Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

two detailed critiques of industry affiliations and biased science in 99 page review with 415 references by BA Magnuson, GA Burdock and 8 more, Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2007 Sept.: Mark D Gold 13 page: also Rich Murray 2007.09.15: 2008.03.23

Expand Messages
  • Rich Murray
    two detailed critiques of industry affiliations and biased science in 99 page review with 415 references by BA Magnuson, GA Burdock and 8 more, Critical
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 24 12:21 AM
    • 0 Attachment
      two detailed critiques of industry affiliations and biased science in 99
      page review with 415 references by BA Magnuson, GA Burdock and 8 more,
      Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2007 Sept.: Mark D Gold 13 page: also Rich
      Murray 2007.09.15: 2008.03.24

      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Monday, March 24, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1531
      _____________________________________________________


      "Nearly every section of the Magnuson (2007) review has research
      that is misrepresented
      and/or crucial pieces of information are left out.

      In addition to the misrepresentation of the research,
      readers (including medical professionals) are often not told that
      this review was funded by the aspartame manufacturer, Ajinomoto,
      and the reviewers had enormous conflicts of interest."


      [ See also:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [ $ 32 pdf ]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.htm
      Saturday, September 15, 2007 ]

      "Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority, to enjoy
      peace, joy, and love by helping to find, quickly share, and positively
      act upon evidence about healthy and safe food, drink, and
      environment."

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      http://RMForAll.blogspot.com new primary archive

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
      group with 120 members, 1,531 posts in a public archive

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages
      group with 1,085 members, 22,467 posts in a public archive

      Hawaii Senate Health Committee will consider resolution SCR191
      by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, and 10 other of 25 Senators,
      to have FDA ban aspartame
      and for National Academy of Sciences to review research:
      Murray 2008.03.14
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Friday, March 14, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1527

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1525
      House Concurrent Resolution #132 for Health Department panel
      to decide aspartame ban by early 2010,
      Hawaii Rep. Josh Green MD, Health Committee Chair:
      Murray 2008.03.12
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, March 12, 2008
      _____________________________________________________


      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/burdock/

      Bernadene A. Magnuson,
      George A. Burdock,
      J. Doull,
      Robert M. Kroes,
      Gary M. Marsh,
      Michael W. Pariza,
      Peter S. Spencer,
      William J. Waddell,
      Ronald Walker,
      Gary Murray Williams.
      "Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels,
      Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies,"
      Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 37(8), 629-727, 2007 Sept

      www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a781888262&fulltext=713240928
      $ 32

      bmagnuso@...;info@...;gburdock@...;
      jdoull@...;gmarsh@...;mwpariza@...;spencer@...;
      bwaddell@...;R.Walker@...;preston.julian@...;
      David.Kirkland@...;gary_williams@...;

      Critical Reviews of Toxicology, Editor and Editorial Board:

      roger.o.mcclellan@...; archtox@...; bolt@...;
      pgrand@...; pgrandjean@...;
      guengerich@...; Bernard.Schwetz@...;
      OHRP@...; s.tsuda@...; pward@...;
      hengstler@...; miller.tom@...; iaqinfo@...;
      shallal.suhair@...;


      Aspartame and Manufacturer-Funded Scientific Reviews

      In 2007, a review of aspartame entitled,
      "Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Levels,
      Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies"
      was published in the scientific journal, "Critical Reviews in
      Toxiology" (Magnuson 2007).

      Shortly after the publication,
      a flurry of press releases proclaimed:

      "A new review of aspartame research -- the most
      comprehensive ever conducted -- once again has concluded
      the widely used sugar substitute is safe,
      even among its heaviest users."

      and

      "International Scientists Conclude Sweetener Is Safe
      Across Population Groups."

      What these press releases did not tell readers is that
      this review was funded by the aspartame manufacturer,
      the authors had serious conflicts of interests,
      and in page after page after page of the review,
      research was misrepresented and
      important research and information was omitted from the review.

      This analysis is intended to help readers understand how
      manufactures pay for and get published reviews
      that put their toxic products in a positive light.

      A. Conflicts of Interest

      The review was funded by Ajinomoto of Japan.
      Ajinomoto along with Monsanto have been the world's biggest
      producers and sellers of aspartame.

      The authors of the review had numerous, obvious conflicts of
      interests as described below.

      Yet this information was apparently not disclosed to the journal
      it was published in.

      The parent company of the journal stated in a press release that,
      "There were no known conflicts of interest with the sponsor
      or potential biases of the authors" (Informa 2007).

      Gary M. Williams was the
      Chairman of the American Health Foundation (AHF)
      which was funded in part by The NutraSweet Compan
      and other companies selling aspartame-containing products
      (Williams 1987).

      AHF Board of Directors have included representatives of
      PepsiCo and the National Soft Drink Association (CSPI 2003).

      The AHF received more than $163,000 in grants from
      Philip Morris. "Regarding an AHF press kit prepared by the
      PR firm, Ruder and Finn,

      William Ruder writes to Philip Morris: 'please note that we have
      handled it so that there is not one single mention of the problem
      of smoking and health.'" (CSPI 2003, Ruder 1975).

      In 1987, the American Health Foundation (AHF) convened a
      conference, Sweeteners: Health Effects, where an AHF
      representative concluded that aspartame
      and other sweeteners were safe:

      "It is clear from the perspective of potential cancer risk that the
      sweeteners described in some detail in this report are safe and
      wholesome, and perhaps more so, than sugar. As we noted,
      it is our hope that this workshop will be the basis for international
      recognition of this fact, so that medical research effects can be
      directed effectively to areas more relevant
      to health maintenance." (Weisburger 1987)

      Two of the authors, Robert Kroes and Gary M. Williams joined
      with Ian C. Munro, the president of the
      Cantox Health Sciences International corporate advocacy group,
      to work with Monsanto to review its herbicide, glyphosate
      (Williams 2000).

      The work of these authors, directly with Monsanto, was not
      disclosed in this aspartame review.

      Cantox (now known as Intrinsik) specializes
      "in assisting clients in their efforts to develop, gain regulatory
      approval and market products nationally or internationally."
      Cantox is famous as a corporate advocacy group for
      whitewashing the dangers of Agent Orange,
      another toxic product created by Monsanto (Dominion 2007).

      In 2002, the president of Cantox, Ian C. Munro (see above),
      worked directly with NutraSweet company employees and
      consultants on an aspartame review where he stated:

      "After 30 plus years of rigorous scientific research, it is time to
      put questions of aspartame safety to rest. ... The continuing
      debate over such a 'nonissue' only serves to divert attention
      and the allocation of resources from more important
      health issues that need to be addressed." (Butchko 2002).

      Bernadene Magnuson, the lead author of this review was also the
      Senior Scientific and Regulatory Consultant for
      Cantox Health Sciences International, a corporate advocacy
      group mentioned above (UT 2008).

      The president of Cantox had already called aspartame toxicity a
      "nonissue," yet the lead author of this review worked for Cantox!

      Bernadene Magnuson became a member of the corporate
      advocacy group, The Burdock Group in 2005. (Nutra 2005).

      The Burdock Group offers its clients
      "technically rigorous, comprehensive safety and regulatory
      management of their products. .... The Burdock Group offers
      the highest quality consulting services for the safety and regulatory
      issues facing the Food and Beverage, Dietary Supplement,
      Cosmetics/ Personal Care and Pet Food Industries.
      Together, we form a cohesive team that offers single-source
      solutions for your business's safety assessment
      and regulatory needs." (Burdock 2008).

      This author's work for pro-aspartame advocacy group,
      Cantox and corporate advocacy group, Burdock Group
      was not disclosed in this aspartame review.

      Gary Marsh has had researched funded by the
      Formaldehyde Institute, a trade association consisting of
      Monsanto, Dupont and other chemical companies
      (CSPI 2008a, Tataryn 1983).

      The Formaldehyde Institute raised money for research in an
      attempt to portray formaldehyde exposure in a good light.

      Since independent published research has shown that aspartame
      ingestion leads to formaldehyde accumulation in the brain,
      kidneys, liver and other organs and tissues (Trocho 1998),
      Gary Marsh's research for the Formaldehyde Institute
      is a serious conflict of interest.

