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Hawaii Senate Health Committee will consider resolution SCR191 by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, and 10 other of 25 Senators, to have FDA ban aspartame and for National Academy of Sciences to review research: Murray 2008.03.14

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  • Rich Murray
    [ corrected title ] Hawaii Senate Health Committee will consider resolution SCR191 by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, and 10 other of 25 Senators, to have FDA ban
    Message 1 of 2 , Mar 14, 2008
      [ corrected title ] Hawaii Senate Health Committee will consider resolution SCR191 by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, and 10 other of 25 Senators, to have FDA ban aspartame and for National Academy of Sciences to review research: Murray 2008.03.14

      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Friday, March 14, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1527
      _____________________________________________________

      [ See also:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1525
      House Concurrent Resolution #132 for Health Department panel to
      decide aspartame ban by early 2010, Hawaii Rep. Josh Green MD,
      Health Committee Chair: Murray 2008.03.12
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_03_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, March 12, 2008
      www.opednews.com/articles/1/opedne_stephen__080311_testimony_re_3a_hawaii.htm

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1505
      Hawaiian aspartame ban bills in House and Senate challenge
      corporate clout, Sen. J. Kalani English & Suzanne Chun Oakland,
      Rep. Calvin K.Y. Say & Mele Carroll: Murray 2008.01.25
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.htm
      Friday, January 25, 2008 ]


      http://www.hawaiireporter.com/story.aspx?8013b05c-d8ec-4d71-8ed7-389bc5add130

      Hawaii Senate Committee Will Consider Resolution on Aspartame
      By Stephen Fox, 3/13/2008 10:49:31 AM

      There is now a Hawaii Senate Resolution,
      authored by Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland, which requests the
      Department of Health and National Academy of Sciences
      to review existing reports and studies related to aspartame,
      by funding source.

      It resolves that given the enormous amount of evidence
      that has been compiled concerning the neurodegenerative harm
      it can cause, that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      is requested to rescind approval of aspartame immediately
      on a phase-out basis over six months to one year.

      We are very pleased to note that this is the strongest legislative
      document concerning aspartame ever presented anywhere
      in the world.

      On March 12, another resolution, HCR132, introduced by Rep.
      Josh Green, M.D., Chairman of the House Committee on Health,
      was approved by its first committee (Health),
      and moves on to the next (Consumer Protection and Commerce).

      This would set up a work group to explore the need to ban
      or improve labeling containing aspartame.

      It was again opposed by Dr. Chiyome Fukino, M.D.,
      Director of the Health Department,
      an appointee of Republican Governor Linda Lingle,
      who opposed the House Bill to ban aspartame on the flawed basis
      of an Ajinomoto-funded review study;
      Ajinomoto is the world's largest manufacturer of Aspartame,
      and another proven neurotoxic food additive,
      Monosodium Glutamate.

      Betty Martini, D. Hum, sent Dr. Fukino a detailed rebuttal
      to this study, showing the links to Ajinomoto
      and flawed industry research.

      Dr. Fukino's opposition today, March 12 was surprisingly opposed
      by Rep. Green, M.D., the only physician in the entire Hawaii
      Legislature, in view of him having 'deferred' a prior bill to ban
      aspartame outright, by statute.

      Here is the rebuttal to the Ajinomoto Study, written by Mark Gold,
      Founder, Aspartame Toxicity Information Center, New Hampshire:

      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/burdock/
      Aspartame and Manufacturer-Funded Scientific Reviews

      This flawed Ajinomoto-funded report,
      which has been touted far and wide by aspartame manufacturers
      and corporate hacks and lobbyists, shows how far the world's
      largest aspartame manufacturer will go to deceive the public.

      However, today, there is no doubt that Ajinomoto's
      Board of Directors as well as the Board of Directors of
      Coca Cola, Pepsi, Wrigley's Gum, and Merisant
      (manufacturer of Equal) are extremely worried about these
      late-breaking developments in Hawaii, which should also
      encourage consumer protection activists all over the world
      to contact their legislators and parliamentarians, asking them
      to introduce similar legislation and Resolutions.

      We cordially thank Senator Chun Oakland and Representative
      Josh Green, M.D., for advancing our consumer protection initiative
      as far as they have.


      Text of Senate Resolution:
      http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/bills/SCR191_.pdf

      Requesting the Hawaii Department of Health and
      the National Academy of Sciences to review existing reports
      and studies related to Aspartame, and Requesting the United States
      Food and Drug Administration to Rescind Approval for
      United States Markets,
      carried by Hawaii Senator Suzanne Chun Oakland

      Whereas, aspartame was originally developed as a drug to treat
      peptic ulcers; and

      Whereas, manufacturers state that aspartame is made up of
      forty per cent aspartic acid, fifty percent phenylalanine,
      and ten per cent methanol; and

      Whereas, aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid
      that is used by the body to initiate apoptosis or cell death
      in aging cells,
      and that excess aspartic acid from aspartame consumption causes
      apoptosis in health cells that can destroy healthy tissue,
      especially in the brain; and

      Whereas, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid found naturally
      in protein but when isolated becomes neurotoxic, lowers the seizure
      threshold, depletes serotonin -- triggering psychiatric and behavioral
      problems -- and interacts with depressants and other drugs; and

      Whereas, methanol is a severe metabolic poison classified as a
      narcotic that converts to formaldehyde and formic acid,
      and can embalm living tissue and damage DNA; and

      Whereas, aspartame metabolites include formaldehyde,
      a 'class A' carcinogen, and diketopiperazine, a brain tumor agent,
      and formic acid, and

      Whereas, in 1974, the United States Food and Drug Administration
      approved aspartame as an artificial sweetener,
      but asked its manufacturer Searle to hold back from selling it on the
      market until further tests could be made with regards to its safety;
      and

      Whereas, scientific data revealed that there was a problem with
      aspartame safety date and the United States Food and Drug
      Administration withdrew its approval; and

      Whereas, in 1975, the United States Food and Drug
      Administration initiated an investigation into Searle's laboratory
      practices and discovered fraud in scientific experiments as well as
      manipulated data giving favorable results proving aspartame
      to be safe; and

      Whereas, the results of this investigation are included in
      what is called 'The Bressler Report' by Jerome Bressler; and
      [ http://dorway.com/dorwblog/?page_id=56
      (Note: This is the text of an FDA report on Searle)
      EIR 4/25/77 to 8/4/77 Searle Laboratories
      JSA/DME/JT/LF Div. G.D. Searle & Co.
      4901 Searle Parkway
      Skokie, Illinois 60076 ]

      Whereas, in 1980, Dr. John Olney submitted scientific data to a
      United States Food and Drug Administration Public Board of Inquiry
      showing that aspartic acid, the excitotoxic ingredient in aspartame,
      caused holes in the brains of mice; and

