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Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naude H, U. Pretoria, South Africa, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8: Murray 2007.08.12

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  • Rich Murray
    Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain, Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naude H, U. Pretoria, South Africa, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8:
    Message 1 of 2 , Aug 12, 2007
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      Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain,
      Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naude H, U. Pretoria, South Africa, Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8: Murray 2007.08.12
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1463


      "The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect
      cellular effects of aspartame on the brain,
      and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion
      might be involved in the pathogenesis
      of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000)
      and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning."

      [ See also:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1462
      NutraSweet Co. will retail in October NutraSweet (aspartame) label
      with Domino Foods partnership, and plans saccharin, "natural-based",
      and sucralose products, Mike Hughlett, Chicago Tribune: Michael S.
      Dell via his MSD Capital has huge investment in aspartame competitor
      Merisant, while his fine foundation lavishly funds research on kid
      health: Murray 2007.08.11

      Might Michael and Susan Dell be the first American executives
      to join the leaders of all the leading supermarket chains
      in the United Kingdom who banned aspartame, MSG,
      and other dietary neurotoxins this May? ]


      Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 8; [Epub ahead of print]
      Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain.
      Humphries P,
      Pretorius E, resia.pretorius@...
      Naude H.
      [1] Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng,
      South Africa
      [2] Department of Anatomy, University of the Limpopo, South Africa.

      The use of the artificial sweetener, aspartame, has long been
      contemplated and studied by various researchers, and people are
      concerned about its negative effects.

      Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%)
      and methanol (10%).

      Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation,
      whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory
      neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

      Glutamate, asparagines and glutamine are formed from their precursor,
      aspartic acid.

      Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in
      the body to formate,
      which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde,
      diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic
      derivatives.

      Previously, it has been reported that consumption of aspartame
      could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive
      individuals.

      Headaches, insomnia and seizures are also some of the neurological
      effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to
      changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines,
      which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine.

      The aim of this study was to discuss the direct and indirect
      cellular effects of aspartame on the brain,
      and we propose that excessive aspartame ingestion
      might be involved in the pathogenesis
      of certain mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR 2000)
      and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning.

      European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication,
      8 August 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602866.
      PMID: 17684524

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1452
      phenylalanine and aspartic acid from low dose aspartame
      in rabbits interfere with blood coagulation,
      Pretorius E and Humphries P, U. of Pretoria,
      Ultrastruct Pathol 2007 March: Murray 2007.07.14


      " The authors conclude by suggesting that aspartame usage
      may interfere with the coagulation process
      and might cause delayed fibrin breakup after clot formation.

      They suggest this,
      as the fibrin networks from aspartame-exposed rabbits
      are more complex and dense,
      due to the netlike appearance of the minor, thin fibers.

      Aspartame usage should possibly be limited
      by people on anti-clotting medicine
      or those with prone to clot formation. "

      Ultrastruct Pathol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 31(2): 77-83.
      Ultrastructural changes to rabbit fibrin and platelets due to aspartame.
      Pretorius E,
      Humphries P.
      Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
      University of Pretoria, South Africa.
      [ Humphries P also at
      Department of Anatomy, University of Limpopo.
      Medunsa Campus, Garankuwa. South Africa ]

      email: E. Pretorius resia.pretorius@...

      *Correspondence to E. Pretorius,
      BMW Building, PO Box 2034,
      Faculty of Health Sciences,
      University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

      The coagulation process, including thrombin, fibrin,
      as well as platelets,
      plays an important role in hemostasis,
      contributing to the general well-being of humans.

      Fibrin formation and platelet activation are delicate processes
      that are under the control of many small physiological events.

      Any one of these many processes
      may be influenced or changed by external factors,
      including pharmaceutical or nutritional products, e.g.,
      the sweetener aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester).

      It is known that phenylalanine is present at position P(9)
      and aspartate at position P(10)
      of the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen,
      and plays an important role in the conversion of fibrinogen
      to fibrin by the catalyst alpha-thrombin.

      The authors investigate the effect of aspartame
      on platelet and fibrin ultrastructure,
      by using the rabbit animal model
      and the scanning electron microscope.