      This author's funding from the Monsanto-supported
      Formaldehyde Institute was not disclosed in this
      aspartame review.

      Michael Pariza was a scientific advisor to the industry-funded
      advocacy group, "American Council on Science & Health"
      (ACSH) (CSPI 2008a).

      According to an article in the Washington Post:

      "In 1982, the American Council on Science and Health ( ACSH )
      filed a friend-of-the-court brief in a Formaldehyde Institute
      lawsuit that overturned a federal ban on formaldehyde insulation.
      .... At least a third of ACSH 's funding comes from such
      companies as Allied Corp., Coca-Cola, the
      National Soft Drink Association, Colgate-Palmolive Co.,
      Dow Chemical Canada, du Pont, Eli Lilly, Exxon, General Mills,
      General Foods Fund, Gulf Oil, Hershey Foods,
      Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg's, Monsanto Fund,
      Mobil Foundation, M&M/Mars, Pillsbury Foundation,
      Procter & Gamble, Pfizer, Shell Oil, Upjohn
      and Velsicol Chemical." (Kurtz 1984).

      Michael Pariza is also a member of the Board of Trustees of the
      International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a chemical and food
      company research association funded by Ajinomoto, Monsanto,
      Coca Cola, PepsiCo, Nestle, and many other food and chemical
      companies involved in the production, use and sale of aspartame
      (Nutrition 2003, CSPI 2008b, ILSI 2005).

      This author's official positions within industry associations funded
      by Ajinomoto and Monsanto were not disclosed
      in this aspartame review.

      Ronald Walker spent seven (7) years as the ILSI's Chairman of
      their Scientific Committee on Toxicology/Food Safety in Europe
      (Walker 2001). As mentioned above, ILSI is funded by
      Monsanto, Ajinomoto, Coca Cola, Pepsi Cola, etc.

      He was a consultant for DSM Nutritional Products, a company
      that sold "Twinsweet" from Holland Sweetener Company
      which is a mixture of aspartame and acesulfame-k.

      The DSM web site contained aspartame advocacy articles
      written by Holland Sweetener Company
      (Walker 2007, DSM 2008).

      He was a consultant Numico Beheer BV / Danone Group,
      a company that had a joint venture with Ajinomoto
      (the sponsor of this review) (Walker 2007, Asia 2007).

      He is a paid consultant to the corporate public relations group,
      the European Food Information Council with corporate members
      that include Coca Cola, PepsiCo, Danone, Nestle, etc.
      (Walker 2007, EUFIC 2008).

      Finally, he was a paid consultant for
      Cantox Health Sciences International (Walker 2005).

      Ronald Walker wrote a glowing review of another Ajinomoto
      product, monosodium glutamate (MSG) for a symposium funded
      by an Ajinomoto managed trade group,
      International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC)
      (Walker 2000, Ishii 2003).

      He has participated in another aspartame review where he
      claimed that aspartame was safe (SCF 2002).

      This author's funding from companies selling aspartame,
      official positions with associations who are supported by
      aspartame manufacturers and marketers
      as well as his past positions defending aspartame
      was not disclosed in this aspartame review.

      John Doull was a paid consultant of Monsanto,
      a member of the Monsanto-funded ACSH Advisory Board,
      and a Trustee of the Monsanto- and Ajinomoto-funded corporate
      research association, ILSI (Tobacco 1993, CSPI 2008).

      This author's consultancy with Monsanto and official positional
      within Monsanto- and Ajinomoto- funded associations
      was not disclosed in this aspartame review.

      A reader might ask, "Is it possible for there to be an unbiased
      review of aspartame, made by Ajinomoto and Monsanto,
      where the review is funded by Ajinomoto,
      authors have done paid work for Monsanto,
      several authors have offical positions in trade
      and research associations funded by Monsanto,
      Ajinomoto, Coca Cola, PepsiCo, etc.,
      several authors work for corporate advocacy groups,
      one of which called aspartame toxicity a 'nonissue,'
      and one author who consults for companies that sell aspartame
      and in the past has said that aspartame is safe?"

      I think a reasonable answer might be,
      "No! Are you kidding me?!"


      B. Misrepresenting the Research

      It is extremely common for "Reviews" funded by manufacturers
      of unhealthy or toxic products to misrepresent the research so as
      to promote their products amongst medical professionals.

      However, it is becoming more common for manufacturers and
      trade associations to use corporate advocacy groups to
      hand-pick researchers to misrepresent the research for them.

      Not only do these reviews contribute to continued exposure
      of the general public to toxic products like aspartame, but some
      medical professionals, who do not have the time to check all
      references for accuracy, are duped into thinking
      a toxic product is safe.

      This section is intended to use examples from this aspartame
      review to demonstrate how medical professionals can be misled
      when research is misrepresented
      and key research and information is omitted.


      B.1. Formaldehyde Poisoning From Aspartame

      An independent study in Europe demonstrated that aspartame
      ingestion at relatively small levels lead to the accumulation of
      formaldehyde adducts (bound to protein) in the liver, kidneys,
      brain, and other organs and tissues (Trocho 1997).

      This published, peer-reviewed, independent study was not even
      mentioned in this review!

      One of the techniques for misrepresenting research
      is to avoid mentioning the research altogether!

      Some of the side effects of chronic formaldehyde poisoning
      include:

      - Irreversible genetic damage from long-term, low-level exposure
      (Shaham 1996)
      - Headaches, fatigue, chest tightness (Main 1983)
      - Sleeping problems, burning skin, fatigue, chest pain, dizziness
      (Liu 1991)
      - Headaches, fatigue, IgE-mediated sensitization (Wantke 1996)
      - Musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms
      (Srivastava 1992)
      - Headaches, tiredness (Olsen 1982)
      - Headaches, dizziness, nausea, lack of concentration ability
      (Burdach 1980)
      - Cytogenic effects of blood lymphocytes (Suruda 1993)
      - Fertility (adverse effects) (Taskinen 1999)
      - Cognitive adverse effects (Kilburn 2000)
      - Seizures and neurobehavioral impairment (Kilburn 1994)
      - Headaches, skin problems (Proietti 2002)
      - Low birth weight (Maroziene 2002)
      - Neurobehavioral symptoms (Kilburn 1985)
      - Memory problems, equilibrium and dexterity impairment.
      (Kilburn 1987)

      Methanol is quickly absorbed from aspartame ingestion
      (Davoli 1986).

      Methanol is converted into formaldehyde in the body
      (Kavet 1990).

      Some of the formaldehyde is converted into formic acid
      and eliminated by the body (Kavet 1990).

      However, Trocho (1998) demonstrated that aspartame ingestion
      at low levels by rodents: 20 mg/kg body weight (acute dose)
      or 200 mg/kg body weight (chronic dose), leads to formaldehyde
      accumulation in the liver, brain, kidneys
      and other parts of the body.

      The formaldehyde was bound as "adducts" to proteins and DNA.

      Research in humans demonstrates that adduct formation
      can occur from formaldehyde exposure (Carraro 1997, 1999).

      Another way the reviewers can convince medical professionals
      that chronic formaldehyde poisoning from aspartame is not a
      problem is to convince them that the methanol obtained from
      aspartame (and then converted into formaldehyde in the body)
      does not increase methanol levels in the blood plasma.

      Table 25 on page 692 of the Magnuson (2007) review purports
      to show several studies where plasma methanol levels did not rise
      except for when very large doses of aspartame were ingested
      (Stegink 1981, Stegink 1983, Stegink 1989).

      What they don't tell you, but what can be seen by reading the
      research is that these industry-sponsored studies used an
      extremely old methanol measuring technique from 1969
      (Baker 1969) that would not be able to see any
      plasma methanol increases until it went up by 500 - 600% !

      Relatively small amounts of aspartame can cause a doubling of
      plasma methanol levels (Davoli 1986).

      Legitimate researchers use plasma methanol measuring techniques
      that are not worthless
      (e.g., d'Alessandro 1994, Osterloh 1996, Cook 1991).

      The fact that the Magnuson (2007) reviewers did not mention
      any of these issues proves
      that they are either not familiar with the research
      or would knowingly keep crucial information from readers.