      Whereas, Dr. John Olney stated that it warranted special emphasis
      that excitotoxins act by an acute but silent mechanism, requiring
      only a single exposure for CVO neurons to be quietly destroyed,
      that clearly Searle failed to establish the safety of their product,
      aspartame, for use in children's food, and that all age comparative
      data support the following conclusions:
      (1) orally administered excitotoxins destroy CVO neurons
      at any age;
      (2) immature animals are most vulnerable; and
      (3) the toxic threshold increases only gradually between birth and
      adulthood; and

      Whereas, in 1980, the Public Board of Inquiry unanimously
      voted against aspartame approval, but was overruled by a new
      United States Food and Drug Administration Commissioner,
      Dr. Arthur Hull Hayes, against the advice of Food and Drug
      Administration scientific personnel and advisers; and

      Whereas, the United States Food and Drug Administration
      approved aspartame use in sodas, despite the fact that the
      National Soft Drink Association argued vehemently against
      aspartame in these quotes from their protest:
      [ With their original name, The National Soft Drink Association, they
      condemned aspartame on July 28, 1983 in a detailed critique:
      http://dorway.com/dorwblog/?page_id=60 ]

      * (1) "The present record does not contain data which
      demonstrate that the use of APM in soft drinks will not result in the
      adulteration of the beverages under Section 402(a)(3) of the
      FDC Act 21 U.S.S. 342 (a)(3),
      which provides that a food is adulterated if it contains, in whole
      or in part, 'a decomposed substance
      or it is otherwise unfit for food'�)";

      (2) "An important decomposition product of aspartame,
      aspartic acid, cannot be detected at all using TLC"�;

      (3) "�G.D. Searle and Company has not demonstrated to a reasonable
      certainty that the use of aspartame in soft drinks, without quantitative limitations, will not adversely affect human health as a result of the changes such use is likely to cause in brain chemistry and under certain reasonably anticipated conditions of use"; and

      (4) "Specifically, Searle has not met its burdens under section
      409 'to demonstrate that aspartame is safe and functional for use
      in soft drinks.' Collectively, the extensive deficiencies in the stability studies conducted by Searle to demonstrate that aspartame and its degradation products are safe in soft drinks intended to be sold in the United States, render those studies inadequate and unreliable."�
      Senate Congressional Record, May 7, 1985, S5507-5511: and

      Whereas, the United States Food and Drug Administration
      has compiled a list of ninety-two symptoms attributed to aspartame
      consumption including four types of seizures, coma, and death; and

      Whereas, the Ramazzini Studies by the European Foundation for Oncology in Italy conducted exhaustive studies over three years with thousands of rats, and proved aspartame to be a multipotential carcinogen, thus confirming the United States Food and Drug Administration's original findings;
      and

      Whereas, the United States Food and Drug Administration
      admitted that aspartame caused cancer over two decades ago,
      when the Administration's toxicologist, Dr. Adrian Gross, told
      Congress at least one of Searle's studies:

      "has established beyond any reasonable doubt that aspartame is
      capable of inducing brain tumors in experimental animals and that
      this predisposition of it is of extremely high significance". In view
      of these indications that the cancer causing potential of aspartame
      is a matter that had been established way beyond any reasonable
      doubt, one can ask: What is the reason for the apparent refusal
      by the FDA to invoke for this food additive the so-called Delaney
      amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic act?
      Given the cancer causing potential of aspartame, how would the
      FDA justify its position that it views a certain amount of aspartame
      as constituting an allowable daily intake or 'safe' level of it?
      Is that position in effect not equivalent to setting a 'tolerance'
      for this food additive and thus a violation of that law?
      And if the FDA itself elects to violate the law,
      who is left to protect the health of the public?"�
      Congressional Record, August 1, 1985, SID835: 131: and

      Whereas, aspartame is linked to sudden death, multiple sclerosis,
      lupus, and many neurodegenerative diseases, as cited in may medical
      texts, most notably: Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic,
      by H.J. Roberts, M.D., and
      Excitotoxins: the Taste that Kills, By Russell Blaylock, M.D., and

      Whereas, on November 3, 1987, Dr. Louis Elsas told Congress:

      "I am a pediatrician, a Professor of Pediatrics at Emory
      and have spent twenty-five years in the biomedical sciences,
      trying to prevent mental retardation and birth defect caused by excess
      phenylalanine, and therein lies my basic concern, that aspartame is
      in fact a well known neurotoxin and teratogen which, in some as yet
      undefined dose, will irreversibly in the developing child or fetal brain, produce adverse effects." and

      Whereas, there are tens of thousands of case histories and anecdotal
      accounts from victims of aspartame poisoning who have come forward to make their case histories known; now, therefore,

      BE IT RESOLVED by the Senate of the Twenty-Fourth Legislature
      of the State of Hawaii, Regular Session of 2008,
      the House of Representatives concurring,
      that the Department of Health is requested to create,
      within their existing budget,
      an evidentiary repository accessible to the public for patients and
      physicians to submit of the next year their cases involving victims
      of aspartame poisoning; and

      BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Director of Health
      is requested to report to the Legislature on the status of the
      evidentiary repository during periodic interim meetings
      with the Chairs of the Hawaii State Senate Committees
      n Health and Human Services and Public Housing,
      the House of Representatives Committees on Health and
      Human Services and Housing, and the state Attorney General; and

      BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Department of Health
      is requested to review all existing reports, studies, experiments,
      and related literature on aspartame, including clinical studies,
      differentiating each study by its funding source,
      and submit a report to the Legislature no later than twenty days
      prior to the convening of the 2008 Regular Session; and

      BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the
      Nation Academy of Sciences is requested to review all existing
      reports, studies, experiments, and related literature on aspartame,
      including clinical studies, differentiating each study by its funding
      source, and that, if funding is required to undertake this extended
      evaluation, that the appropriate funding be sought from various
      foundations and from Congress; and

      BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that given the enormous amount of
      evidence that has been compiled concerning the neurodegenerative
      harm it can cause,
      that the United States Food and Drug Administration is requested
      to rescind approval of aspartame immediately
      on a phase-out basis over six months to one year; and

      BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that certified copies of this Resolution
      be transmitted to the members of Hawaii's Congressional Delegation,
      the Commissioner of the
      United States Food and Drug Administration,
      the Executive Director of the National Academy of Sciences,
      the Director of Health,
      the Director of Human Services,
      the Attorney General,
      and the Director of Commerce and Consumer Affairs.