      Animals were exposed to 34 mg/kg of aspartame
      26x during a 2-month period.

      Aspartame-exposed fibrin networks appeared denser,
      with a thick matted fine fiber network
      covering thick major fibers.

      Also, the platelet aggregates appeared more granular
      than the globular control platelet aggregates.

      The authors conclude by suggesting that aspartame usage
      may interfere with the coagulation process
      and might cause delayed fibrin breakup after clot formation.

      They suggest this,
      as the fibrin networks from aspartame-exposed rabbits
      are more complex and dense,
      due to the netlike appearance of the minor, thin fibers.

      Aspartame usage should possibly be limited
      by people on anti-clotting medicine
      or those with prone to clot formation.
      PMID: 17613990


      Microsc Res Tech. 2007 Jun 18; [Epub ahead of print]
      Comparative Ultrastructural Analyses of Mouse, Rabbit, and Human
      Platelets and Fibrin Networks.
      Pretorius E,
      Humphries P,
      Ekpo OE,
      Smit E,
      van der Merwe CF.
      Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

      Funded by:
      National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF);
      Grant Number: FA2004033100004

      Platelets and fibrin play an important role
      in the coagulation process,
      where they are involved in the maintenance of hemostasis.

      Fibrin dysfunction is associated
      with the development of vascular complications,
      while proneness to the formation of tight and rigid fibrin networks
      is independently associated with thrombotic disease.

      Here we investigate the ultrastructure
      of human, rabbit, and mouse
      platelets and fibrin networks,
      using the scanning electron microscope.

      Human and rabbit fibrin and platelets,
      with regards to morphology
      as well as size of major and minor fibers
      compare well with each other.

      However, mouse fibers are much thinner
      and form a flimsy branching network.

      Platelet aggregate morphology of all three species
      compare well with each other.

      We conclude that rabbit platelet and fibrin networks
      could be used successfully
      when studying the effect of pharmaceutical products
      in preclinical trials,
      when looking at the effects of these products
      on morphology and ultrastructure.
      Microsc. Res. Tech., 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
      PMID: 17576129

      www.alwayson.co.za/resia/ Resia Pretorius

      Current Position:
      Associate Professor in the Department of Anatomy,
      University of Pretoria, South Africa.

      Research Focus Areas:
      * Cell Biology
      * The Link Between Neuroanatomy and Learning Difficulties
      * Geometric Morphometrics

      Email: resia.pretorius@...
      Tel: +27 12 319 2533
      Fax: +27 12 319 2240

      Research Focus Areas

      Cell Biology

      This focus area consists of three sub-focus areas,
      namely Reproductive Cell Biology,
      Contact Dermatitis
      and Histological techniques
      that are all connected with each other by the central theme, cell culture.

      The Reproductive Cell Biology area focuses on male infertility
      (e.g. decondensation ability of spermatozoa)
      and external factors influencing cervical cell growth and viability.

      Contact Dermatitis research focuses on the effects of external
      factors such as latex, other allergy promoting molecules
      as well as the water quality of South Africa on cells in culture.
      Researchers and students active in the Reproductive Cell Biology
      and the Contact Dermatitis research utilize the same source of cells,
      linking their research to form a collective unit.

      The Histological Techniques research
      concentrates on the development and utilization
      of the Electron Microscope,
      the Reflex Microscope and Digital Equipment to study cells in culture.

      Dr Pretorius as well as students that are active in
      Reproductive Cell Biology and the Contact Dermatitis sub-focal areas
      utilizes the knowledge, expertise gained,
      as well as the equipment used from the Histological Techniques sub-focal area.

      The three sub-focal areas of the Cell Culture Biology focal area
      therefore form an inter-dependent unit,
      not only for the provision of cells in culture, but also expertise.

      Links are established between the private sector
      and the research team,
      by providing postgraduate students
      to assist companies in their research.

      One of the locally relevant research questions
      namely the provision of a cheap and reliable test method
      of South African water quality, is also addressed.
      Although the system is being developed in South Africa,
      it has sparked international interest,
      and the focus area as well as our Private Sector counterpart,
      Highveld Biological are in the process of verifying the method
      in Germany to be published as a method by the AOAC.
      This system is being developed not only to be used by industry,
      but also to assist Local Government to make informed choices
      regarding the water quality of all South Africans.