      Another way for the reviewers to convince readers that the
      methanol from aspartame converting into formaldehyde and
      accumulating is not a problem is to compare the methanol levels
      in aspartame to that in fruits and other products.

      The reviewers state: "Similarly, Butchko and Kotsonis (1991)
      estimated that tomato juice provides about six times as much
      methanol as an equivalent volume of an aspartame-sweetened
      beverage. .... In conclusion, the amount of methanol contributed
      to the diet from aspartame-containing products consumption
      is likely to be less than that from natural sources."

      This argument put forth by the reviewers was largely addressed
      in an independent review in 1984 by Dr. Woodrow Monte
      entitled, "Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health"
      (Monte 1984).

      The manufacturer was concerned enough about the debunking
      of their argument related to aspartame, methanol and fruit
      that they wrote a Letter to the Editor in 1985 attempting to
      address Dr. Monte's arguments (Sturtevant 1985).

      However, these reviewers avoided citing Dr. Monte's review
      and even the manufacturer's response from 1985.

      Dr. Monte pointed out that there are "protective factors" in
      traditionally-ingested foods/drinks that contain methanol.

      For example, wine has high levels of methanol,
      but it also has high levels of ethanol.

      The ethanol blocks the conversion of methanol into
      formaldehyde so that the methanol can safely be eliminated
      in the urine and breath (Leaf 1952, Liesivuori 1991, Roe 1982).

      Fruits also have protective factors to prevent the conversion
      of methanol into formaldehyde as detailed by Dr. Monte and as
      detailed in my heavily-referenced article entitled,
      "Scientific Abuse in Methanol / Formaldehyde Research Related
      to Aspartame," available at:
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html

      By not mentioning independent, published research that is well
      known to the manufacturer, which debunks some of the
      manufacturer's arguments related to aspartame, methanol and
      formaldehyde, these reviewers once again show either their bias
      and/or lack of knowledge of the scientific literature
      as it relates to aspartame.

      The reviewers recite numerous other arguments put forth in the
      past by the manufacturer.

      All of these arguments have been addressed in detail in the
      scientific literature and on the following web page:
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html


      B.2. Aspartame and Seizures

      Section 6.9.2.4 of the Magnuson (2007) review entitled,
      "Effect of Aspartame on Seizures" on page 696 cited two
      industry-funded, double-blind studies
      (Shaywitz 1994, Rowan 1995).

      The way these studies are presented, the reader gets the sense
      that a large amount of aspartame will not cause seizures,
      even in persons who are predisposed to seizures.

      What they didn't tell the readers is that nearly all of the subjects
      in these two aspartame industry-sponsored studies were taking
      anti-seizure medication during the study!

      It is obvious that anti-seizure medication
      can help prevent seizures.

      But the Magnuson (2007) reviewers presented these studies
      as if they had relevence to the overwhelming majority of people
      who do not take anti-seizure medication.

      Either they didn't read the studies they're reviewing
      or they knowingly left crucial information out of their review.

      In addition, the reviewers left out information that the aspartame
      used in these studies are, according to industry consultants,
      not "bioequivalent" to aspartame taken in real-world products
      (Stegink 1987a).

      The aspartame was given in slow-dissolving capsules.
      Giving aspartame in slow-dissolving capsules tremendously
      reduces the biochemical changes that normally occur
      from real-world aspartame ingestion.

      The methanol absorption is slowed tremendously,
      allowing the body to eliminate more of it before it is
      transformed into formaldehyde.

      The absorption of the excitotoxic amino acid is slowed
      so that the liver can prevent the sudden spike in plasma levels of
      this amino acid normally seen
      when aspartame is ingested in liquids (Stegink 1987a, 1987b).

      Finally, the reviewers showed no concern that these industry
      studies were one day (Rowan 1995)
      and two weeks long (Shaywitz 1994).

      Roberts (1988) looked at 551 cases
      of reported aspartame toxicity.

      He showed that reactions to aspartame appeared anywhere
      from immediately to more than one (1) year after initial use began.

      Keeping the studies short helped guarantee that
      there would be few, if any, adverse reactions.

      According to a NutraSweet Company representative,
      the two week Shaywitz (1994) study was to be
      conducted on 20 subjects (Kotsonis 1987),
      yet only 10 subjects were described in the publication.

      The reviewers did not question what happened
      to the other 10 subjects.


      B.3. Aspartame and Vulnerable Populations

      On page 695 the reviewers state:

      "Concerns exist that the only studies done that show no effect of
      aspartame are those which use healthy adults and people used to
      high intakes of aspartame such as diabetics and people on
      weight-loss regimes (Tsakiris et al., 2006).

      However, the effect of acute high-dose aspartame was also
      evaluated in a double- blinded study of 18 patients with
      Parkinson's disease, as this was considered a susceptible target
      population for adverse effects (Karstaedt and Pincus, 1993)."

      Here again, industry-sponsored studies on aspartame tend to be
      very short, especially in susceptible population groups.

      This study on Parkinson's patients was less than one day long!

      The study purported to test whether the
      increase in plasma phenylalanine levels effects other measurable
      health-related parameters.

      However, since they gave the aspartame in slow-dissolving
      capsules, there was only a relatively small increase in
      plasma phenylalanine levels.

      Do these reviewers actually think that one day studies for testing
      a chronic poison on a vulnerable population is appropriate?

      Apparently so, because they had absolutely no criticism of this
      and other similar industry-sponsored studies.


      B.4. Aspartame and Medium-Term Research

      The Magnuson (2007) review described an industry-sponsored
      study by Leon (1989) where aspartame or placebo
      was given to healthy adults for 24 weeks:

      "The results indicated no differences between groups
      in body weight, vital signs blood lipid levels, urinalysis results
      or incidence of complaints...."

      What the reviewers didn't mention is that there were
      approximately 50% more adverse reactions
      in the aspartame group than in the placebo group.

      However, the researchers split the reactions in 14 smaller
      subcategories and they could then claim that within each tiny
      subcategory, there was no "statistically significant" increase
      in aspartame reactions.


      B.5. Aspartame and Migraines / Headaches

      When the Magnuson (2007) reviewers discuss aspartame and
      headaches, they were critical of two relatively long, independent
      studies linking aspartame use to headaches or migraines
      (Koehler 1988, Van Den Eeden 1994),
      but had not a single criticism on an aspartame industry-sponsored
      study that found no link between aspartame and headaches
      (Schiffman 1987).

      Again, these reviewers had not one criticism of the
      industry-sponsored Schiffman (1987) study,
      even though it was only one day long.

      The Koehler (1988) study was four weeks long
      and the Van Den Eeden (1994) study was 14 days long.

      The reviewers also neglected to point out that in the
      Schiffman (1987) study, 77.5% of the subjects taking the placebo
      experienced adverse reactions during the one-day period!

      45% of the subjects taking the placebo experienced headaches.

      This is a ridiculously high percentage of subjects reporting
      adverse reactions to "placebo" in a single day.

      The number of participants used in this study was
      "sufficient to ensure that a difference of 33% in the incidence
      rates of headache" between the aspartame and placebo
      control groups would be seen as statistically significant.

      This means that if less than 78% (45% + 33%) of the persons
      taking aspartame reported headache reactions,
      it would not be considered statistically significant.

      Magnuson (2007) did not even mention the critique of the
      Schiffman (1987) study by the Editor of the journal, Headache
      (Edmeads, 1988), nor did they mention other published criticisms:

      "Unfortunately, their experimental design was flawed
      in such a way that their negative results in no way support
      their conclusion that 'aspartame is no more likely to produce
      headache than placebo.'" (Elsas 1988)

      "We believe that the study of Schiffman et al had
      some serious flaws and did not reflect the realities of migraine
      due to dietary factors." .... "Persons susceptible to migraine
      and other vascular headaches should continue to be warned of
      the possible aggravating role of aspartame." (Steinmetzer 1988)


      B.6. Aspartame and Aspartic Acid

      On page 691 of the Magnuson (2007) review, they state:

      "...there have been no observed adverse effects of large doses
      of aspartic acid in studies with humans
      (see reviews: Meldrum, 1993; Institute of Medicine, 2005)
      or nonhuman primates (Reynolds et al., 1976, 1980)."