      The resolution was signed by 40 percent of the Senate
      11 of 25 Senators,
      including: Senator Suzanne Chun Oakland, Chair,
      Human Services Committee, primary sponsor:

      http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/site1/senate/senate.asp Senate

      senchunoakland@...;
      senbunda@...; senenglish@...;
      senespero@...; senfukunaga@...;
      sendige@...; senihara@...;
      senkim@...; senmenor@...;
      sennishihara@...; sentokuda@...;

      Senator Robert Bunda, President Emeritus, Hawaii Senate
      senbunda@...;
      Senator Kalani English, Chairman, Transportation
      and International Affairs senenglish@...;
      Senator Will Espero, Chairman, Public Safety Committee
      senespero@...;
      Senator Carol Fukunaga, Vice Chair, Health Committee
      senfukunaga@...;
      Senator David Ige, Chairman, Health Committee
      sendige@...;
      Senator Les Ihara, Majority Policy Leader
      senihara@...;
      Senator Donna Mercado Kim, Vice President of Hawaii Senate
      senkim@...;
      Senator Ron Menor, Chairman, Energy and Environment
      senmenor@...;
      Senator Clarence Nishihara, Chairman, Tourism and
      Government Operations sennishihara@...;
      Senator Jill N. Tokuda, Agriculture and Hawaiian Affairs,
      Chair and Education, Vice-Chair sentokuda@...;

      For more information, please contact Sen. Suzanne Chun Oakland
      at 808-586-6130; fax 808-586-6131
      email mailto: senchunoakland@...;
      or Rep. Josh Green, M.D. 808-586-9605; fax 808-586-9608
      From the Big Island, toll free 974-4000 + 69605
      E-mail or at mailto: repgreen@...;

      Stephen Fox is the Managing Editor, Santa Fe Sun News
      and Founder, New Millennium Fine Art.
      More at mailto: stephen@...;

      HawaiiReporter.com reports the real news,
      and prints all editorials submitted,
      even if they do not represent the viewpoint of the editors,
      as long as they are written clearly.
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      © 2008 Hawaii Reporter, Inc.
      _____________________________________________________


      http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=LEGISLATURE08

      http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/lists/getstatus2.asp?billno=SCR191
      Introducer(s):
      Introducer(s): CHUN OAKLAND, ENGLISH, Bunda, Espero,
      Fukunaga, Ige, Ihara, Kim, Menor, Nishihara, Tokuda

      http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/site1/docs/status/searchstatus.asp?query=aspartame&currpage=1

      1. SCR191 SCR191 Status
      Context: NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
      TO REVIEW EXISTING REPORTS AND STUDIES RELATED
      TO ASPARTAME, AND REQUESTING THE UNITED STATES
      FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION TO ... RESCIND
      APPROVAL OF ASPARTAME
      FOR UNITED STATES MARKETS.
      WHEREAS, aspartame was originally developed as a drug
      to treat peptic ulcers; or cell death in aging cells,
      and that excess aspartic acid from aspartame consumption
      causes apoptosis in healthy cells that can destroy healthy tissue,
      Filesize: 20797
      Electronic File Date: 3/12/2008 6:14:24 PM
      http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/bills/SCR191_.pdf
      _____________________________________________________



      [ Note: folic acid protects against aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde,
      formic acid) toxicity in as much as 90% of users -- many will also still
      have problems from aspartic acid, phenylalanine, and DKP. ]

      methanol impurity in alcohol drinks [ and aspartame ] is turned into
      neurotoxic formic acid, prevented by folic acid, re Fetal Alcohol
      Syndrome, BM Kapur, DC Lehotay, PL Carlen at U. Toronto,
      Alc Clin Exp Res 2007 Dec. plain text: detailed biochemistry,
      CL Nie et al. 2007.07.18: Rich Murray 2008.02.24
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Sunday, February 24, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1524


      [ Rich Murray comments: As a medical layman volunteer information
      activist for aspartame and related toxicity issues since January 1999,
      I note with appreciation the remarkable exponential progress on all
      fronts, including a rapidly emerging consensus about the primary
      importance of all toxicity challenges for our world.

      This lengthy review features in detail two quite different, revolutionary
      contributions, from Canada, and England and China.

      It is indicative of our times that the CL Nie et al. study, 2007
      appears in a free, open access journal -- indeed, as all life and
      death information must.

      Following rather vigorously, indeed blindly, the imperatives of
      single-minded, profit-driven capitalist competition -- manipulating
      adroitly research, education, media, citizens, governments -- many
      great global corporations have inevitably created results that
      oppose the common good. Alcohol and tobacco are well known.

      Realistically, any further manipulations can only lead to inevitable
      and even sudden corporate meltdowns, in the context of an
      unfettered, cooperative, democratic global information forum,
      the Internet.

      Now, it is as easy and cheap to compose and instantly post a
      30-page review as 3 pages a decade ago -- and such reviews
      are archived forever in multiple collections, open via global search
      engines to a billion Net citizens.

      Perforce, and increasingly happily, all societal entities will have to
      operate by high and shared voluntary universal standards
      for the common good. ]


      http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00541.x

      Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
      Volume 31 Issue 12 Page 2114-2120, December 2007

      Bhushan M. Kapur, b.kapur@...;
      Arthur C. Vandenbroucke, PhD, FCACB
      Yana Adamchik,
      Denis C. Lehotay, dlehotay@...;
      Peter L. Carlen carlen@...;
      (2007) Formic Acid, a Novel Metabolite of Chronic Ethanol
      Abuse, Causes Neurotoxicity, Which Is Prevented by Folic Acid
      Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 31 (12), 2114-2120.
      doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00541.x

      Abstract

      Background:
      Methanol is endogenously formed in the brain and is present as a
      congener in most alcoholic beverages.

      Because ethanol is preferentially metabolized over methanol (MeOH)
      by alcohol dehydrogenase, it is not surprising that MeOH
      accumulates in the alcohol-abusing population.

      This suggests that the alcohol-drinking population will have higher
      levels of MeOH's neurotoxic metabolite, formic acid (FA).

      FA elimination is mediated by folic acid.

      Neurotoxicity is a common result of chronic alcoholism.

      This study shows for the first time that FA,
      found in chronic alcoholics, is neurotoxic
      and this toxicity can be mitigated by folic acid administration.

      Objective:
      To determine if FA levels are higher in the alcohol-drinking
      population and to assess its neurotoxicity in organotypic
      hippocampal rat brain slice cultures.

      Methods:
      Serum and CSF FA was measured in samples from both ethanol
      abusing and control patients, who presented to a hospital emergency
      department. [ CSF = Cerebral Spinal Fluid ]

      FA's neurotoxicity and its reversibility by folic acid were assessed
      using organotypic rat brain hippocampal slice cultures using clinically
      relevant concentrations.

      Results:
      Serum FA levels in the alcoholics
      (mean ± SE: 0.416 +- 0.093 mmol/l, n = 23)
      were significantly higher than in controls
      (mean ± SE: 0.154 +- 0.009 mmol/l, n = 82) (p < 0.0002).

      FA was not detected in the controls' CSF (n = 20),
      whereas it was >0.15 mmol/l in CSF of 3 of the 4 alcoholic cases.

