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brief aspartame research review: Rich Murray 2008.02.10

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  • Rich Murray
    brief aspartame research review: Rich Murray 2008.02.10 http://rmforall.blogspot.com/2008_02_01_archive.htm Sunday, February 10, 2008
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 10, 2008
      brief aspartame research review: Rich Murray 2008.02.10
      Sunday, February 10, 2008

      metabolic syndrome is tied to diet soda, PL Lutsey, LM Steffen,
      J Stevens, Circulation 2008.01.22: role of formaldehyde and
      formic acid from methanol in wines, liquors, or aspartame?:
      Murray 2008.02.07

      "But the one-third who ate the most fried food increased their risk
      by 25 percent, compared with the one-third who ate the least, and
      surprisingly, the risk of developing metabolic syndrome was 34
      percent higher among those who drank one can of diet soda a day
      compared with those who drank none.

      "This is interesting," said Lyn M. Steffen, an associate professor of
      epidemiology at the University of Minnesota and a co-author of the
      paper, which was posted online in the journal Circulation on Jan. 22.
      "Why is it happening? Is it some kind of chemical in the diet soda,
      or something about the behavior of diet soda drinkers?""

      "The diet soda association was not hypothesized
      and deserves further study."

      vinyl acetate, ethyl alcohol, or aspartame in womb increases later
      cancers in adults with lifetime exposure in many studies, M Soffritti
      et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Basic Clin. Pharm. Toxicol. 2008 Feb.:
      Rich Murray 2008.02.07

      folic acid prevents neurotoxicity from formic acid, made by body from
      methanol impurity in alcohol drinks [ also 11 % of aspartame ],
      BM Kapur, PL Carlen, DC Lehotay, AC Vandenbroucke,
      Y Adamchik, U. of Toronto, 2007 Dec., Alcoholism Cl. Exp. Res.:
      Murray 2007.11.27

      details on 6 epidemiological studies since 2004 on diet soda (mainly
      aspartame) correlations, as well as 14 other mainstream studies on aspartame
      toxicity since summer 2005: Murray 2007.11.27

      aspartame groups and books:
      updated research review of 2004.07.16: Murray 2006.05.11

      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent USA toxicologists
      re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies 2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

      ASDA (unit of Wal-Mart Stores WMT.N) and Marks & Spencer
      will join Tesco and also Sainsbury to ban and limit aspartame, MSG,
      artificial flavors dyes preservatives additives, trans fats, salt "nasties"
      to protect kids from ADHD: leading UK media:
      Murray 2007.05.15

      Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose) and coloring agents will
      be banned from use in newly-born and baby foods, the European Parliament
      decided: Latvia ban in schools 2006: Murray 2007.07.12

      highly toxic formaldehyde, the cause of alcohol hangovers, is
      made by the body from 100 mg doses of methanol from
      dark wines and liquors, dimethyl dicarbonate, and aspartame:
      Murray 2007.08.31

      FEMA slow to safety test Katrina toxic trailers, Charles Babington,
      Associated Press -- 1 ppm formaldehyde in air is about half the
      daily dose from 3 cans aspartame diet soda and ten times the
      1999 EPA alarm level for drinking water: Murray 2007.07.23

      "Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority, to enjoy
      peace, joy, and love by helping to find, quickly share, and positively
      act upon evidence about healthy and safe food, drink, and

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      http://RMForAll.blogspot.com new primary archive

      group with 120 members, 1,516 posts in a public archive

      how to send aspartame info to
      Hawaii House of Representatives Health Committee
      for 8 AM Friday Feb. 8 session: Rich Murray 2008.02.06
      Wednesday, February 6, 2008

      Trojan saying: "Beware of Greeks bearing gifts..."

      Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2007; 37(8): 629-727. 98 pages
      Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels,
      regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.
      Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, Kroes RM, Marsh GM,
      Pariza MW, Spencer PS, Waddell WJ, Walker R, Williams GM.
      Burdock Group, Washington, DC, USA. bmagnuso@...;

      Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic
      nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide
      in over 6000 products.

      The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific
      literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption
      levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies
      on aspartame.

      Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special
      subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug
      dministration and European Food Safety Authority established
      acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively.

      Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose
      will have an effect on some biochemical parameters,
      including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels.