      What they don't say is:

      1) there have been no long-term studies on human subjects
      given free-form (unbound-to-protein) aspartic acid;

      2) the concerns related to acute effects of aspartic acid
      involve potential irreversible damage to parts of the brain
      of infants and young children who are exposed
      to high levels of free-form aspartic acid from aspartame.

      These effects have been seen in infant and young animals.

      3) Industry studies claiming no effect of excitotoxins
      such as aspartic acid on non-human primates gave
      brain-protected drugs to the animals
      and used a recroped picture from an
      earlier and different study to claim no effects (Olney 1993).

      As described by Dr. John W. Olney:

      "In addition, the 2nd report by Reynolds, Filer and
      colleagues (Stegink 1975), admitted for the first time that their
      monkeys were maintained under Sernylan (phencyclidine)
      anesthesia throughout the 6 hr experiment.

      Failure to divulge in their 1st report that their animals were
      anesthetized with phencyclidine is a particularly critical
      omission, since the use of phencyclidine thoroughly invalidates
      the entire study in the eyes of any knowledgable neuroscientist.

      Phencyclidine is one of the most potent antagonists of
      glutamate receptors known
      (Wang 1990, Olney 1990, Olney 1986).

      Administration of phencyclidine or its various analogs, such as
      MK-801, totally prevents glutamate (even very high doses of
      glutamate) from damaging the hypothalamus (Wang 1990).

      Not only does the use of phencyclidine totally invalidate the
      primate non-susceptibility claims of Reynolds et al.,
      their deliberate representation that 'No unusual behavior
      was exhibited by the infants' when they clearly were aware
      that their infant monkeys had actually been drugged and
      anesthetized, raises additional grave questions." ....

      "In 1976, Reynolds et al attempted to convince the world
      definitively that glutamate is non- toxic for the infant primate by
      publishing a 3rd report (Reynolds 1976), in which new evidence
      is presented on an additional species of monkey
      (fascicularis, a species not documented in their first 2 reports).

      This report is illustrated with a brain section from a 7 day old
      fascicularis monkey that ingested glutamate 5 hrs earlier
      (Appendix, Exhibit # 2).

      Incredibly, the brain section used to illustrate the new finding is
      the same brain section used in their second report (Stegink 1975)
      to illustrate lack of brain damage in a 1 day old rhesus monkey
      dosed with glutamate 6 hrs earlier ( Appendix, Exhibit #2).

      These illustrations are obviously spurious for two reasons:

      1) They cannot possibly constitute evidence from two separate
      monkeys or two separate species because they are
      one and the same photograph which has merely been cropped
      differently during photographic printing;

      2) Regardless how this photograph is cropped, it does
      not authentically document lack of glutamate toxicity
      because it is selected from the caudal level of the hypothalamus
      which lies outside the zone that
      is subject to damage by orally administered glutamate.

      When Dr. Reynolds published this spurious photograph
      in her 3rd paper (Reynolds 1976), she had very good reason
      to know that it was from the wrong region of the brain,
      because not only had I instructed her colleague and co-author on
      this matter in 1972, but I met with Dr. Reynolds herself in 1975
      and briefed her very carefully and pointedly on both the science
      and the ethics of this matter.
      This briefing was one year prior to the publication of her 3rd
      spuriously documented report."


      C. Conclusion

      Nearly every section of the Magnuson (2007) review has research
      that is misrepresented
      and/or crucial pieces of information are left out.

      In addition to the misrepresentation of the research,
      readers (including medical professionals) are often not told that
      this review was funded by the aspartame manufacturer, Ajinomoto,
      and the reviewers had enormous conflicts of interest.


      D. References

      Asia Food Journal 2007.
      "Groupe Danone Buys Out Its Parners in Japanese
      Joint Venture Calpis Ajinomoto,"
      Asia Food Journal, February 5, 2007.
      Available at:
      http://www.asiafoodjournal.com/article-3913-groupedanonebuysoutitspartnersinjapanesejointventure
      calpisajinomoto-Asia.html
      or
      http://tinyurl.com/37ztug

      Baker, R.N., A.L. Alenty, J.F. Zack, 1969.
      "Simultaneous Determination of
      Lower Alcohols, Acetone and Acetaldehyde in Blood
      by Gas Chromatography,"
      Journal of Chromatographic Science,
      Volume 7, pages 312-314.

      Burdach, S., K. Wechselberg, 1980.
      "Damages to health in schools. Complaints caused by the use
      of formaldehyde-emitting materials in school buildings,"
      Fortschritte Med,
      Volume 98, Number 11, pages 379-384.

      Burdock Group web site accessed February 24, 2008. Available at:
      http://www.burdockgroup.com/about_us.php

      Butchko, Harriett H., Frank N. Kotsonis 1991.
      "Acceptable Daily Intake vs Actual Intake:
      The Aspartame Example,"
      Journal of the American College of Nutrition,
      Volume 10, No. 3, page 258-266.

      Butchko, Harriett H., et al., 2002.
      "Aspartame: Review of Safety,"
      Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology,
      Volume 35, Pages S1-S93.

      Carraro, E., S. Gasparini, T. Petrini, P. Oitana, G. Gilli, 1997.
      "Immune response prevalence to formaldehyde-human serum
      albumin molecular adduct in a healthy population,"
      Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and
      Oncology, Volume 16, Number 2-3, pages 215-218.

      Carraro, E., S. Gasparini, G. Gilli, 1999.
      "Identification of a chemical marker of
      environmental exposure to formaldehyde,"
      Environmental Research,
      Volume 80, Number 2 Pt 1, pages 132-137.

      Cook, M.R., F.J. Bergman, et al., 1991.
      "Effects of Methanol Vapor on Human
      Neurobehavioral Measures,"
      Research Report No. 42 (Peer Reviewed),
      Health Effects Institute, 141 Portland Street, Suite 7300,
      Cambridge, MA 02139, (617) 621-0266, August 1991.

      CSPI 2003.
      "Professional Associations, Charities, and Industry Front Group,"
      Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available at:
      http://www.cspinet.org/new/pdf/lift_the_veil_guts_fnl.pdf.

      CSPI 2008a. Center for Science in the Public Interest:
      Integrity in Science Conflict in Interest Database available at:
      http://www.cspinet.org/cgi-bin/integrity.cgi
      Accessed February 24, 2008.

      CSPI 2008b. Center for Science in the Public Interest:
      Non Profit Organizations. with Ties to Industry available at:
      http://www.cspinet.org/integrity/corp_funding.html
      Accessed February 24, 2008.

      d'Alessandro, Alessandra, et al., 1994,
      "Formate in Serum and Urine after Controlled Methanol
      Exposure at the Threshold Limit Value,"
      Environmental Health Perspectives,
      Volume 102, No. 2, February, 1994, page 178-181.

      Davoli, E., et al., 1986.
      "Serum Methanol Concentrations in Rats and in Men
      After a Single Dose of Aspartame,"
      Food and Chemical Toxicology,
      Volume 24, No. 3, page 187-189.

      Domion News 2007.
      "Whitewashing Agent Orange," Available at:
      http://www.dominionpaper.ca/articles/1306

      DSM 2008.
      "Twinsweet for Inspiration," DSM web site. Available at
      http://www.dsm.com/en_US/html/about/twinsweet.htm

      Edmeads, J., 1988.
      "Aspartame and Headache,"
      Headache, Volume 28, Number 1, pages 64-65.

      Elsas, L.J., 1988. "Aspartame and Headache" (letter),
      New England Journal of Medicine,
      Volume 318, page 1201.

      EUFIC 2008.
      "About EUFIC," European Food Information Council web site
      available at: http://www.eufic.org/page/en/page/ONEUFIC/
      Accessed February 24, 2008.

      ILSI 2005.
      "North American Branch of the International Life Sciences
      Institute, 2005 Annual Report," Page 20. Available at:
      http://tinyurl.com/34agdp

      Informa 2007.
      "New Study of Aspartame Research Reaffirms Safety,
      Even Among Heaviest Users,"
      PRNewswire, September 11, 2007. Available at:
      http://sev.prnewswire.com/food-beverages/
      20070911/NETU03111092007-1.html

      Institute of Medicine 2005.
      "Protein and Amino Acids,"
      In Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber,
      Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids,
      National Academies Press, Wash. DC,
      Pages 701-703 and 727-728.