      Low doses of FA from 1 to 5 mmol/l added for 24, 48 or 72 hours
      to the rat brain slice cultures caused neuronal death as measured by
      propidium iodide staining.

      When folic acid (1 umol/l) was added with the FA,
      neuronal death was prevented. [ umol = micromole ]

      Conclusions:
      Formic acid may be a significant factor in the neurotoxicity of
      ethanol abuse.

      This neurotoxicity can be mitigated by folic acid administration
      at a clinically relevant dose.

      Key Words:
      Formic Acid, Folic Acid, Methanol, Neurotoxicity, Alcoholism.



      Note: many recent aspartame bans.....

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1426
      ASDA (unit of Wal-Mart Stores WMT.N) and Marks & Spencer
      will join Tesco and also Sainsbury to ban and limit aspartame,
      MSG, artificial flavors dyes preservatives additives, trans fats, salt
      "nasties" to protect kids from ADHD: leading UK media:
      Murray 2007.05.15

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1451
      Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose) and coloring agents
      will be banned from use in newly-born and baby foods,
      the European Parliament decided: Latvia ban in schools 2006:
      Murray 2007.07.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1341
      Connecticut bans artificial sweeteners in schools, Nancy Barnes,
      New Milford Times: Murray 2006.05.25

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1369
      Bristol, Connecticut, schools join state program to limit artificial
      sweeteners, sugar, fats for 8800 students, Johnny J Burnham,
      The Bristol Press: Murray 2006.09.22


      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [ $ 32 pdf ]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_09_01_archive.htm
      Saturday, September 15, 2007

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1491
      industry scientists praise aspartame safety and benefits in Paris on
      2006.05.30, Herve Nordmann, Andrew G. Renwick,
      Carlo La Vecchia, Tommy Visscher, Jaap Seidell, France Bellisle,
      Adam Drewnowski, Margaret Ashwell, Anne de la Hunty,
      Sigrid A. Gibson, Alan R. Boobis: Murray 2007.11.18

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1070
      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
      2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      http://www.eatright.org/Nutritive(1).pdf
      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
      critique of aspartame review
      by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
      Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14



      http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/262
      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon,
      UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

      http://www.dorway.com/enclosur.html
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/53
      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp.,
      got aspartame FDA approval: Turner: Murray 2002.12.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1483
      Donald Rumsfeld CEO 1977-85 G.D. Searle & Co., got new
      President Reagan to prohibit FDA opposition to aspartame
      1981.01.25, history by lawyer James S. Turner:
      Murray 2007.10.29

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100 %) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91 %)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern
      Ohio Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry,
      Youngstown, OH 44501,
      Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240
      Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...
      http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1395
      Aspartame Controversy, in Wikipedia democratic
      encyclopedia, 72 references (including AspartameNM # 864
      and 1173 by Murray, brief fair summary of much more research:
      Murray 2007.01.01


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1513
      metabolic syndrome is tied to diet soda, PL Lutsey, LM Steffen,
      J Stevens, Circulation 2008.01.22: role of formaldehyde and
      formic acid from methanol in wines, liquors, or aspartame?:
      Murray 2008.02.21

      "But the one-third who ate the most fried food increased their risk
      by 25 percent, compared with the one-third who ate the least, and
      surprisingly, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome was 34
      percent higher among those who drank one can of diet soda a day
      compared with those who drank none.

      "This is interesting," said Lyn M. Steffen, an associate professor of
      epidemiology at the University of Minnesota and a co-author of the
      paper, which was posted online in the journal Circulation on Jan. 22.
      "Why is it happening? Is it some kind of chemical in the diet soda,
      or something about the behavior of diet soda drinkers?""

      "The diet soda association was not hypothesized
      and deserves further study."


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1143
      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition:
      Bouchard M et al, full plain text, 2001:
      substantial sources are degradation
      of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
      Murray 2005.04.02


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1511
      vinyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, or aspartame in womb increases later
      cancers in adults with lifetime exposure in many studies, M Soffritti
      et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Basic Clin. Pharm. Toxicol. 2008 Feb.:
      Rich Murray 2008.02.07

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016
      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity:
      Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec 2002:
      Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the
      gastrointestinal tract to become free methyl alcohol,
      which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
      Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994;
      Assessing risks of low-level methanol exposure.
      CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1453
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent
      USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies
      2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

      30 female pet store rats drinking lifelong 13.5 mg aspartame,
      1/3 packet of Equal, had 33% with obvious tumors -- also bulging,
      sick, and missing eyes, paralysis, obesity, skin sores -- agrees with
      Ramazzini Foundation results, Victoria Inness-Brown:
      Murray 2008.02.15
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Friday, February 15, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1521


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1490
      details on 6 epidemiological studies since 2004 on diet soda (mainly
      aspartame) correlations, as well as 14 other mainstream studies
      on aspartame toxicity since summer 2005: Murray 2007.11.27

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1340
      aspartame groups and books:
      updated research review of 2004.07.16: Murray 2006.05.11


      old tiger roars -- Woodrow C Monte, PhD -- aspartame causes
      many breast cancers, as ADH enzyme in breasts makes methanol
      from diet soda into carcinogenic formaldehyde -- same in dark
      wines and liquors, Fitness Life 2008 Jan.: Murray 2008.02.11
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Monday, February 11, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1517

      "Alcohol dehydrogenase ADH is required for the conversion of
      methanol to formaldehyde (112).

      ADH is not a common enzyme in the human body -- not many cells
      in the human body contain this enzyme.

      The human breast is one of the few organs in the body with a high
      concentration of ADH (190b), and it is found there exclusively in the
      mammary epithelial cells, the very cells known to transform into
      adenocarcinoma (190c) (breast cancer).

      The most recent breast cancer scientific literature implicates ADH
      as perhaps having a pivotal role in the formation of breast cancer,
      indicating a greater incidence of the disease in those
      with higher levels of ADH activity in their breasts (190a)."

      role of formaldehyde, made by body from methanol from foods
      and aspartame, in steep increases in fetal alcohol syndrome, autism,
      multiple sclerosis, lupus, teen suicide, breast cancer, Nutrition
      Prof. Woodrow C. Monte, retired, Arizona State U., two reviews,
      190 references supplied, Fitness Life, New Zealand
      2007 Nov, Dec: Murray 2007.12.26
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2007_12_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, December 26 2007
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1498


      Since no adequate data has ever been published on the
      exact disposition of toxic metabolites in specific tissues in humans
      of the 11 % methanol component of aspartame,
      the many studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol
      impurity in alcohol drinks are the main available resource to date.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1469
      highly toxic formaldehyde, the cause of alcohol hangovers, is
      made by the body from 100 mg doses of methanol from
      dark wines and liquors, dimethyl dicarbonate, and aspartame:
      Murray 2007.08.31

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
      DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds methanol 98 mg/L
      ( becomes formaldehyde in body ): EU Scientific Committee on Foods
      2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

      http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out96_en.pdf

      "...DMDC was evaluated by the SCF in 1990 and considered acceptable for
      the cold sterilization of soft drinks and fruit juices at levels of
      addition up to 250 mg/L (1)
      ...DMDC decomposes primarily to CO2 and methanol ...

