of their symptoms
      within months after eliminating monosodium glutamate (MSG)
      or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
      All patients were women with multiple comorbidities prior to
      elimination of MSG.
      All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.
      PMID: 11408989

      Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. siggy@...
      Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
      Shands Hospital West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629
      352-376-5071

      Several recent pro-aspartame reviews simply ignore these reports by
      eminent mainstream researchers, as well as the tidal surge of complaints
      by users.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 1.12.3 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame (2002.12.04):
      59 pages, 230 references

      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners.
      American Dietetic Association. PMID: 14760578

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
      critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004:
      Murray 2004.01.04

      "Survey of aspartame studies:
      correlation of outcome and funding sources," 1998, unpublished:
      http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.

      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
      identified a problem.

      Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA,
      which has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.

      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology,
      Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine,
      Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown, OH 44501
      Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane,
      P.O. Box 240 Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621
      rwalton193@...
      http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm ]
      ____________________________________________________


      Appendix B:

      D. V. Belsito has 71 items in PubMed since 1982.

      Donald (Don) V. Belsito, MD Professor,
      Division Director Dermatology
      +1 913 588-3840 fax +1 913 588-4060 DBelsito@...
      Main Phone Number: (913) 588-6028 Fax Number: (913) 588-8300
      Mailing Address: 4008 Wescoe Pavilion Mail Stop 2025
      3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160-7319 USA

      The University of Kansas Medical Center
      3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160
      913-588-5000, 913-588-7963 TDD KU Medical Center is a
      campus of the University of Kansas and is affiliated with
      The University of Kansas Hospital.
      The School of Medicine has a campus in Wichita.

      http://www.centerwatch.com/professional/pro503.html
      University of Kansas Medical Center Research Institute
      3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160-7702 USA
      Phone: 913-588-1242 Fax: 913-588-5729 lkemble@...

      The University of Kansas Medical Center comprises the
      School of Medicine, School of Allied Health, School of Nursing, and an
      independently run hospital with 415 staffed beds.
      KUMC is a regional health center treating approximately 35,000
      emergency room patients, 17,000 inpatients, and more
      than 180,000 outpatients per year.
      KUMC is a 35 building, 50 acre campus with a staff
      of nearly 5,000 employees.

      The University of Kansas Medical Center Research Institute is a private,
      non-profit corporation established to promote and support medical
      research.
      The Division of Clinical Trials at the Research Institute serves as the
      central liaison between the pharmaceutical industry, faculty investigators
      at KUMC, and the Institutional Review Board.
      The Division of Clinical Trials
      also assists the sponsor with identifying suitable clinical investigators.

      http://author.emedicine.com/DERM/topic549.htm
      Dermatologic Manifestations of Neurologic Disease
      Authored by Theresa Conologue, DO, Staff Physician,
      Department of Dermatology,
      National Capital Consortium/Walter Reed Army Medical Center
      Coauthored by Jeffrey Meffert, MD, Program Director,
      Dermatology Service,
      San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium.
      Theresa Conologue, DO, is a member of the following medical
      societies:
      Association of Military Surgeons of the US
      Edited by Donald Belsito, MD, Program Director,
      Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology,
      University of Kansas;
      Richard Vinson, MD, Chief, Department of Dermatology,
      William Beaumont Medical Center;
      Jeffrey P Callen, MD, Chief, Professor,
      Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Dermatology,
      University of Louisville School of Medicine;
      Catherine Quirk, MD, Clinical Assistant Professor,
      Department of Dermatology, Brown University;
      and Dirk M Elston, MD, Consulting Staff,
      Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center
      Author's Email: Theresa Conologue, DO
      Editor's Email: Donald Belsito, MD
      eMedicine Journal, March 19 2003, Volume 4, Number 3
      INTRODUCTION Section 2 of 12

      Many disorders have a combination of neurologic and dermatologic
      findings in patients. This chapter provides an overview of neurocutaneous
      disorders and organizes them into clinically relevant groupings of use
      to the practicing physician.