      The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following
      administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal
      to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially.

      Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and
      its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and
      dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with
      doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day.
      [ Humans are about ten times more vulnerable to methanol
      (formaldehyde) toxicity than any animal. ]

      Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on
      aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is
      [ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1453
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent USA toxicologists
      re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies 2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18 ]

      The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of
      neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the
      hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous
      system function, learning or behavior.

      Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control
      studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study
      with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured.

      The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame
      and cancer in any tissue.

      The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current
      levels of consumption as a nonnutritive sweetener.
      PMID: 17828671

      bias, omissions, incuriosity = opportunity, aspartame safety
      evaluation, Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Williams GM, 7 more,
      2007 Sept, Ajinomoto funded 98 pages html [$ 32 781888262_content.pdf]:
      Murray 2007.09.15
      Saturday, September 15, 2007 [ for full text ]


      Herein I give selections from ASE, along with critical comments and
      notes in square brackets, along with their 415 references.....

      [ just the start of my critique... ]

      [ The following critiques will be appreciated by the few who have the
      tenacity to plow through the tedious mazes of red herrings, omitted
      studies, incuriosity, bias, cursory dismissals, unexamined details,
      ignored opportunities, spiced with sonorous PR spin:
      "...the most tested food additive in history,"
      "...used in over 6,000 products worldwide,"
      "...approved by FDA, WHO, EU FSA,
      American Diabetes Assc., etc,"
      "...components are part of normal foods and metabolism in much
      greater amounts,"
      "...finally put to rest all the rumors on the Net, using a tiny minority
      of allergic individuals to opportunistically impugn distingished
      experts, who are valiantly protecting diabetics and the obese against
      the ravages of sugar."

      faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
      Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok,
      Poland, abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde,
      formic acid, acetaldehyde, lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging:
      Murray 2004.08.08 2005.07.11

      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
      2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

      critique of aspartame review
      by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
      Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.05.14

      [ Here's a useful list... ]

      reference 42:
      Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 Apr; 35(2 Pt 2): S1-93.
      Aspartame: review of safety.
      Butchko HH,
      Stargel WW,
      Comer CP,
      Mayhew DA,
      Benninger C,
      Blackburn GL,
      de Sonneville LM,
      Geha RS,
      Hertelendy Z,
      Koestner A,
      Leon AS,
      Liepa GU,
      McMartin KE,
      Mendenhall CL,
      Munro IC,
      Novotny EJ,
      Renwick AG,
      Schiffman SS,
      Schomer DL,
      Shaywitz BA,
      Spiers PA,
      Tephly TR,
      Thomas JA,
      Trefz FK.
      Medical and Scientific Affairs, The NutraSweet Company,
      Mt Prospect, Illinois 60056, USA.

      Over 20 years have elapsed since aspartame was approved by
      regulatory agencies as a sweetener and flavor enhancer.

      The safety of aspartame and its metabolic constituents was
      established through extensive toxicology studies in laboratory
      animals, using much greater doses than people could possibly

      Its safety was further confirmed through studies in several human
      subpopulations, including healthy infants, children, adolescents,
      and adults; obese individuals; diabetics; lactating women; and
      individuals heterozygous (PKUH) for the genetic disease
      phenylketonuria (PKU) who have a decreased ability to metabolize
      the essential amino acid, phenylalanine.

      Several scientific issues continued to be raised after approval,
      largely as a concern for theoretical toxicity from its metabolic
      components -- the amino acids, aspartate and phenylalanine,
      and methanol -- even though dietary exposure to these components
      is much greater than from aspartame.

      Nonetheless, additional research, including evaluations of possible
      associations between aspartame and headaches, seizures, behavior,
      cognition, and mood as well as allergic-type reactions and use by
      potentially sensitive subpopulations, has continued after approval.

      These findings are reviewed here.

      The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required
      to evaluate the safety of a food additive.

      When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both
      the premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a
      whole, it is clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved
      questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.
      PMID: 12180494

      ASE "6.3.1. Two-Year Bioassay Studies

      Aspartame was first approved by FDA as a nonnutritive sweetener
      in 1974, based on the toxicity studies that were conducted by
      the Searle Laboratories.

      Chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition
      product, DKP, were conducted in mice, rats, and dogs.