      [ Note: Sterilization of bacteria and fungi is a toxic process,
      probably due to the inevitable conversion in the body of methanol
      into highly toxic formaldehyde and then formic acid. ]

      The use of 200 mg DMDC per liter would add 98 mg/L of methanol to wine which
      already contains an average of about 140 mg/L from natural sources.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1286
      methanol products (formaldehyde and formic acid) are main cause of
      alcohol hangover symptoms [same as from similar amounts of methanol, the
      11% part of aspartame]: YS Woo et al, 2005 Dec: Murray 2006.01.20

      Addict Biol. 2005 Dec;10(4): 351-5.
      Concentration changes of methanol in blood samples during
      an experimentally induced alcohol hangover state.
      Woo YS, Yoon SJ, Lee HK, Lee CU, Chae JH, Lee CT, Kim DJ.
      Chuncheon National Hospital, Department of Psychiatry,
      The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
      http://www.cuk.ac.kr/eng/ sysop@...
      Songsin Campus: 02-740-9714 Songsim Campus: 02-2164-4116
      Songeui Campus: 02-2164-4114
      http://www.cuk.ac.kr/eng/sub055.htm eight hospitals

      [ Han-Kyu Lee ]

      A hangover is characterized by the unpleasant physical and mental
      symptoms that occur between 8 and 16 hours after drinking alcohol.

      After inducing experimental hangover in normal individuals,
      we measured the methanol concentration prior to
      and after alcohol consumption
      and we assessed the association between the hangover condition
      and the blood methanol level.

      A total of 18 normal adult males participated in this study.

      They did not have any previous histories of psychiatric
      or medical disorders.

      The blood ethanol concentration prior to the alcohol intake
      (2.26+/-2.08) was not significantly different from that
      13 hours after the alcohol consumption (3.12+/-2.38).

      However, the difference of methanol concentration
      between the day of experiment (prior to the alcohol intake)
      and the next day (13 hours after the alcohol intake)
      was significant (2.62+/-1.33/l vs. 3.88+/-2.10/l, respectively).

      A significant positive correlation was observed
      between the changes of blood methanol concentration
      and hangover subjective scale score increment when covarying
      for the changes of blood ethanol level (r=0.498, p<0.05).

      This result suggests the possible correlation of methanol
      as well as its toxic metabolite to hangover. PMID: 16318957

      [ The toxic metabolite of methanol is formaldehyde, which in turn
      partially becomes formic acid -- both potent cumulative toxins
      that are the actual cause of the toxicity of methanol.]

      This study by Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover
      from red wine with 100 to 150 mg methanol
      (9.5 % w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol, 0.01 %).
      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol --
      1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).

      Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3): 217-20.
      Elimination half-life of methanol during hangover.
      Jones AW. wayne.jones@...
      Department of Forensic Toxicology,
      University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden.

      This paper reports the elimination half-life of methanol in human
      volunteers.
      Experiments were made during the morning after the subjects had
      consumed 1000-1500 ml red wine
      (9.5 % w/v ethanol, 100 mg/l methanol)
      the previous evening. [ 100 to 150 mg methanol ]
      The washout of methanol from the body
      coincided with the onset of hangover.
      The concentrations of ethanol and methanol in blood were
      determined indirectly by analysis of end-expired alveolar air.
      In the morning when blood-ethanol dropped
      below the Km of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
      of about 100 mg/l (2.2 mM),
      the disappearance half-life of ethanol was 21, 22, 18 and 15 min.
      in 4 test subjects respectively.
      The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol
      were 213, 110, 133 and 142 min. in these same individuals.
      The experimental design outlined in this paper can be used
      to obtain useful data on elimination kinetics of methanol
      in human volunteers without undue ethical limitations.
      Circumstantial evidence is presented to link methanol
      or its toxic metabolic products, formaldehyde and formic acid,
      with the pathogenesis of hangover. PMID: 3588516

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1047
      Avoiding Hangover Hell 2003.12.31 Mark Sherman, AP writer:
      Robert Swift, MD [ formaldehyde from methanol in aspartame ]:
      Murray 2004.01.16

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1048
      hangovers from formaldehyde from methanol (aspartame?):
      Schwarcz: Linsley: Murray 2004.01.18


      Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese
      demonstrated the incorporation of FA and its metabolites
      into the placenta and fetus.
      The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
      at 48 hours was 26.9 % of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

      Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
      Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
      Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@...
      Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
      www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_embryo_toxicity.html full text

      http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_1990.html full text
      Jack Dwayne Thrasher, Alan Broughton, Roberta Madison.
      Immune activation and autoantibodies in humans
      with long-term inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.
      Archives of Environmental Health. 1990; 45: 217-223.
      "Immune activation, autoantibodies, and anti-HCHO-HSA antibodies
      are associated with long-term formaldehyde inhalation."
      PMID: 2400243



      formaldehyde in FEMA trailers and other sources (aspartame,
      dark wines and liquors, tobacco smoke): Murray 2008.01.30
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.htm
      Wednesday, January 30, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1508

      The FEMA trailers give about the same amount of formaldehyde
      daily as from a quart of dark wine or liquor, or two quarts
      (6 12-oz cans) of aspartame diet soda, from their over 1 tenth gram
      methanol impurity (one part in 10,000),
      which the body quickly makes into formaldehyde -- enough
      to be the major cause of "morning after" alcohol hangovers.

      Methanol and formaldehyde also result from many fruits and
      vegetables, tobacco and wood smoke, heater and vehicle exhaust,
      household chemicals and cleaners, cosmetics, and new cars, drapes,
      carpets, furniture, particleboard, mobile homes, buildings, leather ...
      so all these sources add up and interact
      with many other toxic chemicals.

      BN Ames and LS Gold, 1998, have presented detailed information
      that there is no increase in recent decades for most cancers,
      and that common carcinogens do not result in significant exposures
      to the average human population.

      However, individuals are not average -- each person has a unique genetic
      makeup, resulting in a huge range of variation of vulnerability to
      specific chemicals, as is well evidenced in the case of methanol,
      formaldehyde, and formic acid, especially with regard
      to behavioral effects.

      Each is subject to very wide ranges of exposure levels.

      Many are in especially vulnerable groups, depending on diet, obesity,
      sex, exercise, life stress, age from conception to very old, unusually
      severe toxic exposures, injuries, and diseases.

      It is clear that a variety of multiple chemical sensitivity syndromes do
      exist, often with remarkable hypersensitivity.

      Methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid toxicity are unusual, in that
      humans are far more vulnerable than any other mammal, as much as ten
      to sixty-fold, which complicates the utility of animal data.