      Allergic reactions and their physiological
      as well as biochemical pathways
      are still not completely understood.
      The research team has conducted research
      on the effect of different allergens such as
      latex found in gloves and condoms
      as well as dental products.
      Cells utilized in these studies
      included spermatozoa and cervical cells.

      The Link Between Neuroanatomy and Learning Difficulties

      During 2003 I obtained a postgraduate diploma
      in Special Needs Education.
      My interest in neuro-anatomy was established
      and research together with Prof Drienie Naud�,
      researcher in the Department of Educational Psychology, followed.
      Many publications have already appeared due to this collaboration.

      Geometric Morphometrics

      A large part of my PhD theses was based on geometric morphometrics.
      Geometric morphometrics, a new and developing field,
      is a statistical method employed to determine shape differences,
      based on Kendall's definition of shape space,
      which is non-linear and non-Euclidean
      (traditional statistics cannot be applied to it).
      Although the subject is not part of my lecturing duties,
      I am actively involved in research in this field
      and recently involved a PhD student as well.

      Qualifications and achievements

      PhD (Sciences) in 1999: University of Pretoria, South Africa
      Postgraduate diploma in Special Needs Education in 2003:
      University of Pretoria, South Africa.

      Regional editor: Early Child Development and Care (England) since January 2003.
      Reviewer for various ISI listed Journals since 2001.
      2003: Invitation to participate in Editor collection
      (NOVA publishers, New York) - April 2003.
      Title: Progress in Asthma Research (NOVA Science Publishers, New York).

      [ photos of husband and two sons ]
      //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1457
      aspartame bans, tis more an avalanche than a trend...: Rich Murray
      2007.08.11

      [ see also:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1458
      ASDA, Wal-Mart's UK supermarket chain, bans artificial colors, trans
      fats, MSG and aspartame, Marguerite Kelly, The Washington Post:\ Murray 2007.08.03 ]

      So far, USA print and broadcast media are deaf, blind, and dumb,
      regarding recent major bans of aspartame and MSG in the UK and EU.

      The EU Parliament voted July 12 to ban artificial sweeteners
      in newly born and infant foods.

      On May 15 four huge UK supermarket chains announced bans
      of aspartame and MSG, food dyes, and many additives
      to protect kids from ADHD --
      Sainsbury, Tesco, Marks & Spencer, and ASDA, a unit of WalMart.

      May 31: Coca-Cola and the much larger Cargill Inc.,
      after years of secret development, with 24 patents,
      will soon sell rebiana (stevia) in drinks and food
      in the many nations where it is approved as a sweetener --
      for decades a major sweetener in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan,
      Thailand, Malasia, Saint Kitts, Nevis,
      Brazil, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Israel,
      and an approved supplement in USA, Australia, and Canada,
      according to Wikipedia.


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1454
      recent research and news re aspartame and stevia: Murray 2007.08.11

      "Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority,
      to actively find, quickly share, and positively act
      upon the facts about healthy and safe food, drink,
      and environment."

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
      group with 81 members, 1,463 posts in a public,
      searchable archive http://RMForAll.blogspot.com


      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1395
      Aspartame Controversy, in Wikipedia democratic
      encyclopedia, 72 references (including AspartameNM # 864
      and 1173 by Murray, brief fair summary of much more research:
      Murray 2007.01.01

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1453
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin,
      Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent
      USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation
      cancer studies 2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1451
      Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose) and coloring
      agents will be banned from use in newly-born and baby foods,
      the European Parliament decided: Latvia ban in schools 2006:
      Murray 2007.07.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1437
      stevia to be approved and cyclamates limited by
      Food Standards Australia New Zealand:
      JMC Geuns critiques of two recent stevia studies by Nunes:
      Murray 2007.05.29

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1427
      more from The Independent, UK, Martin Hickman, re ASDA
      (unit of Wal-Mart Stores) and Marks & Spencer ban of
      aspartame, MSG, artificial chemical additives and dyes
      to prevent ADHD in kids: urray 2007.05.16
      http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/health_medical/article2548747.ece