      http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/99/transcpt/3564t1.pdf
      Center for Drug Evaluation
      Dermatologic and Opthalmic Drugs Advisory Commitee
      Thursday, November 4, 1999
      Ballroom, Hilton Hotel, 620 Perry Parkway, Taithersburg Maryland
      Guest Speaker: Donald Belsito, M.M.
      6516 Aberdeen Road, Mission Hills, KS 66208

      http://www.simplywhispers.com/htdocs/html/Press%20Releases/bodypiercing.html
      Dr. Donald Belsito, professor of Dermatology at the
      University of Kansas in Lawrence and a member of the
      North American Contact Dermatitis Group, notes,

      "Nickel allergies are on the increase -- from 10.5 % cited in studies done
      from 1985 to 1989 to 14.3 % in studies done in 1996.

      More men are showing up with nickel allergies;
      coincidentally more men are having their bodies pierced.

      This indicates a possible correlation between piercing and
      allergies to nickel."

      In addition to setting off allergic reactions, Dr. Belsito, notes,
      "Piercing cartilage around the top of the ear poses greater
      risks than piercing the lobe.
      Cartilage is an inert material with very little blood supply
      and takes a long time to heal from the puncture.
      Also, when cartilage becomes infected, it is difficult to treat
      because of its low blood supply.

      "Also, the growth of overwhelming scars known as keloids
      can occur and the condition is particularly prevalent among
      African Americans," says Dr. Belsito, adding,
      "Keloids can grow to be as big as the ear itself. The cure
      requires administering medication that reduces the tendency
      to develop scars.
      If scars do develop, they need to be removed by a plastic surgeon.
      The risk, of course, is that people who tend to scar, may not fare well in
      surgery which can promote new scar tissue."
      When it comes to protecting the consumer, Dr. Belsito adds,
      "I think hypoallergenic is a bad term since it only tells you that the
      product is manufactured without an ingredient to
      which most people are allergic.
      But it doesn't tell you other possible allergy provoking ingredients.
      For example, some rubber gloves labeled hypoallergenic
      are made without certain chemicals. However, these gloves
      could be made of latex which is lethal to some people."

      Drs. Bendetsen, Scheinman and Belsito favor legislation governing
      body piercing due to the risk of nickel allergies, loss of sensation and
      communicable diseases resulting from poor sterilization procedures.
      To date, Arizona, California, Georgia, Michigan and Washington
      have passed legislation requiring parental consent for body piercing
      if you are a minor. Several states including Delaware, Missouri,
      Texas and Hawaii have legislation pending.

      D. V. Belsito has 9 additional items
      that include formaldehyde in PubMed:

      2. Ravis SM, Shaffer MP, Shaffer CL, Dehkhaghani S, Belsito DV.
      Glutaraldehyde-induced and formaldehyde-induced allergic contact
      dermatitis among dental hygienists and assistants.
      J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Aug; 134(8): 1072-8. PMID: 12956347

      3: Thompson TR, Belsito DV.
      Regional variation in prevalence and etiology of allergic contact
      dermatitis.
      Am J Contact Dermat. 2002 Dec; 13(4): 177-82. PMID: 12478532

      4: Rietschel RL, Mathias CG, Fowler JF Jr, Pratt M, Taylor JS,
      Sherertz EF, Marks JG Jr, Belsito DV, Storrs FJ, Maibach HI,
      Fransway AF, Deleo VA;
      North American Contact Dermatitis Group.
      Relationship of occupation to contact dermatitis: evaluation in patients
      tested from 1998 to 2000.
      Am J Contact Dermat. 2002 Dec; 13(4): 170-6. PMID: 12478531

      5: Deleo VA, Taylor SC, Belsito DV, Fowler JF Jr, Fransway AF,
      Maibach HI, Marks JG Jr, Mathias CG, Nethercott JR, Pratt MD,
      Reitschel RR, Sherertz EF, Storrs FJ, Taylor JS.
      The effect of race and ethnicity on patch test results.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Feb; 46(2 Suppl Understanding):
      S107-12. PMID: 11807472