      The unusally long human life span also increases the role of long-term
      chronic low-level exposure.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1455
      FEMA slow to safety test Katrina toxic trailers, Charles Babington,
      Associated Press -- 1 ppm formaldehyde in air is about half the daily
      dose from 3 cans aspartame diet soda and ten times the 1999 EPA
      alarm level for drinking water: Murray 2007.07.23



      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1277
      50% UK baby food is now organic - aspartame or MSG
      with food dyes harm nerve cells, CV Howard 3 year study
      funded by Lizzy Vann, CEO, Organix Brands,
      Children's Food Advisory Service: Murray 2006.01.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1271
      combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and
      brilliant blue, harms nerve cells, eminent
      C. Vyvyan Howard et al, 2005 education.guardian.co.uk,
      Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1373
      aspartame rat brain toxicity re cytochrome P450 enzymes,
      especially CYP2E1, Vences-Mejia A, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ et al,
      2006 Aug, Hum Exp Toxicol: relevant abstracts re formaldehyde
      from methanol in alcohol drinks: Murray 2006.09.29


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1463
      Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain,
      Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naude H, U. Pretoria, South Africa,
      Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8: Murray 2007.08.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1452
      phenylalanine and aspartic acid from low dose aspartame
      in rabbits interfere with blood coagulation,
      Pretorius E and Humphries P, U. of Pretoria,
      Ultrastruct Pathol 2007 March: Murray 2007.07.14



      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1459
      third study by expert Greek team of neurotoxicity in infant rats by
      aspartame (or its parts, methanol, phenylalanine, aspartic acid), KH
      Schulpis et al, Food Chem Toxicol 2007.06.16: Murray 2007.08.05

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1447
      second study by expert Greek team of neurotoxicity in infant rats by
      aspartame (or its parts, methanol, phenylalanine, aspartic acid), KH
      Schulpis et al, Toxicology 2007.05.18: Murray 2007.07.04

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1444
      expert Greek group finds aspartame (or its parts, methanol,
      phenylalanine, aspartic acid) harm infant rat brain enzyme activity,
      KH Schulpis et al, Pharmacol. Res. 2007.05.13: Murray 2007.06.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/939
      aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
      Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
      Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
      Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
      its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
      Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
      http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@...
      K.H. Schulpis inchildh@... ; G.J. Reclos reklos@...

      5 recent aspartame reports by S Tsakiris, KH Schulpis, I Simintzi,
      with responses to critiques by AG Renwick and
      by EB Abegaz, RG Bursey, 2005-2008 2008.03.05

      Pharmacological Research 57 (2008) 89–90
      Letter to the Editor
      Answer to Letter sent to the Editor by
      Drs. E. Abegaz and R. Bursey
      (Ajinomoto Corporate Services LLC, Washington, USA)
      related to Simintzi et al. report published in
      Pharmacol Res 2007; 56: 155–9
      Letter to the Editor / Pharmacological Research 57 (2008) 89–90

      Stylianos Tsakiris a,∗ stsakir@...;
      Kleopatra H. Schulpis b inchildh@...;
      a Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School,
      Athens University, P.O. Box 65257, GR-15401 Athens, Greece

      b Inborn Errors of Metabolism Department, Institute of Child
      Health, Research Center, Greece
      ∗ Corresponding author.
      E-mail addresses:
      S. Tsakiris stsakir@...;
      K.H. Schulpis inchildh@...;

      Pharmacological Research 57 (2008) 87–88
      Response to “The effect of aspartame on the acetylcholinesterase
      activity in hippocampal homogenates of suckling rats”
      by Simintzi et al.

      Eyassu G. Abegaz ∗
      Robert G. Bursey
      Ajinomoto Corporate Services LLC,
      Scientific & Regulatory Affairs,
      1120 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 1010, Washington, DC 20036,
      United States

      ∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 202 457 0284;
      fax: +1 202 457 0107.
      E-mail addresses: abegazee@...; (E.G. Abegaz),
      burseyb@...; (R.G. Bursey)

      Keywords:
      Aspartame; Aspartate; Phenylalanine; Methanol; AChE activity

      Tsakiris S, Schulpis KH.
      Answer to letter sent by Professor A.G. Renwick
      (University of Southampton, UK)
      related to Simintzi et al. report published in Food and Chemical
      Toxicology 2007; 45(12): 2397-401.
      Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar; 46(3): 1208-9.
      Epub 2007 Oct 25. No abstract available. PMID: 18054419
      doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.10.016
      Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

      Renwick AG.
      The effect of aspartame metabolites on the suckling rat frontal cortex
      acetylcholinesterase. An in vitro study. By I. Simintzi, K.H. Schulpis,
      P. Angelogianni, C. Liapi and S. Tsakiris.
      Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar; 46(3): 1206-7.
      Epub 2007 Oct 26. No abstract available. PMID: 18061330

      1: Simintzi I, Schulpis KH, Angelogianni P, Liapi C, Tsakiris S.
      The effect of aspartame metabolites on the suckling rat frontal cortex
      acetylcholinesterase. An in vitro study.
      Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Dec;45(12):2397-401.
      Epub 2007 Jun 16. PMID: 17673349

      2: Simintzi I, Schulpis KH, Angelogianni P, Liapi C, Tsakiris S.
      L-Cysteine and glutathione restore the reduction of rat
      hippocampal Na+, K+-ATPase activity
      induced by aspartame metabolites.
      Toxicology. 2007 Jul 31;237(1-3):177-83.
      Epub 2007 May 18. PMID: 17602817

      3: Simintzi I, Schulpis KH, Angelogianni P, Liapi C, Tsakiris S.
      The effect of aspartame on acetylcholinesterase activity in
      hippocampal homogenates of suckling rats.
      Pharmacol Res. 2007 Aug;56(2):155-9.
      Epub 2007 May 13. PMID: 17580119

      4: Schulpis KH, Papassotiriou I, Parthimos T, Tsakiris T, Tsakiris S.
      The effect of L-cysteine and glutathione
      on inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase activity by aspartame metabolites
      in human erythrocyte membrane.
      Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 May;60(5):593-7. PMID: 16391576

      5: Tsakiris S, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Simintzi I, Schulpis KH.
      The effect of aspartame metabolites on human erythrocyte membrane
      acetylcholinesterase activity.
      Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jan;53(1):1-5.
      Epub 2005 Aug 29. PMID: 16129618



      C. Trocho (1998):
      "In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5 % of the
      label, half of it in the liver."