      A 46-week study with aspartame was also performed with hamsters.

      Table 15 provides a summary of these studies.

      The carcinogenic potential of these compounds is discussed
      in the next sections.

      Following the approval of aspartame, a formal objection was
      submitted to the FDA (FDA, 1981) questioning the conclusions
      from the rodent studies on aspartame conducted by Searle, and
      proposing that aspartame may have the potential to cause brain tumors
      in humans.

      This objection resulted in FDA staying the regulation approving
      the marketing of aspartame in 1975, and the establishment of a
      Public Board of Inquiry to reexamine the studies submitted by
      Searle to the FDA.

      Prior to the evaluation by the Board, the 15 studies submitted by
      Searle were thoroughly audited by the Universities Associated for
      Research and Education in Pathology, Inc. (UAREP)
      and by the FDA.

      The findings of the UAREP, the FDA,
      and the Public Board of Inquiry were considered and evaluated
      by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, resulting in the issuance
      of the commissioner's Final Decision that at projected levels
      of consumption, aspartame would not pose a risk of brain damage
      and will not cause brain tumors (FDA docket, 75F-0355, 1981)
      (FDA, 1981).

      This decision resulted in FDA vacating the stay of the original
      1974 regulation.

      Objections to the of the use of aspartame were again filed with the
      FDA in 1983; however, the regulations approving the use of
      aspartame was not stayed following these objections, as the
      FDA stated that they failed to create sufficient doubt
      about the safety of aspartame.

      A response to the objections and a denial for a hearing was issued in
      1984 by the Acting Commissioner of Food and Drugs (FDA docket
      75F-0355 and 82F-0305) (FDA, 1984; Wurtman and Maher, 1987). "

      [ In fact the FDA brought suit against Searle for its radically biased,
      improper scientific studies.

      The industry won by persuading the FDA's two attorneys to let
      the legal process languish.

      Soon, the attorneys inexplicably found peasant, prosperous futures
      in the industry's networks.

      Similar adroit exercises in corporate realpolitik were led by the CEO
      of Searle, none other than that modest American hero,
      Donald Rumsfeld, who used Reagan's victory to immediately
      manipulate the FDA's approval by a brand new Commisioner,
      Arthur Hull Hayes, in July, 1981, of aspartame in dry foods,
      and then in beverages two years later, whereupon the fortunate Commissioner,
      troubled by hints of political corruption, found
      a gracious post with the industry's PR agency.

      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon,
      UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23 ]

      www.burdockgroup.com/ info@...,
      Florida office 888-628-7362
      2001 9th Ave, Suite 301
      Vero Beach, FL 32960
      phone: 772-562-3900 fax: 772-562-3908
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      * All GRAS Notifications were successful
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      * 2nd Food Safety Technology Forum 2007 in Shanghai, China
      on Aug. 28-29
      * Burdock Group Scientific Presentations at IFT 2007
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      Summit June 5-7 in Great Exuma, Bahamas
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      Industry Symposium May 20-23 in Lexington, Kentucky
      * Dr.Burdock attends the June 19, 2007 Dietary Supplements
      Stakeholder Forum in Bethesda, MD
      * Dr. Burdock attends the CHPA/CRN Adverse Event Reporting
      Seminar in Bethesda, MD on June 20, 2007
      * Dr. Burdock attends the National Toxicology Program (NTP)
      Board of Scientific Counselors meeting on June 22, 2007
      in Research Triangle Park, NC
      * Dr. Matulka attends the June 26-28, 2007 CSL/JIFSAN Joint Symposium on
      Food Safety and Nutrition: Nanotechnology in
      Foods and Cosmetics

      About Us
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      Formed over a decade ago in response to the need for the safety
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      Together, we form a cohesive team
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      Industry-funded study calls aspartame safe
      Tue Sep 11, 2007 10:58PM EDT
      By Will Dunham

      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A review of 500 studies conducted
      over a quarter century has turned up no credible evidence that the
      widely used artificial sweetener aspartame is unsafe, industry-funded
      research released on Tuesday showed.

      A panel of American, British and Dutch experts rejected the notion
      that aspartame causes cancer, seizures, neurological damage or
      learning problems, or contributes to obesity.

      The panel did conclude that some people might be prone to
      headaches after consuming it.