      6: Suneja T, Belsito DV.
      Comparative study of Finn Chambers and T.R.U.E. test methodologies
      in detecting the relevant allergens inducing contact dermatitis.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Dec; 45(6): 836-9. PMID: 11712026

      7: Suneja T, Belsito DV.
      Thimerosal in the detection of clinically relevant allergic contact
      reactions.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Jul; 45(1): 23-7. PMID: 11423830

      8: Shaffer MP, Belsito DV.
      Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde in health-care workers.
      Contact Dermatitis. 2000 Sep; 43(3): 150-6. Review. PMID: 10985631

      9: Marks JG, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF Jr, Fransway AF,
      Maibach HI, Mathias CG, Nethercott JR, Rietschel RL, Sherertz EF,
      Storrs FJ, Taylor JS.
      North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results for the
      detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity to topical allergens.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Jun; 38(6 Pt 1): 911-8. PMID: 9631997

      10: Fowler JF Jr, Skinner SM, Belsito DV.
      Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde resins in permanent press
      clothing: an underdiagnosed cause of generalized dermatitis.
      J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992 Dec; 27(6 Pt 1): 962-8. PMID: 1479102
      ____________________________________________________


      Appendix C:

      "Sensitization is reported in between 2.2 and 9.6% of patients
      patch tested (1,2)."

      Widespread use of aspartame since 1981 must cause some of the
      formaldehyde sensitization found in many studies of control groups,
      so I offer a relevant abstract, which is the only data I know of that
      starts to assess the prevalence of aspartame disease in otherwise
      healthy people:

      "One (2 percent) control subject had a reaction to glutaraldehyde,
      and one other (2 percent) had a reaction to formaldehyde."
      "51 nondental professionals "

      Aspartame use must sensitize some users. This study's control group
      hints that about 2% of a control group of 51 professionals showed a
      sensitivity to formaldehyde in a skin patch test.
      Are there any data for nonusers of aspartame?

      J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Aug; 134(8): 1072-8.
      Glutaraldehyde-induced and formaldehyde-induced allergic contact
      dermatitis among dental hygienists and assistants.
      Ravis SM, Shaffer MP, Shaffer CL, Dehkhaghani S, Belsito DV.
      University of Miami, USA.

      BACKGROUND:
      Research has found that among health care workers, dental
      personnel are especially likely to have reactions to glutaraldehyde and
      formaldehyde.
      METHODS:
      The authors conducted patch test evaluations with a voluntary
      cohort of randomly recruited, healthy dental hygienists, or DHs,
      and dental assistants, or DAs, and nondental professionals
      to determine the incidence of glutaraldehyde-induced and
      formaldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis, or ACD;
      the potential for coreactivity between glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde;
      and the correlation between training methods in safe handling of
      sterilizing solutions and the sensitivity to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde
      among DHs and DAs.
      RESULTS:
      The researchers enrolled 101 DHs and DAs and 51 nondental
      professionals in the study.
      All except one DH/DA subject were female.
      The dental subjects' mean age was
      34.3 +/- standard deviation of 10.7 years;
      the nondental subjects', 33.8 +/- 11.0 years.
      DHs and DAs had worked in their profession
      for a mean of 11.0 +/- 9.3 years.
      Among the dental professionals,
      80 (79.2 percent) had had a known exposure
      to cold sterilizing solutions,
      while the remainder were unable to provide a known history of exposure.