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1426
      ASDA (unit of Wal-Mart Stores WMT.N) and Marks & Spencer
      will join Tesco and also Sainsbury to ban and limit
      aspartame, MSG, artificial flavors dyes preservatives additives,
      trans fats, salt "nasties" to protect kids from ADHD:
      leading UK media: Murray 2007.05.15

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1461
      John O. Warner with U. Southampton team in 2007 finds kids
      hyperactive from six food colors, confirming their report
      in 2004 on study in 2000: Murray 2007.08.11

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1438
      Coca-Cola and Cargill Inc., after years of development,
      with 24 patents, will soon sell rebiana (stevia)
      in drinks and foods: Murray 2007.05.31

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1277
      50% UK baby food is now organic - aspartame or MSG
      with food dyes harm nerve cells, CV Howard 3 year study
      funded by Lizzy Vann, CEO, Organix Brands,
      Children's Food Advisory Service: Murray 2006.01.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1271
      combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and
      brilliant blue, harms nerve cells, eminent
      C. Vyvyan Howard et al, 2005 education.guardian.co.uk,
      Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1417
      formaldehyde as a potent unexamined cofactor in cancer research --
      sources include methanol, dark wines and liquors,
      aspartame, wood and tobacco smoke: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation
      of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans implicate formaldehyde
      in #88 and alcohol drinks in #96: some related abstracts:
      Murray 2007.05.15

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1286
      methanol products (formaldehyde and formic acid)
      are main cause of alcohol hangover symptoms
      [same as from similar amounts of methanol, the 11% part of aspartame]:
      YS Woo et al, 2005 Dec: Murray 2006.01.20

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1143
      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition:
      Bouchard M et al, full plain text, 2001: substantial sources
      are degradation of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
      Murray 2005.04.02

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1455
      FEMA slow to safety test Katrina toxic trailers,
      Charles Babington, Associated Press -- 1 ppm formaldehyde in air
      is about half the daily dose from 3 cans aspartame diet soda
      and ten times the 1999 EPA alarm level for drinking water:
      Murray 2007.07.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1459
      third study by expert Greek team of neurotoxicity
      in infant rats by aspartame (or its parts, methanol,
      phenylalanine, aspartic acid), KH Schulpis et al,
      Food Chem Toxicol 2007.06.16: Murray 2007.08.05

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1447
      second study by expert Greek team of neurotoxicity
      in infant rats by aspartame (or its parts, methanol,
      phenylalanine, aspartic acid), KH Schulpis et al,
      Toxicology 2007.05.18: Murray 2007.07.04

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNMmessage/1444
      expert Greek group finds aspartame (or its parts,
      methanol, phenylalanine, aspartic acid) harm infant rat
      brain enzyme activity, KH Schulpis et al,
      Pharmacol. Res. 2007.05.13: Murray 2007.06.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1414
      effect of aspartame on oncogene and suppressor gene
      expressions in mice, Katalin Gambos, Istvan Ember, et al,
      University of Pecs, Hungary, In Vivo 2007 Jan;
      scores of their relevant past studies since 1977: Murray 2007.04.14

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1373
      aspartame rat brain toxicity re cytochrome P450 enzymes,
      especially CYP2E1, Vences-Mejia A, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ et al,
      2006 Aug, Hum Exp Toxicol: relevant abstracts re formaldehyde
      from methanol in alcohol drinks: Murray 2006.09.29

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1340
      aspartame groups and books:
      updated research review of 2004.07.16: Murray 2006.05.11

      Dark wines and liquors, as well as aspartame,
      provide similar levels of methanol,
      above 120 mg daily, for long-term heavy users,
      2 L daily, about 6 cans.

      Within hours, methanol is inevitably largely turned into formaldehyde,
      and thence largely into formic acid -- the major causes
      of the dreaded symptoms of "next morning" hangover.

      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
      in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol).

      If 30% of the methanol is turned into formaldehyde,
      the amount of formaldehyde, 37 mg, is 18.5 times the
      USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in drinking water,
      2.0 mg in 2 L average daily drinking water.
      ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
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