      The group did not conduct original research but assessed existing
      studies on the safety of aspartame, first approved by the U.S.
      Food and Drug Administration in 1981. It is widely used in diet
      soft drinks and sold in packets for use in coffee, tea or on food.

      The panel saw consumption of it increasing, but called it safe for
      adults or children and even among the heaviest users.

      "Controlled and thorough scientific studies confirm aspartame's
      safety and find no credible link between consumption of aspartame
      at levels found in the human diet and conditions related to the nervous
      system and behavior, nor any other symptom or illness,"
      the researchers said in a paper published in the journal
      Critical Reviews in Toxicology.

      "There is no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic,"
      they added.

      Michael F. Jacobson, PhD, executive director of the consumer group
      Center for Science in the Public Interest, said the study grossly
      exaggerates the importance of studies doubting health risks while
      rejecting studies identifying possible problems.

      Jacobson said "clouds of doubt" linger about aspartame's safety
      and said it would be wise to minimize consumption of it until the
      research is definitive. "This review is totally unreliable and people
      should simply ignore it," Jacobson said.

      Since its approval, some people have argued that aspartame can
      cause a variety of illnesses, and various Web sites such as
      www.sweetpoison.com denounce the sweetener.


      The researchers rejected the findings of a study published in June
      by Italian scientists that showed aspartame might cause leukemia,
      lymphoma and breast cancer in rats. University of Maryland food
      and nutrition professor Bernadene Magnuson said that study was undermined by
      "numerous methodological and interpretation errors."

      The FDA said after that study was published that it saw no reason
      to alter its view that aspartame is safe.

      Magnuson said one possible area of concern was research
      indicating some may get headaches after consuming aspartame.
      Magnuson cited conflicting results in headache studies, but said that
      "a small subset of the population" may have some sensitivity to
      aspartame-induced headaches.

      The panel reviewed more than 500 human and animal studies,
      articles and reports performed in the past 25 years.

      "Certainly it is one of the most studied compounds ever," panel
      chairman Dr. William Waddell of the University of Louisville
      told reporters, saying the panel's 98-page report should put to rest
      safety concerns relating to aspartame.

      The panel's work was funded by Japanese food and seasonings giant
      Ajinomoto Co, a maker of aspartame. Magnuson said the company
      had no control over who was on the panel or how their work was
      done, and panel members did not know who was funding the work
      until it was done.

      "I have no qualms in terms of who funded the study," Magnuson
      told reporters.

      Aspartame is used in more than 6,000 food products worldwide.

      Merisant Co is another leading aspartame company, with the brands
      Equal, Canderel and NutraSweet.

      $ 32

      Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels,
      Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies
      FOODS *
      List of Figures
      List of Tables

      Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels,
      Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies

      Authors: [ I give details from Google and PubMed searches. ]

      Bernadene A. Magnuson a; [ Bernadene A. Magnuson
      Assistant Professor, Nutrition and Food Science

      Expertise Key Words:
      Prevention of colon cancer by food components, including vitamins,
      nutrients and non-nutrients, such as plant and spice compounds;
      Safety assessment of foods, food ingredients and dietary supplements
      using toxicology data and risk assessment principles.

      Expertise Credentials:
      Over 25 peer-reviewed publications and several patents in cancer
      prevention research and food toxicology.
      Past-chair, Toxicology and safety evaluation division of Institute of
      Food Technology,
      Councilor for Food safety subdivision of Society of Toxicology,
      Editorial board of Journal of Food Protection
      and ad hoc reviewer for numerous journals.
      Experience in food toxicology and safety assessment for private
      industry, food regulations and FDA compliance issues.
      Frequent presentor of food safety issues at national and international

      Faculty Webpage

      Contact Information:
      Work phone 301-405-4523
      E-mail bmagnuso@...,
      3209 Marie Mount Hall
      College Park, MD 20742

      Ph.D., Nutrition and Food Science, University of Manitoba
      M. Sc, Toxicology, University of Saskatchewan
      B.S.H.Ec, Food Science, University of Saskatchewan ]

      George A. Burdock b; gburdock@...,



      G.A. Burdock, I.G. Carabin and J.C. Griffiths (2007)
      Breaking Down the Barriers to Functional Foods, Chapter XX. In:
      Nutraceutical And Functional Food Regulation In The United States
      and Around The World, a volume of the Food Science and
      Technology Series.
      D. Bagchi (ed). Elsevier, NY (accepted and in press).