      Ishii, Hiroyuki 2003.
      Hiroyuki Ishii as CEO of the
      International Glutamate Technical Committee:
      http://www.anbio.org.br/codex/al26_41e.pdf (Page 115)
      and
      http://www.criirad.org/actualites/dossiers2005/
      menacesradioactivesaliments/codexespagnol.pdf
      (Page 64).
      Hiroyuki Ishii as Director,
      Scientific Affairs of Ajinomoto and representing
      the International Glutamate Technical Committee:
      http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/005/X1791E/x1791e0n.htm
      and
      http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/005/x1791s/x1791s0q.htm

      Karstaedt, Patricia, Jonathan Pincus, 1993.
      "Aspartame Use in Parkinson's Disease,"
      Neurology, Volume 43, pages 611-613.

      Kavet, Robert, Kathleen M. Nauss, 1990.
      "The Toxicity of Inhaled Methanol Vapors,"
      Critical Reviews in Toxicology,
      Volume 21, Issue 1, page 21-50.

      Kilburn, K.H., R. Warshaw, J.C. Thornton, 1987.
      "Formaldehyde impairs memory, equilibrium, and dexterity
      in histology technicians:
      effects which persist for days after exposure,"
      Archives of Environmental Health,
      Volume 42, Number 2, pages 117-120.

      Kilburn, K.H., 1994.
      "Neurobehavioral impairment and seizures from formaldehyde,"
      Archives of Environmental Health,
      Volume 49, Number 1, pages 37-44.

      Kilburn, K.H., 2000.
      "Indoor air effects after building renovation and in
      manufactured homes,"
      American Journal of Medical Science,
      Volume 320, Number 4, pages 249-254.

      Koehler, SM, A. Glaros, 1988.
      "The Effect of Aspartame on Migraine Headache,"
      Headache, Volume 28, page 10-14.

      Kotsonis, FN., 1987.
      "Discussion: Reproduction and Neurobiology"
      in "Sweeteners: Health Effects,"
      edited by Gary M. Williams, M.D.,
      Princeton Scientific Publishing, c1988, Pages 182.

      Kurtz, Howard 1984.
      "American Council on Science and Health Brief in
      Formaldehyde Suit Financed by Chemical Manufacturer,"
      Washington Post, June 3, 1984. Available at:
      http://www.mindfully.org/Industry/
      ACSH-Formaldehyde-Suit3jun84.htm

      Leaf, G., L.J. Zatman 1952,
      "A Study of the conditions Under Which Methanol
      May Exert a Toxic Hazard in Industry,"
      British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Volume 9, page 19- 31.

      Leon, A.S., D.B. Hunninghake, C. Bell,
      D.K. Rassin, T. Tephly, 1989.
      "Safety of Long-term Doses of Aspartame,"
      Archives of Internal Medicine, Volume 149, pages 2318-2324.

      Liesivuori, Jyrki, Heikki Savolainen, 1991.
      "Methanol and Formic Acid Toxicity:
      Biochemical Mechanisms,"
      Pharmacology & Toxicology, Volume 69, page 157-163.

      Liu, Kai-Shen, et al., 1993.
      "Irritant Effects of Formaldehyde Exposure in Mobile Homes,"
      Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 94, page 91-94.

      Magnuson, Bernadene A., G.A. Burdock, J. Doull,
      R.M. Kroes, G.M. Marsh, M.W. Pariza, P.S. Spencer,
      W.J. Waddell, R. Walker, G.M. Williams, 2007.
      "Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use
      Levels, Regulations,
      and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies,"
      Critical Reviews in Toxicology,
      Volume 37, Number 8, Pages 629-727.

      Main, D.M., T.J. Hogan, 1983.
      "Health Effect of Low-Level Exposure to Formaldehyde,"
      Journal of Occupational Medicine, Volume 25, page 896-900.

      Maroziene, L., R. Grazuleviciene, 2002.
      "Maternal exposure to low-level air pollution
      and pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study,"
      Environmental Health, Volume 1, Number 1, page 6+.

      Meldrum, B., 1993.
      "Amino Acids as Dietary Excitotoxins: A Contribution to
      Understanding Neurodegenerative Disorders,"
      Brain Research Reviews, Volume 18, Pages 293-314.

      Monte, Woodrow C., 1984.
      "Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Health,"
      Journal of Applied Nutrition, Volume 36, No. 1, page 42-54.

      Nutrition Today 2003.
      "New Members of ILSI North America Board of Trustees,"
      Volume 38, Number 2, Page 70, 2003. Available at:
      http://www.nursingcenter.com/library/
      JournalArticle.asp?Article_ID=473618


      Olney, John W., et al., 1986.
      "The Anti-Excitotoxic Effects of Certain
      Anesthetics, Analgesics and Sedative-Hypnotics,"
      Neuroscience Letters, Volume 68, page 29-34.

      Olney, John W., 1990.
      "Excitotoxic Amino Acids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders,"
      in "Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology,"
      Volume 30,
      R. George, AK Cho and TF Blaschke (Eds),
      Annual Rev Inc., Palo Alto, CA, c1990, page 47-71.

      Olney, John W., 1993.
      "Prepared Statement for the Public Meeting (April 1993)
      Pertaining to Adverse Reactions
      to Monosodium Glutamate (MSG),"
      Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
      (FASEB) review of MSG.

      Olsen, J.H., M. Dossing, 1982.
      "Formaldehyde induced symptoms in day care centers,"
      American Industrial Hygeine Association Journal,
      Volume 43, Number 5, pages 366-370.

      Osterloh, John D., A. d'Alessandro, P. Chuwers,
      H. Mogadeddi, T. Kelly, 1996.
      "Serum Concentrations of Methanol After Inhalation of 200 ppm,"
      Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine,
      Volume 38, Issue 6, pages 571-576.

      Nutra 2005. "Burdock Group: People in the News,"
      Nutraceuticals World, July 2005. Available at:
      http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb223/is_200507/ai_n15063553

      Proietti, L., P.B. Sandona, B. Longo,
      S. Gulino, D. Duscio, 2002.
      "Occupational exposure to formaldehyde at a service of
      pathologic anatomy,"
      Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro ed Ergonomia,
      Volume 24, Number 1, pages 32-34.

      Reynolds, W. Ann, et al., 1976.
      "Hypothalamic Morphology Following Ingestion
      of Aspartame or MSG in the Neonatal Rodent and Primate:
      A Preliminary Report,"
      Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
      Volume 2, page 471-480.

      Reynolds, W. Ann, Lewis D. Stegink, L.J. Filer, Jr., et al., 1980.
      "Aspartame Administration to the Infant Monkey:
      Hypothalamic Morphology and Plasma Amino Acid Levels,"
      Anatomic Record, Volume 198, page 73-85.

      Roberts, H.J., 1988.
      "Reactions Attributed to Aspartame-Containing Products:
      551 Cases,"
      Journal of Applied Nutrition, Volume 40, page 85-94.

      Roe, O., 1982.
      "Species Differences in Methanol Poisoning,"
      CRC Critical Reviews In Toxicology,
      October 1982, page 275-286.

      Rowan, A. James, Bennett A. Shaywitz, et al., 1995.
      "Aspartame and Seizure Susceptibility:
      Results of a Clinical Study in Reportedly Sensitive
      Individuals,"
      Epilepsia, Volume 36, No. 3, page 270-275.

      Ruber, William 1975.
      Letter from William Ruder of Ruder & Finn, Inc. to
      James C. Bowling of Philip Morris Incorporated
      on June 19, 1975, available at:
      http://www.pmdocs.com/PDF/2015013901_0.PDF

      SCF 2002.
      European Commission Scientific Committee on Food,
      Document # CS/ADD/EDUL/222 Final,
      10 December 2002, Available at:
      http://www.foodstandards.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/aspartameopinion.pdf
      or
      http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out155_en.pdf
      with SCF Members available at:
      http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out101_en.pdf

      Schiffman, Susan S., et al., 1987.
      "Aspartame and Susceptibility to Headache,"
      New England Journal of Medicine,
      Volume 317, No. 19, pages 1181-1185.