      Eleven (10.9 percent) dental professionals had clear reactions to
      glutaraldehyde,
      four (4.0 percent) were questionably allergic to glutaraldehyde, and
      two (2 percent) were definitively allergic to formaldehyde.
      One (2 percent) control subject had a reaction to glutaraldehyde, and
      one other (2 percent) had a reaction to formaldehyde.
      CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL: IMPLICATIONS:
      The authors found a statistically significant disparity in the rates of
      glutaraldehyde sensitivity among healthy DHs and DAs
      versus healthy control subjects
      (10.9 percent versus 2 percent reactively; P = .02).
      They found no evidence of cross-reactivity between glutaraldehyde and
      formaldehyde.
      The preponderance of reactions among the DHs and DAs suggests
      that their present safety practices are largely ineffective in protecting
      against sensitization to glutaraldehyde in sterilizing solutions. PMID:
      12956347
      ____________________________________________________


      two detailed critiques of industry affiliations and biased science in 99
      page review with 415 references by BA Magnuson, GA Burdock
      and 8 more, Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2007 Sept.: Mark D
      Gold 13 page: also Rich Murray 2007.09.15: 2008.03.24

      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Monday, March 24, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1531
      ____________________________________________________


      "Nearly every section of the Magnuson (2007) review has research
      that is misrepresented
      and/or crucial pieces of information are left out.

      In addition to the misrepresentation of the research,
      readers (including medical professionals) are often not told that
      this review was funded by the aspartame manufacturer, Ajinomoto,
      and the reviewers had enormous conflicts of interest."


      [ See also:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1453
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent
      USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies
      2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [ $ 32 pdf ]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.htm
      Saturday, September 15, 2007 ]

      "Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority, to enjoy
      peace, joy, and love by helping to find, quickly share, and positively
      act upon evidence about healthy and safe food, drink, and
      environment."

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      http://RMForAll.blogspot.com new primary archive

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
      group with 120 members, 1,532 posts in a public archive

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages
      group with 1,085 members, 22,467 posts in a public archive

      Hawaii Senate Health Committee will consider resolution SCR191
      by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, and 10 other of 25 Senators,
      to have FDA ban aspartame
      and for National Academy of Sciences to review research:
      Murray 2008.03.14
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Friday, March 14, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1527

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1525
      House Concurrent Resolution #132 for Health Department panel
      to decide aspartame ban by early 2010,
      Hawaii Rep. Josh Green MD, Health Committee Chair:
      Murray 2008.03.12
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, March 12, 2008
      ____________________________________________________


      Note: many recent aspartame bans.....

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1426
      ASDA (unit of Wal-Mart Stores WMT.N) and Marks & Spencer
      will join Tesco and also Sainsbury to ban and limit aspartame,
      MSG, artificial flavors dyes preservatives additives, trans fats, salt
      "nasties" to protect kids from ADHD: leading UK media:
      Murray 2007.05.15

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1451
      Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose) and coloring agents
      will be banned from use in newly-born and baby foods,
      the European Parliament decided: Latvia ban in schools 2006:
      Murray 2007.07.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1341
      Connecticut bans artificial sweeteners in schools, Nancy Barnes,
      New Milford Times: Murray 2006.05.25

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1369
      Bristol, Connecticut, schools join state program to limit artificial
      sweeteners, sugar, fats for 8800 students, Johnny J Burnham,
      The Bristol Press: Murray 2006.09.22


      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [ $ 32 pdf ]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.htm
      Saturday, September 15, 2007

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1491
      industry scientists praise aspartame safety and benefits in Paris on
      2006.05.30, Herve Nordmann, Andrew G. Renwick,
      Carlo La Vecchia, Tommy Visscher, Jaap Seidell, France Bellisle,
      Adam Drewnowski, Margaret Ashwell, Anne de la Hunty,
      Sigrid A. Gibson, Alan R. Boobis: Murray 2007.11.18

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1070
      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
      2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      http://www.eatright.org/Nutritive(1).pdf
      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
      critique of aspartame review
      by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
      Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14



      http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/262
      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon,
      UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

      http://www.dorway.com/enclosur.html
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/53
      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp.,
      got aspartame FDA approval: Turner: Murray 2002.12.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1483
      Donald Rumsfeld CEO 1977-85 G.D. Searle & Co., got new
      President Reagan to prohibit FDA opposition to aspartame
      1981.01.25, history by lawyer James S. Turner:
      Murray 2007.10.29