      Flavor and Extract Manufactures Association (FEMA)
      1986-1992 Washington, D.C.
      Director of Scientific Affairs
      Dr. Burdock managed the FEMA scientific programs, coordinated
      the research activities of the testing laboratories, and communicated
      with external consultants and allied industry committees working
      with FEMA.
      As the primary scientific liaison, Dr. Burdock guided member
      companies with the preparation of submissions to the FEMA Expert
      Panel for GRAS review, alerted Expert Panel and Association
      members to scientific developments in the food and flavor industry,
      and identified changes in the regulatory policies as a result of these

      He authored and edited comprehensive literature reviews on flavor
      additives and other topics relevant to the Association's interests.

      Ph.D. in Toxicology, School of Pharmacy,
      University of Mississippi, 1980
      Master of Combined Sciences, Physiology and Biochemistry,
      University of Mississippi, 1973
      Bachelor of Science, Biology, University of Mississippi, 1969

      F. Kotsonis, and G.A. Burdock (2007) Chapter 30: Food Toxicology.
      In: Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 8th edition
      C.D. Klaassen (Ed.) Pergamon Press, New York.
      (accepted and in press)

      Assessment of Aspartame
      edited by: Christian Tschanz, Harriett Butchko, W.W. Stargel,
      Frank Kotsonis 1996 308 pages $134.00 + shipping

      Dr. Kotsonis was corporate vice president of World Wide
      Regulatory Sciences (1995-2000) at the Monsanto Company,
      senior vice president of Preclinical and Clinical Research at the
      NutraSweet Company,
      director of toxicology at G.D.Searle,
      and adjunct professor of toxicology at the Philadelphia College of
      Pharmacy and Science.
      He retired after 23 years at Monsanto in May 2000.

      Burdock Group, 888, 17th Street, NW, Suite 810,
      Washington, DC 20006, USA.

      G.A. Burdock, Handbook of Flavour Ingredients, CRC Press, 2002.

      G. A. Burdock, Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives,.
      Vol. I, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1997. ]

      John Doull c; [ Dr. John Doull, MD, PhD
      Professor Emeritus
      Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics
      Main Phone Number: (913) 588-7508
      Mailing Address:
      4027 Kansas Life Sciences Innovations Center
      Mail Stop 1018
      3901 Rainbow Blvd.
      Kansas City, KS 66160

      Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons
      (Editors, CD Klaassen, MO Amdur, J Doull).
      Fifth Edition.McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, USA, 1996.

      Toxicol Rev. 2005; 24(1): 1-10.
      The potential adverse health effects of dental amalgam.
      Brownawell AM, Berent S, Brent RL, Bruckner JV, Doull J,
      Gershwin EM, Hood RD, Matanoski GM,
      Rubin R, Weiss B, Karol MH.
      "This review has uncovered no convincing evidence pointing to any
      adverse health effects that are attributable to dental amalgam
      restorations besides hypersensitivity in some individuals.
      PMID: 16042501"

      Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001; 41: 1-21.
      Toxicology comes of age.
      Doull J.
      Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics,
      University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas 66160, USA.

      This paper contains recollections of some of the people and
      events that influenced the development of toxicology as an
      academic discipline. It also describes my experiences in
      pharmacology at the University of Chicago and the University
      of Kansas Medical Center and concludes with speculation
      concerning the future of toxicology.
      Moderation in all things/Ne quid nimis. --
      Terence in Andria PMID: 11264448 ]

      Robert M. Kroes d; [[deceased] No items in PubMed

      1972 -- National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health,
      Bethesda, Maryland 20014

      Contact (for editorial): Bert Brunekreef, Ph.D.,
      Institute for Risk Assessment Services, Universiteit Utretcht
      P.O. Box 80178 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands
      Phone: + 31 30 253 9494 ]

      Gary M. Marsh e;
      [ www.biostat.pitt.edu/marsh.htm

      A410 Crabtree Hall
      130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
      Telephone: 412-624-3032 Facsimile: 412-624-9969
      Email: gmarsh@...;

      B.S., University of Pittsburgh, 1973
      M.S.(Hyg), University of Pittsburgh, 1974
      Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1977

      "Mis-Specified and Non-Robust Mortality Risk Models for
      Naspharyngeal Cancer
      in the National Cancer Institute Formaldehyde Worker Cohort Study." Marsh
      GM, Youk AO, Morfeld P.
      Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, In Press, 2006.