      Shaham, J., Y. Bomstein, A. Meltzer, Z. Kaufman,
      E. Palma, J. Ribak, 1996.
      "DNA-protein Crosslinks, a Biomarker of Exposure
      to Formaldehyde -- In vitro and in vivo Studies,"
      Carcinogenesis, Volume 17, No. 1, page 121-125.

      Shaywitz, B.A., et al., 1994,
      "Aspartame Has No Effect on Seizures or
      Epileptiform Discharges in Epileptic Children,"
      Annuals of Neurology, Volume 35, page 98-103.

      Srivastava, A.K., et al., 1992.
      Clinical studies of employees in a
      sheet-forming process at a paper mill,"
      Veterinary and Human Toxicology,
      Volume 34, No. 6, page 525-527.

      Stegink, Lewis D., W. Ann Reynolds, L.J. Filer, Jr., et al., 1975.
      "Monosodium Glutamate Metabolism in the Neonatal Monkey,"
      American Journal of Physiology,
      Volume 229, No. 1, page 246-250.

      Stegink, Lewis D., et al., 1981.
      "Blood Methanol Concentrations in Normal
      Adult Subject Administered Abuse Doses of Aspartame,"
      Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
      Volume 7, page 281-290.

      Stegink, Lewis D., L. Filer, G.L. Baker, 1983.
      "Blood Methanol Concentrations in One-Year-Old Infants
      Administered Graded Doses of Aspartame,"
      Journal of Nutrition, Volume 113, page 1600-1606.

      Stegink, Lewis D., et al. 1987a.
      "Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in Normal Adults
      Administered Aspartame in Capsules or Solution:
      Lack of Bioequivalence,"
      Metabolism, Volume 36, No. 5, page 507-512.

      Stegink, Lewis D., et al., 1987b.
      "Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in Normal Adults
      Ingesting Aspartame and Monosodium L-Glutamate
      as Part of a Soup/Beverage Meal,"
      Metabolism, Volume 36, No. 11, page 1073-1079.

      Stegink, Lewis D., et al., 1989.
      "Effect of Repeated Ingestion of Aspartame-Sweetened
      Beverage on Plasma Amino Acid, Blood Methanol,
      and Blood Formate Concentrations in Normal Adults,"
      Metabolism, Volume 38, No. 4, page 357-363.

      Steinmetzer, R.V., R.S. Kunkel, 1988.
      "Aspartame and Headache" (letter),
      New England Journal of Medicine,
      Volume 318, page 1201.

      Sturtevant, F., 1985.
      "Does Aspartame Cause Methanol Toxicity"
      (Letter To The Editor),
      Food and Chemical Toxicology,
      Volume 23, No. 10, page 961.

      Suruda, A., et al., 1993.
      "Cytogenic effects of formaldehyde exposure in
      students of mortuary science,"
      Cancer Epidemiology and Biomarkers,"
      Volume 2, Number 5, pages 453-460.

      Taskinen, H.K., et al., 1999.
      "Reduced fertility among female wood workers
      exposed to formaldehyde,"
      American Journal of Industrial Medicine,
      Volume 36, Number 1, pages 206-212.

      Tataryn, Lloyd, 1983.
      "Formaldehyde on Trial: The Politics of Health in a
      Chemical Society,"
      Lorimar Publishing, ISBN: 0888626525. Page 20.
      Available at: http://tinyurl.com/32mbr6

      Tobacco 1993.
      "Curriculum Vitae, John Doull, Ph.D., M.D.,"
      Tobacco Documents Online,
      from "A Safety Assessment of Ingredients
      Added to Tobacco in the Manufacture of Cigarettes,"
      Page 4. Available at:
      http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/91835933-6014.html?zoom=750&ocr_position=above_foramatted&start_page=11
      or
      http://tinyurl.com/2ralbw

      Trocho, C., et al., 1998. "Formaldehyde Derived From Dietary Aspartame Vinds
      to Tissue Components in vivo," Life Sciences, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 337+.

      Tsakiris, S., et al., 2006.
      "The Effect of Aspartame Metabolites on Human
      Erythrocyte Membrane Acetylcholinesterase Activity,"
      Pharmacological Research, Volume 51, Pages 1-5.

      UT 2008.
      Department of Nutritional Sciences,
      University of Toronto web page
      for Bernadene A. Magnuson. Available at:
      http://www.utoronto.ca/nutrisci/faculty/Magnuson/

      Van Den Eeden, S.K., et al., 1994.
      "Aspartame Ingestion and Headaches:
      A Randomized Crossover Trial,"
      Neurology, Volume 44, pages 1787-1793.

      Walker, R., J. R. Lupien, 2000.
      "The Safety Evaluation of Monosodium Glutamate,"
      Journal of Nutrition, Volume 130, pages 1049S-1052S.

      Walker 2001.
      "Short CV," Ronald Walker, Ph.D., Available at:
      http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/cv/cv_walker_en.pdf

      Walker 2005.
      "European Food Safety Authority Annual Declaration
      of Member's Interests," Available at:
      http://ia341005.us.archive.org/1/items/RonaldWalker2005EfsaDeclarationOfInterests/afcwg-doi2005-walker1.pdf
      or
      http://tinyurl.com/38vycg

      Walker 2007.
      "European Food Safety Authority Annual Declaration
      of Member's Interests," Available at:
      http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/DOI_WG/afc_wg_doi2007_walker,0.pdf

      Wang, G.J., et al., 1990. "Extreme Sensitivity of Infant Animals to
      Glutamate Toxicity: Role of NMDA Receptors,"
      Neuroscience Abstracts, Volume 16, page 198.

      Wantke, F., C.M. Demmer, P. Tappler,
      M. Gotz, R. Jarisch, 1996.
      "Exposure to Gaseous Formaldehyde Induces IgE-Mediated
      Sensitization To Formaldehyde in School-Children,"
      Clinical and Experimental Allergy, Volume 26, pages 276-280.

      Weisburger, John H., 1987.
      "Carcinogenesis Bioassays of Natural and Artificial Sweeteners,"
      Proceedings of an International Conference Sponsored
      by the Environmental Health and Safety Council,
      American Health Foundation
      in "Sweeteners: Health Effects,"
      edited by Gary M. Williams, M.D.,
      Princeton Scientific Publishing, c1988, Pages 193-224.

      Williams, Gary M.,
      Proceedings of an International Conference Sponsored by
      the Environmental Health and Safety Council,
      American Health Foundation
      in "Sweeteners: Health Effects,"
      edited by Gary M. Williams, M.D.,
      Princeton Scientific Publishing, c1988

      Williams, Gary M., Robert Kroes, Ian C. Munro, 2000.
      "Safety Evaluation and Risk Assessment of the Herbicide
      Roundup and Its Active Ingredient,
      Glyphosate, for Humans,"
      Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology,
      Volume 31(2), Pages 117, 165.
      _____________________________________________________


      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [ $ 32 pdf ]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.htm
      Saturday, September 15, 2007 [ Extract]


      Bernadene A. Magnuson a; [ Bernadene A. Magnuson
      Assistant Professor, Nutrition and Food Science

      Expertise Key Words:
      Prevention of colon cancer by food components, including vitamins, nutrients
      and non-nutrients, such as plant and spice compounds;
      Safety assessment of foods, food ingredients and dietary supplements using
      toxicology data and risk assessment principles.

      Expertise Credentials:
      Over 25 peer-reviewed publications and several patents in cancer prevention
      research and food toxicology.
      Past-chair, Toxicology and safety evaluation division of
      Institute of Food Technology,
      Councilor for Food safety subdivision of Society of Toxicology,
      Editorial board of Journal of Food Protection
      and ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals.
      Experience in food toxicology and safety assessment for private industry,
      food regulations and FDA compliance issues.
      Frequent presentor of food safety issues at national and international
      meetings.

      www.agnr.umd.edu/AGNRDirectory/Bio.cfm?ID=105509279
      Faculty Webpage

      Contact Information:
      Work phone 301-405-4523
      E-mail bmagnuso@...,
      Address:
      3209 Marie Mount Hall
      College Park, MD 20742

      Degrees:
      Ph.D., Nutrition and Food Science, University of Manitoba
      M. Sc, Toxicology, University of Saskatchewan
      B.S.H.Ec, Food Science, University of Saskatchewan ]


      George A. Burdock b; gburdock@...,

      [
      www.chpa-info.org/NR/rdonlyres/32E831AF-33CA-4209-B923-19A6332FC052/0/07_11_07_ATCH_BurdockCV.pdf
      CURRICULUM VITAE

      G.A. Burdock, I.G. Carabin and J.C. Griffiths (2007)
      Breaking Down the Barriers to Functional Foods, Chapter XX. In:
      Nutraceutical And Functional Food Regulation In The United States and
      Around The World, a volume of the Foodscience and Technology Series.
      D. Bagchi (ed). Elsevier, NY (accepted and in press).