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100 %) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91 %)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern
      Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry,
      Youngstown, OH 44501,
      Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240
      Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...
      http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1395
      Aspartame Controversy, in Wikipedia democratic
      encyclopedia, 72 references (including AspartameNM # 864
      and 1173 by Murray, brief fair summary of much more research:
      Murray 2007.01.01


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1513
      metabolic syndrome is tied to diet soda, PL Lutsey, LM Steffen,
      J Stevens, Circulation 2008.01.22: role of formaldehyde and
      formic acid from methanol in wines, liquors, or aspartame?:
      Murray 2008.02.21

      "But the one-third who ate the most fried food increased their risk
      by 25 percent, compared with the one-third who ate the least, and
      surprisingly, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome was 34
      percent higher among those who drank one can of diet soda a day
      compared with those who drank none.

      "This is interesting," said Lyn M. Steffen, an associate professor of
      epidemiology at the University of Minnesota and a co-author of the
      paper, which was posted online in the journal Circulation on Jan. 22.
      "Why is it happening? Is it some kind of chemical in the diet soda,
      or something about the behavior of diet soda drinkers?""

      "The diet soda association was not hypothesized
      and deserves further study."


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1143
      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition:
      Bouchard M et al, full plain text, 2001:
      substantial sources are degradation
      of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
      Murray 2005.04.02


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1511
      vinyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, or aspartame in womb increases later
      cancers in adults with lifetime exposure in many studies, M Soffritti
      et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Basic Clin. Pharm. Toxicol. 2008 Feb.:
      Rich Murray 2008.02.07

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity:
      Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec 2002:
      Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the
      gastrointestinal tract to become free methyl alcohol,
      which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
      Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994;
      Assessing risks of low-level methanol exposure.
      CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1453
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent
      USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies
      2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

      30 female pet store rats drinking lifelong 13.5 mg aspartame,
      1/3 packet of Equal, had 33% with obvious tumors -- also bulging,
      sick, and missing eyes, paralysis, obesity, skin sores -- agrees with
      Ramazzini Foundation results, Victoria Inness-Brown:
      Murray 2008.02.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Friday, February 15, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1521


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1490
      details on 6 epidemiological studies since 2004 on diet soda (mainly
      aspartame) correlations, as well as 14 other mainstream studies
      on aspartame toxicity since summer 2005: Murray 2007.11.27

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1340
      aspartame groups and books:
      updated research review of 2004.07.16: Murray 2006.05.11


      old tiger roars -- Woodrow C Monte, PhD -- aspartame causes
      many breast cancers, as ADH enzyme in breasts makes methanol
      from diet soda into carcinogenic formaldehyde -- same in dark
      wines and liquors, Fitness Life 2008 Jan.: Murray 2008.02.11
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Monday, February 11, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1517

      "Alcohol dehydrogenase ADH is required for the conversion of
      methanol to formaldehyde (112).

      ADH is not a common enzyme in the human body -- not many cells
      in the human body contain this enzyme.

      The human breast is one of the few organs in the body with a high
      concentration of ADH (190b), and it is found there exclusively in the
      mammary epithelial cells, the very cells known to transform into
      adenocarcinoma (190c) (breast cancer).