      They used a very low level of aspartame ingestion, 10 mg/kg, for rats,
      which have a much greater tolerance for aspartame than humans.
      So, the corresponding level for humans would be about 1 or 2 mg/kg.
      Many headache studies in humans used doses of about 30 mg/kg daily.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22

      http://ww.presidiotex.com/barcelona/index.html full text
      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame
      binds to tissue components in vivo.
      Life Sci June 26 1998; 63(5): 337-49.
      Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular,
      Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
      http://www.bq.ub.es/cindex.html Línies de Recerca: Toxicitat de
      l'aspartame http://www.bq.ub.es/grupno/grup-no.html
      Sra. Carme Trocho, Sra. Rosario Pardo, Dra. Immaculada Rafecas,
      Sr. Jordi Virgili, Dr. Xavier Remesar, Dr. Jose Antonio
      Fernandez-Lopez, Dr. Mari� Alemany [male]
      Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021521, FAX: (93)4021559
      Sra. Carme Trocho "Trok-ho" Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021544,
      FAX: (93)4021559 alemany@...;
      bioq@...

      Abstract:
      Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame,
      14C-labeled in the methanol carbon.
      At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma
      and several organs was investigated.
      Most of the radioactivity found (>98 % in plasma, >75 % in liver)
      was bound to protein.
      Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range
      of 1-2 % of total radioactivity administered per g or mL,
      changing little with time.
      Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain,
      cornea and retina) contained levels of label
      in the range of 1/12th to 1/10th of that of liver.
      In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration,
      about 5 % of the label, half of it in the liver.

      The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA
      was quite uniform.
      The protein label was concentrated in amino acids,
      different from methionine, and largely coincident
      with the result of protein exposure to labeled formaldehyde.
      DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base,
      different from the normal bases present in DNA.
      The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus,
      a direct consequence of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures.

      The administration of labeled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats
      resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components,
      which suggests that liver function (or its defect) has little effect
      on formaldehyde formation from aspartame
      and binding to biological components.

      The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of
      non-labeled aspartame during 10 days results in the accumulation
      of even more label when given the radioactive bolus,
      suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde adducts
      coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids
      may be cumulative.

      It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute
      a hazard because of its contribution
      to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID: 9714421

      [ Extracts ]
      "The high label presence in plasma and liver is in agreement with the
      carriage of the label from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein.
      The high label levels in kidney and, to a minor extent, in brown
      adipose tissue and brain are probably a consequence
      of their high blood flows (45).
      Even in white adipose tissue, the levels of radioactivity found 6 hours
      after oral administration were 1/25th those of liver.
      Cornea and retina, both tissues known to metabolize actively
      methanol (21,28) showed low levels of retained label.
      In any case, the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins
      was widespread, affecting all systems,
      fully reaching even sensitive targets such as the brain and retina....

      The amount of label recovered in tissue components was quite high
      in all the groups, but especially in the NA rats.
      In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the
      methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame,
      and the rest of the body stored an additional 2 % or more.
      These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
      substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also
      been considered carcinogenic (34,47).
      The repeated occurrence of claims that aspartame
      produces headache and other neurological and psychological
      secondary effects --
      more often than not challenged by careful analysis --
      (5, 9, 10, 15, 48)
      may eventually find at least a partial explanation in the permanence
      of the formaldehyde label,
      since formaldehyde intoxication can induce similar effects (49).

      The cumulative effects derived from the incorporation of label in the
      chronic administration model suggests that regular intake of aspartame
      may result in the progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts.
      It may be further speculated that the formation of adducts can help to
      explain the chronic effects aspartame consumption may induce on
      sensitive tissues such as brain (6, 9, 19, 50).
      In any case, the possible negative effects that the accumulation of
      formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously, long-term.
      The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs some time
      to induce substantial effects.
      The damage to nucleic acids, mainly to DNA,
      may eventually induce cell death and/or mutations.
      The results presented suggest that the conversion of aspartame
      methanol into formaldehyde adducts in significant amounts in vivo
      should to be taken into account because of the widespread utilization
      of this sweetener.
      Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to
      determine the extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption
      poses for humans."



      Many scientific studies and case histories report: * headaches
      * many body and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching,
      spasms, cramps, stiffness, numbness, difficulty swallowing)
      * fever, fatigue, swollen glands * "mind fog", "feel unreal",
      poor memory, confusion, anxiety, irritability, depression, mania,
      insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech, sexual problems,
      poor vision, hearing (deafness, tinnitus), or taste
      * red face, itching, rashes, allergic dermatitis, hair loss,
      burning eyes or throat, dry eyes or mouth, mouth sores,
      burning tongue * obesity, bloating, edema, anorexia,
      poor appetite or excessive hunger or thirst
      * breathing problems, shortness of breath
      * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness * sweating
      * racing heart, low or high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar levels
      * hypothryroidism or hyperthyroidism * seizures * birth defects
      * brain cancers * addiction * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies,
      lupus, ADHD, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome,
      multiple chemical sensitivity, multiple sclerosis, pseudotumor cerebri
      and interstitial cystitis (bladder pain).


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/870
      Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984: Monte:
      Murray 2002.09.23 rmforall

      Dr. Woodrow C. Monte Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
      Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984; 36 (1): 42-54.
      (62 references) Professsor of Food Science [retired 1992]
      Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287
      woodymonte@...; woodymonte@...;
      The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
      112 mg, 10% of the aspartame.
      The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily for methanol (wood alcohol),
      a deadly cumulative poison.
      Many users drink 1-2 L daily.
      The reported symptoms are entirely consistent with chronic methanol
      toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but, like all juices, has 16
      times more ethanol, which strongly protects against methanol.)

      "The greater toxicity of methanol to man is deeply rooted in the
      limited biochemical pathways available to humans for detoxification.
      The loss of uricase (EC 1.7.3.3.),
      formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.3.) (42)
      and other enzymes (18) during evolution sets man apart from all
      laboratory animals including the monkey (42).

      There is no generally accepted animal model
      for methanol toxicity (42, 59).

      Humans suffer "toxic syndrome" (54) at a minimum lethal dose
      of <1 gm/kg, much less than that of monkeys, 3-6 g/kg (42, 59).

      The minimum lethal dose of methanol
      in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9.5, 7.0 , and 8.0 g/kg, respectively (43);
      ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43)."

      Recent research [see links at end of post] supports his focus on the
      methanol to formaldehyde toxic process:

      "The United States Environmental Protection Agency in their
      Multimedia Environmental Goals for Environmental Assessment
      recommends a minimum acute toxicity concentration
      of methanol in drinking water at 3.9 parts per million,
      with a recommended limit of consumption below 7.8 mg/day (8).

      This report clearly indicates that methanol:

      "...is considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion
      once it is absorbed. In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde
      and formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic." (8)...

      Recently the toxic role of formaldehyde (in methanol toxicity) has been
      questioned (34).
      No skeptic can overlook the fact that, metabolically, formaldehyde
      must be formed as an intermediate to formic acid production (54).

      Formaldehyde has a high reactivity which may be why it has not been
      found in humans or other primates during methanol poisoning (59)....