      "Reevaluation of Mortality Risk from Nasopharyngeal Cancer in the
      Formaldehyde Cohort Study of the National Cancer Institute."
      Marsh GM, Youk AO.
      Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 42: 275-283, 2005.

      "Pharyngeal Cancer Mortality among Chemical Plant Workers
      Exposed to Formaldehyde."
      Marsh GM, Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Cassidy LD,
      Lucas LJ, Esmen NA, Gathuru I.
      Toxicology and Industrial Health, 18: 257-268, 2002
      (actual publication date January 2004).

      "Formaldehyde Exposure and Respiratory Tract Cancer Among
      Chemical Plant Workers: An Updated Cohort Study
      and New Nested Case-Control Study."
      Marsh GM, Youk AO, Buchanich JM, Cassidy LD,
      Lucas LJ, Esmen NA, Gathuru I.
      Toxicology and Industrial Health18: 257-268, 2002
      (actual publication date January 2004).

      "Historical Cohort Study of U.S. Man-Made Vitreous Fiber
      Production Workers.
      III. Analysis of Exposure-Weighted Measures of Respirable
      Fibers and Formaldehyde in the Nested Case-Control
      Study of Respiratory System Cancer."
      Youk AO, Marsh GM, Stone RA, Buchanich JM, Smith TJ.
      Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 43: 767-778, 2001.

      "Mortality Patterns among Chemical Workers in a Factory Where
      Formaldehyde Was Used."
      Marsh GM, Stone RA, Esmen NA, Henderson VH, Lee KY.
      Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53: 613-617, 1996.

      "Mortality Among Chemical Plant Workers Exposed to
      Formaldehyde and Other Substances."
      Marsh GM, Stone RA, Esmen NA, Henderson VL.
      Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86: 384-385, 1994.

      "Lung Cancer Mortality among Industrial Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde: A
      Poisson Regression Analysis of the National Cancer Institute Study."
      Marsh GM, Stone RA, Henderson V.
      American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 53: 681-691, 1992.

      "A Reanalysis of the National Cancer Institute Study on Mortality
      Among Industrial Workers Exposed to Formaldehyde."
      Marsh GM, Stone RA, Henderson V.
      Journal of Occupational Medicine 34: 42-44, 1992.


      Gary M. Marsh, M.S., Ph.D.
      Gary M. Marsh, Ph.D. is professor of biostatistics at the University
      of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health.
      He received his B.S. degree in mathematics (cum laude) in 1973
      from the University of Pittsburgh and his M.S. (Hyg.)
      and Ph.D. degrees in biostatistics in from the
      University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health in 1974
      and 1977, respectively.
      Dr. Marsh has more than 150 publications in the areas of biostatistics,
      occupational and environmental epidemiology, quantitative risk
      assessment, statistical computing and health services evaluation.
      He is the senior author of the computer software package,
      OCMAP (Occupational Cohort Mortality Analysis Program),
      which is used as a standard analytic tool by more than
      150 domestic and 40 foreign institutions
      involved in occupational health research.
      Dr. Marsh is also developer of the Mortality and Population Data
      System (MPDS), a repository and retrieval system for
      National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and U.S. Census
      Bureau data,
      which is regularly accessed by scores of domestic occupational
      and environmental health researchers.

      Dr. Marsh directs occupational epidemiologic studies to investigate
      the long -term health effects of exposure to such agents as man-made mineral
      fibers, formaldehyde,
      acrylamide, acrylonitrile, arsenic, chloroprene, petrochemicals,
      aromatic amines, and pharmaceuticals.

      In addition, he conducts environmental epidemiologic studies of
      communities exposed to industrial pollutants or to hazardous
      waste site materials and is involved in basic methodological
      research related to
      longitudinal data analysis and quantitative risk assessment.
      He also directs programs of biostatistical support for the
      health outcome research and quality improvement areas of large
      health maintenance organizations, and for the occupational and environmental
      health areas of corporations and trade organizations.
      Dr. Marsh teaches graduate-level courses in applied biostatistics,
      sampling theory and meta-analysis, and directs several masters and
      doctoral level students.
      Within the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public
      Health, he established the Biostatistics Consulting Laboratory and
      directs the National Center for Health Statistics data sharing program.