      Flavor and Extract Manufactures' Association (FEMA) 1986-1992
      Washington, D.C.
      Director of Scientific Affairs
      Dr. Burdock managed the FEMA scientific programs, coordinated the research
      activities of the testing laboratories, and communicated with external
      consultants and allied industry committees working with FEMA.
      As the primary scientific liaison, Dr. Burdock guided member companies with
      the preparation of submissions to the FEMA Expert Panel for GRAS review,
      alerted Expert Panel and Association members to scientific developments in
      the food and flavor industry, and identified
      changes in the regulatory policies as a result of these developments.
      He authored and edited comprehensive literature reviews on flavor additives
      and other topics relevant to the Association's interests.
      EDUCATION
      Ph.D. in Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, 1980
      Master of Combined Sciences, Physiology and Biochemistry, University of
      Mississippi, 1973
      Bachelor of Science, Biology, University of Mississippi, 1969

      F. Kotsonis, and G.A. Burdock (2007) Chapter 30: Food Toxicology.
      In: Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 8th edition C.D. Klaassen
      (Ed.) Pergamon Press, New York. (accepted and in press)

      http://www.chipsbooks.com/clineval.htm
      CLINICAL EVALUATION OF A FOOD ADDITIVE: Assessment of Aspartame
      edited by: Christian Tschanz, Harriett Butchko, W.W. Stargel, Frank
      Kotsonis 1996 308 pages $134.00 + shipping

      http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:d6B0UqVkWZIJ:www.reeis.usda.gov/web/areera/Reports/2004/AES.WI.pdf+%22Frank+Kotsonis%22,NutraSweet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=us
      Frank Kotsonis -- Dr. Kotsonis was corporate vice president of World Wide
      Regulatory Sciences (1995-2000) at the Monsanto Company,
      senior vice president of Preclinical and Clinical Research
      at the NutraSweet Company,
      director of toxicology at G.D.Searle,
      and adjunct professor of toxicology at the
      Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science.
      He retired after 23 years at Monsanto in May 2000.

      Burdock Group,
      888, 17th Street, NW, Suite 810, Washington, DC 20006, USA.

      G.A. Burdock, Handbook of Flavour Ingredients, CRC Press, 2002.

      G. A. Burdock, Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives,
      Vol. I, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1997. ]


      John Doull c; [ Dr. John Doull, MD, PhD
      Professor Emeritus
      Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics
      Email address: jdoull@...,
      Main Phone Number: (913) 588-7508
      Mailing Address:
      4027 Kansas Life Sciences Innovations Center
      Mail Stop 1018
      3901 Rainbow Blvd.
      Kansas City, KS 66160

      Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons
      (Editors, CD Klaassen, MO Amdur, J Doull).
      Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, USA, 1996.

      Toxicol Rev. 2005; 24(1): 1-10.
      The potential adverse health effects of dental amalgam.
      Brownawell AM, Berent S, Brent RL, Bruckner JV, Doull J, Gershwin EM, Hood
      RD, Matanoski GM, Rubin R, Weiss B, Karol MH.
      "This review has uncovered no convincing evidence pointing to any adverse
      health effects that are attributable to dental amalgam restorations besides
      hypersensitivity in some individuals.
      PMID: 16042501"

      Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001; 41: 1-21.
      Toxicology comes of age.
      Doull J.
      Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of
      Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA. jdoull@...

      This paper contains recollections of some of the people and events that
      influenced the development of toxicology as an academic discipline. It also
      describes my experiences in pharmacology at the University of Chicago and
      the University of Kansas Medical Center and concludes with speculation
      concerning the future of toxicology. Moderation in all things/Ne quid
      nimis. --Terence in Andria PMID: 11264448 ]


      Robert M. Kroes d; [[deceased] No items in PubMed

      1972 -- National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
      Maryland 20014

      Contact (for editorial): Bert Brunekreef, Ph.D.,
      Institute for Risk Assessment Services, Universiteit Utretcht
      P.O. Box 80178 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
      Phone: + 31 30 253 9494 ]


      Gary M. Marsh e;
      [ www.biostat.pitt.edu/marsh.htm

      A410 Crabtree Hall
      130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
      Telephone: 412-624-3032 Facsimile: 412-624-9969
      Email: gmarsh@...,

      Education
      B.S., University of Pittsburgh, 1973
      M.S.(Hyg), University of Pittsburgh, 1974
      Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1977

      "Mis-Specified and Non-Robust Mortality Risk Models for Naspharyngeal Cancer
      in the National Cancer Institute Formaldehyde Worker Cohort Study." Marsh
      GM, Youk AO, Morfeld P. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, In Press,
      2006.

      "Reevaluation of Mortality Risk from Nasopharyngeal Cancer in the
      Formaldehyde Cohort Study of the National Cancer Institute." Marsh GM, Youk
      AO. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 42:275-283, 2005.

      "Pharyngeal Cancer Mortality among Chemical Plant Workers Exposed to
      Formaldehyde." Marsh GM, Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Cassidy LD, Lucas LJ, Esmen
      NA, Gathuru I. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 18:257-268, 2002 (actual
      publication date January 2004).

      "Formaldehyde Exposure and Respiratory Tract Cancer Among Chemical Plant
      Workers: An Updated Cohort Study and New Nested Case-Control Study." Marsh
      GM, Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Cassidy LD, Lucas LJ, Esmen NA, Gathuru I.
      Toxicology and Industrial Health18:257-268, 2002 (actual publication date
      January 2004).

      "Historical Cohort Study of U.S. Man-Made Vitreous Fiber Production Workers.
      III. Analysis of Exposure-Weighted Measures of Respirable Fibers and
      Formaldehyde in the Nested Case-Control Study of Respiratory System Cancer."
      Youk AO, Marsh GM, Stone RA, Buchanich JM, Smith TJ. Journal of Occupational
      and Environmental Medicine 43:767-778, 2001.

      "Mortality Patterns among Chemical Workers in a Factory Where Formaldehyde
      Was Used." Marsh GM, Stone RA, Esmen NA, Henderson VH, Lee KY. Occupational
      and Environmental Medicine 53:613-617, 1996.

      "Mortality Among Chemical Plant Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde and Other
      Substances." Marsh GM, Stone RA, Esmen NA, Henderson VL. Journal of the
      National Cancer Institute 86:384-385, 1994.

      "Lung Cancer Mortality among Industrial Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde: A
      Poisson Regression Analysis of the National Cancer Institute Study." Marsh
      GM, Stone RA, Henderson V. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
      53:681-691, 1992.

      "A Reanalysis of the National Cancer Institute Study on Mortality Among
      Industrial Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde." Marsh GM, Stone RA, Henderson
      V. Journal of Occupational Medicine 34:42-44, 1992.

      www.sia-online.org/downloads/bio_marsh.pdf

      Gary M. Marsh, M.S., Ph.D.
      Gary M. Marsh, Ph.D. is professor of biostatistics at the University of
      Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health.
      He received his B.S. degree in mathematics (cum laude) in 1973 from the
      University of Pittsburgh and his M.S. (Hyg.) and Ph.D. degrees
      in biostatistics in from the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of
      Public Health in 1974 and 1977, respectively.
      Dr. Marsh has more than 150 publications in the areas of biostatistics,
      occupational and environmental epidemiology, quantitative risk assessment,
      statistical computing and health services evaluation.
      He is the senior author of the computer software package,
      OCMAP (Occupational Cohort Mortality Analysis Program), which is used as a
      standard analytic tool by more than 150 domestic and 40 foreign institutions
      involved in occupational health research.
      Dr. Marsh is also developer of the Mortality and
      Population Data System (MPDS), a repository and retrieval system for
      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and U.S. Census Bureau data,
      which is regularly accessed by scores of domestic occupational and
      environmental health researchers.