      The most recent breast cancer scientific literature implicates ADH
      as perhaps having a pivotal role in the formation of breast cancer,
      indicating a greater incidence of the disease in those
      with higher levels of ADH activity in their breasts (190a)."

      role of formaldehyde, made by body from methanol from foods
      and aspartame, in steep increases in fetal alcohol syndrome, autism,
      multiple sclerosis, lupus, teen suicide, breast cancer, Nutrition
      Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, retired, Arizona State U., two reviews,
      190 references supplied, Fitness Life, New Zealand
      2007 Nov, Dec: Murray 2007.12.26
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_12_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, December 26 2007
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1498


      Since no adequate data has ever been published on the
      exact disposition of toxic metabolites in specific tissues in humans
      of the 11 % methanol component of aspartame,
      the many studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol
      impurity in alcohol drinks are the main available resource to date.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1469
      highly toxic formaldehyde, the cause of alcohol hangovers, is
      made by the body from 100 mg doses of methanol from
      dark wines and liquors, dimethyl dicarbonate, and aspartame:
      Murray 2007.08.31

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
      DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
      ( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
      2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

      http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out96_en.pdf

      "...DMDC was evaluated by the SCF in 1990 and considered acceptable for
      the cold sterilization of soft drinks and fruit juices at levels of
      addition up to 250 mg/L (1)
      ...DMDC decomposes primarily to CO2 and methanol ...

      [ Note: Sterilization of bacteria and fungi is a toxic process,
      probably due to the inevitable conversion in the body of methanol
      into highly toxic formaldehyde and then formic acid. ]

      The use of 200 mg DMDC per liter would add 98 mg/L of methanol to wine which
      already contains an average of about 140 mg/L from natural sources.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1286
      methanol products (formaldehyde and formic acid) are main cause of
      alcohol hangover symptoms [same as from similar amounts of methanol, the
      11% part of aspartame]: YS Woo et al, 2005 Dec: Murray 2006.01.20

      Addict Biol. 2005 Dec;10(4): 351-5.
      Concentration changes of methanol in blood samples during
      an experimentally induced alcohol hangover state.
      Woo YS, Yoon SJ, Lee HK, Lee CU, Chae JH, Lee CT, Kim DJ.
      Chuncheon National Hospital, Department of Psychiatry,
      The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
      http://www.cuk.ac.kr/eng/ sysop@...
      Songsin Campus: 02-740-9714 Songsim Campus: 02-2164-4116
      Songeui Campus: 02-2164-4114
      http://www.cuk.ac.kr/eng/sub055.htm eight hospitals

      [ Han-Kyu Lee ]

      A hangover is characterized by the unpleasant physical and mental
      symptoms that occur between 8 and 16 hours after drinking alcohol.

      After inducing experimental hangover in normal individuals,
      we measured the methanol concentration prior to
      and after alcohol consumption
      and we assessed the association between the hangover condition
      and the blood methanol level.

      A total of 18 normal adult males participated in this study.

      They did not have any previous histories of psychiatric
      or medical disorders.

      The blood ethanol concentration prior to the alcohol intake
      (2.26+/-2.08) was not significantly different from that
      13 hours after the alcohol consumption (3.12+/-2.38).

      However, the difference of methanol concentration
      between the day of experiment (prior to the alcohol intake)
      and the next day (13 hours after the alcohol intake)
      was significant (2.62+/-1.33/l vs. 3.88+/-2.10/l, respectively).

      A significant positive correlation was observed
      between the changes of blood methanol concentration
      and hangover subjective scale score increment when covarying
      for the changes of blood ethanol level (r=0.498, p<0.05).

      This result suggests the possible correlation of methanol
      as well as its toxic metabolite to hangover. PMID: 16318957

      [ The toxic metabolite of methanol is formaldehyde, which in turn
      partially becomes formic acid -- both potent cumulative toxins
      that are the actual cause of the toxicity of methanol.]

      This study by Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover
      from red wine with 100 to 150 mg methanol
      (9.5 % w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol, 0.01 %).
      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol --
      1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).

      Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
      Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
      Jones AW. wayne.jones@...
      Department of Forensic Toxicology,
      University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden.