      Michael W. Pariza f;
      [ www.wisc.edu/fri/pariza.htm
      Professor, Department of Food Microbiology & Toxicology
      Director, Food Research Institute
      Wisconsin Distinguished Professor
      University of Wisconsin-Madison
      1925 Willow Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1187
      telephone: 608-263-6955 fax: 608-263-1114
      email: mwpariza@...;

      * Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Food

      * BS 1967, Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
      * MS 1969, Microbiology, Kansas State University
      * PhD 1973, Microbiology, Kansas State University
      * Postdoc, McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research,
      University of Wisconsin-Madison

      * Dietary aspects of carcinogenesis.
      * Biological significance of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

      Dhiman, T. R., L. D. Satter, M. W. Pariza, M. P. Galli,
      K. Albright, and M. X. Tolosa.
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered
      diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid.
      J. Dairy Sci. 83: 1016-1027 (2000).

      Pariza, M. W., Y. Park, and M. E. Cook.
      Conjugated linoleic acid and the control of cancer and obesity.
      Toxicol. Sci. 52(Suppl.): 107-110 (1999). ]

      Peter S. Spencer g;

      [ /www.ohsu.edu/croet/faculty/spencer/

      Peter S. Spencer, Director,
      Center for Research on
      Occupational and Environmental Toxicology.
      Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.
      Ph: 503-494-4273 Fax: 503-494-4278 E-mail: spencer@...;
      3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, L606
      Portland, Oregon 97239-3098

      Peter Spencer, PhD, FRCPath
      * Senior Scientist and Director, CROET
      * Principal Investigator, NIEHS-supported Superfund Basic
      Research Center
      * Principal Investigator, NIEHS-supported (Neuro)toxicogenomics and Child
      Health Research Center
      * Professor of Neurology, OHSU School of Medicine
      and member of the interdepartmental Neuroscience faculty of OHSU
      * Adjunct Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine,
      Oregon State University
      * Honorary international appointments include Professor, Chinese
      Academy of Preventive Medicine
      (now China Center for Disease Control);
      Honorary Professor, Sichuan University;
      Honorary Professor, Guangxi Medical University;
      Advisory Professor, Fudan University;
      and Advisory Professor Jiangsu University, P.R. China

      After earning his doctoral degree in Pathology
      from the University of London, Faculty of Medicine,
      Dr. Spencer joined the Albert Einstein College of Medicine,
      New York, where he rose to the rank of
      Tenured Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology and Pathology,
      and Director, Institute of Neurotoxicology.
      He joined Oregon Health Sciences University in 1988 to found
      the Center for
      Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology.

      Dr. Spencer has authored more than 350 scientific papers and seven
      books, including the standard text Experimental and Clinical
      Neurotoxicology, the second edition which was published in 2000.
      The entire first edition of the book is available online.

      Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology
      by Peter S. Spencer, Herbert H. Schaumburg, and Albert C. Ludolph
      (Hardcover - Mar 2000) Buy new: CDN $ 227.50

      Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology - 1980 - 929 pages
      Disorders of Peripheral Nerves - 1992 - 348 pages
      Recent Advances in Nervous System Toxicology - 1988 ]

      William J. Waddell h;
      [ William J. Waddell, M.D.
      14300 Rose Wycombe Lane, Prospect, Ky 40059
      Phone: 502-228-4220 FAX: 502-228-6779
      Email: bwaddell@...;
      Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine,
      University of Louisville, KY, USA.

      Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Jul; 25(7): 413-36
      Critique of dose response in carcinogenesis.
      Waddell WJ.
      Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine,
      University of Louisville, KY, USA. bwaddell@...;

      "...It is pointed out that there is strong experimental evidence that
      the mere presence of DNA adducts does not necessarily
      lead to tumor production.
      Hormesis probably applies to carcinogenesis and proof of this will
      require abandoning the no threshold concept.
      Experiments showing that cumulative dose is a better metric than daily
      dose may require reevaluating almost all carcinogenicity studies.
      PMID: 16898170"

      Tamburro CH, Waddell WJ.
      Cancers of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and formaldehyde
      J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987 Sep; 79(3): 605. No abstract available.
      PMID: 3476796 ]

      Ron Walker i;
      [ Dr. Ron Walker, professor, School of Biological Sciences,
      University of Surrey, UK. R.Walker@...;


      Asian Food Information Centre

      Professor Ron Walker is Emeritus Professor of Food Science,
      School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, UK.
      [retired before 2007]
      A food toxicologist, with research interests in food additives and
      contaminants, Professor Walker has served on the Food and
      Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization Expert
      Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) for 19 years
      and since 1993 has acted as Chairman or Vice-chairman.
      AFIC caught up with Professor Walker at the seminar on Risk
      Assessment and Use of High-intensity Sweeteners,
      Bangkok, Thailand on November 10, 1999.
      The meeting was organised by
      the International Life Sciences Institute, Thailand,
      the Food and Drug Administration, Thailand,
      and the Thai Ministry of Public Health.
      "All sweeteners have undergone extensive research and
      development and rigorous safety assessments and evaluation
      before they are approved.
      Once approved by regulatory bodies, they are deemed safe
      for human consumption.
      Acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate and
      alitame have all been reviewed and found safe by the
      Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)
      of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization
      and the World Health Organization." ]

      Gary Murray Williams j
      [ gary_williams@...;

      Professor, Pathology
      Dept. of Pathology
      Basic Sciences Building, New York Medical College
      Valhalla, NY 10595

      Professional Interests:

      The research in Dr. Williams' laboratory focuses on mechanisms
      of chemical carcinogenesis and procedures for identifying chemical
      Investigations are being pursued on the pathogenesis of liver cancer
      induced either by agents that attack DNA or that operate through
      indirect or epigenetic mechanisms.
      Aspects of particular interest are the shapes of dose-response
      curves for these two types of agents, and the identification of
      thresholds for cellular effects.
      The laboratory has a major project on interaction between ultraviolet
      irradiation and chemicals to produce photochemical mutagenicity and
      In studying procedures for identifying chemical carcinogens, emphasis
      has been placed on techniques for measuring interaction with DNA to
      detect genotoxic agents.
      Also under investigation are methods for inhibiting chemical-induced


      Washington and Jefferson College,
      Washington, Pa. B.A. 1963; Magna Cum Laude
      University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,
      Pittsburgh, Pa. M.D., 1967

      1999 - present Professor of Pathology, Department of Pathology,
      Director of
      Environmental Pathology and Toxicology,
      Head, Program on Medicine, Food and Chemical Safety,
      Professor of Clinical Public Health, School of Public Health,
      New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York;

      1992 Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
      Longevity and Aging:
      Environmental and Nutritional Influences on Aging and Cancer
      Experimental Gerontology, Volume 27, Special Issue, 1992

      1993 Editor-in-Chief, Antioxidants Chemical, Physiological,
      Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects,
      Princeton Scientific Publish. Co.

      1994-present Area Editor for Carcinogenesis, Drug and Chemical Toxicology.

      1997 Co-Editor, Reducing Dietary Fat: Putting Theory into
      Journal of The American Dietetic Association,
      Volume 97, Supplement 1,

      2002 International Symposium on
      Antimutagenesis and Anticarcinogenesis,
      New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY

      1993-2005 Member, Board of Trustees, International Life Sciences
      Institute, Health and Environmental Sciences Institute.
      Chair, Membership Development Committee, 2002-2003.

      2005 International Life Sciences Institute, Health and Environmental
      Sciences Institute, Emerging Issues Subcommittee on Biological
      Significance of DNA Adducts.

      2006 International Life Sciences Institute, Health and Environmental
      Sciences Institute, Scientific Advisor. ]


      a Burdock Group, Washington, DC, USA
      b Burdock Group, Vero Beach, Florida, USA
      c University of Kansas Medical School, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
      d Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands
      e University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
      f University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
      g Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
      h University of Louisville Medical School, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
      i University of Surrey, Guilford, Great Britain
      j New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA

      DOI: 10.1080/10408440701516184
      Publication Frequency: 10 issues per year
      Published in: journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology,
      Volume 37, Issue 8 September 2007 , pages 629-727 98 pages
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