      If formaldehyde is produced from methanol and does have a
      reasonable half life within certain cells in the poisoned organism
      he chronic toxicological ramifications could be grave.

      Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen (57) producing squanous-cell
      carcinomas by inhalation exposure in experimental animals (22).
      The available epidemiological studies do not provide adequate data
      for assessing the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in man (22, 24, 57).

      However, reaction of formaldehyde with deoxyribonucleic acid
      (DNA) has resulted in irreversible denaturation that could interfere
      with DNA replication and result in mutation (37)..."



      It is certain that high levels of aspartame use,
      above 2 liters daily for months and years,
      must lead to chronic formaldehyde-formic acid toxicity.

      Fully 11 % of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
      in 2 L diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol
      (wood alcohol). The methanol is immediately released
      into the body after drinking .
      Within hours, the liver turns much of the methanol into formaldehyde,
      and then much of that into formic acid, both of which in time
      are partially eliminated as carbon dioxide and water.

      However, about 30 % of the methanol remains in the body
      as cumulative durable toxic metabolites of formaldehyde
      and formic acid -- 37 mg daily,
      a gram every month, accumulating in and affecting every tissue.

      If only 10 % of the methanol is retained daily as formaldehyde,
      that would give 12 mg daily formaldehyde accumulation -- about
      60 times more than the 0.2 mg from 10 % retention
      of the 2 mg EPA daily limit for formaldehyde in drinking water.

      Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is
      1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
      ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July 1999:
      Murray 2002.05.30

      This long-term low-level chronic toxic exposure leads to typical
      patterns of increasingly severe complex symptoms,
      starting with headache, fatigue, joint pain, irritability, memory loss,
      rashes, and leading to vision and eye problems, and even seizures.
      In many cases there is addiction. Probably there are immune system
      disorders, with a hypersensitivity to these toxins and other chemicals.

      J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
      Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
      Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
      Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
      Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
      They found that about 70 % of the radioactive methanol in aspartame
      put into the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys
      was eliminated within 8 hours, with little additional elimination,
      as carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in the urine.
      They did not mention that this meant that about 30 % of the methanol
      must transform into formaldehyde and then into formic acid,
      both of which must remain as toxic products in all parts of the body.
      They did not report any studies on the distribution of radioactivity
      in body tissues, except that blood plasma proteins after 4 days
      held 4 % of the initial methanol.
      This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

      The low oral dose of aspartame and for methanol
      was 0.068 mmol/kg, about 1 part per million [ppm]
      of the acute toxicity level of 2,000 mg/kg, 67,000
      mmol/kg, used by McMartin (1979).
      Two L daily use of diet soda provides 123 mg methanol,
      2 mg/kg for a 60 kg person, a dose of 67 mmole/kg,
      a thousand times more than the dose in this study.
      By eight hours excretion of the dose in air and urine had leveled off at
      67.1 +-2.1 % as CO2 in the exhaled air
      and 1.57+-0.32 % in the urine, so 68.7 % was excreted,
      and 31.3 % was retained.
      This data is the average of 4 monkeys.
      "...the 14C in the feces was negligible."

      "That fraction not so excreted (about 31%) was converted to body
      constituents through the one-carbon metabolic pool."
      "All radioactivity measurements were counted to +-1 % accuracy..."
      This indicates that the results could not be claimed to have a precision of
      a tenth of a percent. OK, so this is a nit-pick -- but I believe espousing
      spurious accuracy is a sign of scientific insecurity.

      The abstract ends, "It was concluded that aspartame was digested to
      its three constituents that were then absorbed
      as natural constituents of the diet.
      Thus, the concept is very subtly insinuated that methanol, as a
      constituent of aspartame, is absorbed as a natural constituent
      of the diet.
      Nowhere in this report are mentioned the dread words,
      "formaldehyde" and "formic acid".

      Of course, methanol and formaldehyde toxicity studies are highly
      relevant to the issue of aspartame toxicity.
      [ Aspartame has to be turned into its toxic products,
      formaldehyde and formic acid, in the body, before it is toxic,
      so some pro-aspartame reseach studies test aspartame outside the
      body, and then proclaim that they have proved that it is not toxic. ]



      http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
      Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
      Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@...
      http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@...
      Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799
      West Palm Beach, FL 33416
      800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/669
      1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
      published May 30 2001 $ 60.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
      available at http://www.amazon.com
      over 600 references from standard medical research

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/790
      Moseley: review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic":
      Murray 2002.02.07 rmforall

      Roberts, Hyman J., 1924- ,
      Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
      anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
      aspartame disease, pages 627-685, 778-780

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/859
      Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician: aspartame toxicity:
      Murray 2002.08.02 rmforall



      Russell L. Blaylock, MD 601-982-1175 Madison, Mississippi
      "Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills", 1977, 298 p., 493 references.
      "Health and Nutrition Secrets that can save your life", 2002, 459 p.,
      558 + 30 references, $ 30 http://www.russellblaylockmd.com/

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1090
      aspartame, MSG, excitotoxins, NMDA glutamate receptors,
      multiple sclerosis: Blaylock: Murray 2004.06.09

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/97
      Lancet website aspartame letter 1999.07.29:
      Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 2000.01.14
      The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)
      http://www.dorway.com/blayenn.html



      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/935
      Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin
      in mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 2003.01.01
      [ Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
      using test groups of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
      liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg
      aspartame -- a very high dose. Methanol is the only component of
      aspartame that can lead to DNA damage. ]

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/961
      genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
      sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
      Murray 2003.01.27 [A detailed look at the data] ]


      MSG and Aspartame -- A Personal Story, TV health reporter
      Dick Allgire (vegetarian) healed of migraines and panic attacks:
      Murray 2008.02.12
      http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm
      Tuesday, February 12, 2008
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1520



      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/messages
      group with 1,080 members, 22,439 posts in a public archive
      E. Bryant Holman bryanth@...
      Carol Guilford CarolGuilford@...
      http://www.presidiotex.com/aspartame/ aspartame@...
      http://www.presidiotex.com/aspartame/Links/links.html

      http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@...
      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/GFCFKids/ an excellent group
      Gluten Free Casein Free Kids
      This list is unmoderated and unrestricted. The principle aim of this list is
      to provide a discussion forum for parents of children on the autism
      spectrum who are avoiding gluten and casein and other substances
      in their children's diets.
      9,108 members, 234,968 posts in public archive since Dec. 1998
      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/GFCFKids/links

      A very detailed, highly credible account of the dubious approval
      process for aspartame in July, 1981 is part of the just released
      two-hour documentary "Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World:
      An Industry Case Study of a Food Supply In Crisis"
      by Cori Brackett: cori@...
      http://www.soundandfuryproductions.com/ 520-624-9710
      2301 East Broadway, Suite 111 Tucson, AZ 85719

      Mary Nash Stoddard
      Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame"
      Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [since 1987]
      P.<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
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