      This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
      volunteers.
      Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
      consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine
      (9.5 % w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol)
      the previous evening. [ 100 to 150 mg methanol ]
      The washout of methanol from the body
      coincided with the onset of hangover.
      The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were
      determined indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
      In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped
      below the Km of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
      of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM),
      the disappearance half-life of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min.
      in 4 test subjects respectively.
      The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol
      were 213, 110, 133 and 142 min. in these same individuals.
      The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used
      to obtain useful data on elimination kinetics of methanol
      in human volunteers without undue ethical limitations.
      Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol
      or its toxic metabolic products, formaldehyde and formic acid,
      with the pathogenesis of hangover. PMID: 3588516

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1047
      Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
      Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
      Murray 2004.01.16

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1048
      hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
      Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18


      Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese
      demonstrated the incorporation of FA and its metabolites
      into the placenta and fetus.
      The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
      at 48 hours was 26.9 % of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

      Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
      Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
      Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@...
      Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
      www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_embryo_toxicity.html full text

      http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html full text
      Jack Dwayne Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison.
      Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans
      with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
      Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223.
      "Immune activation, autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies
      are associated with long-term formaldehyde inhalation."
      PMID: 2400243



      formaldehyde in FEMA trailers and other sources (aspartame,
      dark wines and liquors, tobacco smoke): Murray 2008.01.30
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, January 30, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1508

      The FEMA trailers give about the same amount of formaldehyde
      daily as from a quart of dark wine or liquor, or two quarts
      (6 12-oz cans) of aspartame diet soda, from their over 1 tenth gram
      methanol impurity (one part in 10,000),
      which the body quickly makes into formaldehyde -- enough
      to be the major cause of "morning after" alcohol hangovers.

      Methanol and formaldehyde also result from many fruits and
      vegetables, tobacco and wood smoke, heater and vehicle exhaust,
      household chemicals and cleaners, cosmetics, and new cars, drapes,
      carpets, furniture, particleboard, mobile homes, buildings, leather ...
      so all these sources add up and interact
      with many other toxic chemicals.

      BN Ames and LS Gold, 1998, have presented detailed information
      that there is no increase in recent decades for most cancers,
      and that common carcinogens do not result in significant exposures
      to the average human population.

      However, individuals are not average -- each person has a unique genetic
      makeup, resulting in a huge range of variation of vulnerability to
      specific chemicals, as is well evidenced in the case of methanol,
      formaldehyde, and formic acid, especially with regard
      to behavioral effects.

      Each is subject to very wide ranges of exposure levels.

      Many are in especially vulnerable groups, depending on diet, obesity,
      sex, exercise, life stress, age from conception to very old, unusually
      severe toxic exposures, injuries, and diseases.

      It is clear that a variety of multiple chemical sensitivity syndromes do
      exist, often with remarkable hypersensitivity.

      Methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid toxicity are unusual, in that
      humans are far more vulnerable than any other mammal, as much as ten
      to sixty-fold, which complicates the utility of animal data.

      The unusally long human life span also increases the role of long-term
      chronic low-level exposure.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1455
      FEMA slow to safety test Katrina toxic trailers, Charles Babington,
      Associated Press -- 1 ppm formaldehyde in air is about half the daily
      dose from 3 cans aspartame diet soda and ten times the 1999 EPA
      alarm level for drinking water: Murray 2007.07.23



      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1277
      50% UK baby food is now organic - aspartame or MSG
      with food dyes harm nerve cells, CV Howard 3 year study
      funded by Lizzy Vann, CEO, Organix Brands,
      Children's Food Advisory Service: Murray 2006.01.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1271
      combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and
      brilliant blue, harms nerve cells, eminent
      C. Vyvyan Howard et al, 2005 education.guardian.co.uk,
      Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1373
      aspartame rat brain toxicity re cytochrome P450 enzymes,
      especially CYP2E1, Vences-Mejia A, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ et al,
      2006 Aug, Hum Exp Toxicol: relevant abstracts re formaldehyde
      from methanol in alcohol drinks: Murray 2006.09.29


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1463
      Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain,
      Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naude H, U. Pretoria, South Africa,
      Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8: Murray 2007.08.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1452
      phen<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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