      Dr. Marsh directs occupational epidemiologic studies to investigate the
      long -term health effects of exposure to such agents as man-made mineral
      fibers, formaldehyde,
      acrylamide, acrylonitrile, arsenic, chloroprene, petrochemicals, aromatic
      amines, and pharmaceuticals.

      In addition, he conducts environmental epidemiologic studies of
      communities exposed to industrial pollutants or to hazardous waste site
      materials and is involved in basic methodological research related to
      longitudinal data analysis and quantitative risk assessment.
      He also directs programs of biostatistical support for the
      health outcome research and quality improvement areas of large health
      maintenance organizations, and for the occupational and environmental health
      areas of corporations and trade organizations.
      Dr. Marsh teaches graduate-level courses in applied biostatistics, sampling
      theory and meta-analysis, and directs several masters and
      doctoral level students.
      Within the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public
      Health, he established the Biostatistics Consulting Laboratory and directs
      the National Center for Health Statistics data sharing program.


      Michael W. Pariza f;
      [ www.wisc.edu/fri/pariza.htm
      Professor, Department of Food Microbiology & Toxicology
      Director, Food Research Institute
      Wisconsin Distinguished Professor
      University of Wisconsin-Madison
      1925 Willow Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1187
      telephone: 608-263-6955 fax: 608-263-1114
      email: mwpariza@...,

      PRINCIPAL RESEARCH INTERESTS
      * Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Food

      EDUCATION
      * BS 1967, Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
      * MS 1969, Microbiology, Kansas State University
      * PhD 1973, Microbiology, Kansas State University
      * Postdoc, McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of
      Wisconsin-Madison

      CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
      * Dietary aspects of carcinogenesis.
      * Biological significance of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

      Dhiman, T. R., L. D. Satter, M. W. Pariza, M. P. Galli, K. Albright, and M.
      X. Tolosa.
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich
      in linoleic and linolenic acid.
      J. Dairy Sci. 83:1016-1027 (2000).

      Pariza, M. W., Y. Park, and M. E. Cook.
      Conjugated linoleic acid and the control of cancer and obesity.
      Toxicol. Sci. 52(Suppl.):107-110 (1999). ]


      Peter S. Spencer g;

      [ /www.ohsu.edu/croet/faculty/spencer/

      Peter S. Spencer, Director,
      Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology.
      Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.
      Ph: 503-494-4273 Fax: 503-494-4278 E-mail: spencer@...,
      3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, L606
      Portland, Oregon 97239-3098

      Peter Spencer, PhD, FRCPath
      * Senior Scientist and Director, CROET
      * Principal Investigator, NIEHS-supported Superfund Basic Research Center
      * Principal Investigator, NIEHS-supported (Neuro)toxicogenomics and Child
      Health Research Center
      * Professor of Neurology, OHSU School of Medicine and member of the
      interdepartmental Neuroscience faculty of OHSU
      * Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University
      * Honorary international appointments include Professor, Chinese Academy of
      Preventive Medicine (now China Center for Disease Control);
      Honorary Professor, Sichuan University; Honorary Professor, Guangxi Medical
      University;
      Advisory Professor, Fudan University; and Advisory Professor Jiangsu
      University, P.R. China

      After earning his doctoral degree in Pathology from the University of
      London, Faculty of Medicine,
      Dr. Spencer joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, where
      he rose to the rank of Tenured Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology and
      Pathology, and Director, Institute of Neurotoxicology.
      He joined Oregon Health Sciences University in 1988 to found the Center for
      Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology.

      Dr. Spencer has authored more than 350 scientific papers and seven books,
      including the standard text Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology, the
      second edition which was published in 2000.
      The entire first edition of the book is available online.

      Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology by Peter S. Spencer, Herbert H.
      Schaumburg, and Albert C. Ludolph (Hardcover - Mar 2000)
      Buy new: CDN$ 227.50

      Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology - 1980 - 929 pages
      Disorders of Peripheral Nerves - 1992 - 348 pages
      Recent Advances in Nervous System Toxicology - 1988 ]


      William J. Waddell h;
      [ William J. Waddell, M.D.
      14300 Rose Wycombe Lane, Prospect, Ky 40059
      Phone: 502-228-4220 FAX: 502-228-6779
      Email: bwaddell@...,
      Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of
      Louisville, KY, USA.

      Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Jul; 25(7): 413-36
      Critique of dose response in carcinogenesis.
      Waddell WJ.
      Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of
      Louisville, KY, USA. bwaddell@...

      "...It is pointed out that there is strong experimental evidence that the
      mere presence of DNA adducts does not necessarily lead to tumor production.
      Hormesis probably applies to carcinogenesis and proof of this will require
      abandoning the no threshold concept.
      Experiments showing that cumulative dose is a better metric than daily dose
      may require reevaluating almost all carcinogenicity studies.
      PMID: 16898170"

      Tamburro CH, Waddell WJ.
      Cancers of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and formaldehyde exposure.
      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987 Sep; 79(3): 605. No abstract available.
      PMID: 3476796 ]


      Ronald Walker i;
      [ Dr. Ron Walker, professor, School of Biological Sciences,
      University of Surrey, UK. R.Walker@...,

      www.afic.org/High%20Intensity%20Sweeteners.htm

      Asian Food Information Centre

      Professor Ron Walker is Emeritus Professor of Food Science, School of
      Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, UK. [retired before 2007]
      A food toxicologist, with research interests in food additives and
      contaminants, Professor Walker has served on the Food and Agriculture
      Organization / World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives
      (JECFA) for 19 years
      and since 1993 has acted as Chairman or Vice-chairman.
      AFIC caught up with Professor Walker at the seminar on Risk Assessment and
      Use of High-intensity Sweeteners, Bangkok, Thailand
      on November 10, 1999.
      The meeting was organised by
      the International Life Sciences Institute, Thailand,
      the Food and Drug Administration, Thailand,
      and the Thai Ministry of Public Health.
      "All sweeteners have undergone extensive research and development and
      rigorous safety assessments and evaluation before they are approved. Once
      approved by regulatory bodies, they are deemed safe for human consumption.
      Acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate and alitame have
      all been reviewed and found safe by the Joint Expert Committee on Food
      Additives (JECFA) of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
      and the World Health Organization." ]


      Gary Murray Williams j
      [ gary_williams@...,
      www.nymc.edu/fhp/wms/indview.asp?which=Gary_Williams

      Professor, Pathology
      Dept. of Pathology
      Basic Sciences Building, New York Medical College
      Valhalla, NY 10595

      Professional Interests:

      The research in Dr. Williams' laboratory focuses on mechanisms of chemical
      carcinogenesis and procedures for identifying chemical carcinogens.
      Investigations are being pursued on the pathogenesis of liver cancer induced
      either by agents that attack DNA or that operate through indirect or
      epigenetic mechanisms.
      Aspects of particular interest are the shapes of dose - response curves for
      these two types of agents, and the identification of thresholds for cellular
      effects.
      The laboratory has a major project on interaction between ultraviolet
      irradiation and chemicals to produce photochemical mutagenicity and
      carcinogenicity.
      In studying procedures for identifying chemical carcinogens, emphasis has
      been placed on techniques for measuring interaction with DNA to detect
      genotoxic agents.
      Also under investigation are methods for inhibiting chemical-induced
      carcinogenicity.

      www.nymc.edu/hotfiles/cvgary_williams.doc

      EDUCATION:
      Washington and Jefferson College,
      Washington, Pa. B.A. 1963; Magna Cum Laude
      University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,
      Pittsburgh, Pa. M.D., 1967

      1999 - present Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology, Director of
      Environmental Pathology and Toxicology,
      Head, Program on Medicine, Food and Chemical Safety,
      Professor of Clinical Public Health, School of Public Health,
      New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York;

      1992 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Longevity and
      Aging: Environmental and Nutritional Influences on Aging and Cancer
      Experimental Gerontology, Volume 27, Special<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.