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Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin, Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation cancer studies 2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

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  • Rich Murray
    Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin, Science 2007.07.06: 4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini Foundation
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 18, 2007
      Souring on fake sugar (aspartame), Jennifer Couzin, Science 2007.07.06:
      4 page letter to FDA from 12 eminent USA toxicologists re two Ramazzini
      Foundation cancer studies 2007.06.25: Murray 2007.07.18

      " In light of the new aspartame study, which extends and corroborates
      the finding from an earlier study, we urge the FDA to immediately
      commence a careful review of the new study.

      Considering how widely aspartame in consumed by young children, as well
      as adults, in the United States and abroad, it is essential that this
      review be done as expeditiously as possible.

      If that review confirms that aspartame caused cancer in the laboratory
      animals, the FDA must invoke the Delaney amendment and revoke its
      approval for the artificial sweetener.8 "


      SCIENCE VOL 317 6 JULY 2007 page 31

      Souring on Fake Sugar

      Fearful it causes cancer, 12 U.S. environmental health experts
      last week asked the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
      to review the potential health risks of the artificial sweetener aspartame,
      which appears in everything from medicines to diet sodas.

      A study published last month in Environmental Health Perspectives
      found somewhat more leukemias and lymphomas in male rats
      receiving less aspartame than the recommended maximum for humans;
      at higher doses,
      the rats had a marked increase in cancers throughout the body.

      Pregnant rats were fed the sweetener,
      and animals received it once they'd been weaned.

      The work, by scientists at the
      European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental Sciences
      in Bologna, Italy, is
      "more sensitive and more realistic" than earlier aspartame studies,
      says James Huff of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
      who signed onto the FDA letter drafted by the
      Washington, D.C.-based watchdog group
      Center for Science in the Public Interest.

      But because the study conflicts with earlier work,
      FDA spokesperson Michael Herndon says that
      the agency finds the study unpersuasive and that "aspartame is safe."

      FDA's European counterpart has not responded publicly to the study.

      -- Jennifer Couzin


      *Center for Science in the Public Interest*
      For Immediate Release: June 25, 2007

      *FDA Should Reconsider Aspartame Cancer Risk, Say Experts*

      New Rat Study Links Artificial Sweetener with Lymphomas, Breast Cancer

      WASHINGTON -- A new long-term animal test from an Italian cancer
      institute raises serious safety questions about the artificial sweetener
      aspartame, which is marketed generically as well as under the NutraSweet
      and Equal brand names.

      A dozen toxicology and epidemiology experts and the nonprofit Center for
      Science in the Public Interest are calling on
      http://cspinet.org/new/pdf/aspartame_letter_to_fda.pdf the Food and
      Drug Administration (FDA) to immediately review the study, which found
      increases in lymphomas, leukemias, and breast cancers in rats.

      If FDA concludes that aspartame does cause cancer in animals, the agency
      is required by law to revoke its approval for the controversial
      sweetener, which is used in Diet Pepsi, Diet Coke, tabletop packets, and
      countless other foods.

      The new study http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2007/10271/abstract.html/ ,
      conducted by the respected Ramazzini Foundation and published in the
      journal /Environmental Health Perspectives/, found statistically
      significant increases in lymphomas and leukemias in rats that were fed
      100 milligrams of the sweetener per kilogram of body weight -- an amount
      several times higher than what some people consume.

      A lower amount, 20 milligrams per kilogram, also caused an increase, but
      it was not statistically significant.

      "Because aspartame is so widely consumed, it is urgent that the FDA
      evaluate whether aspartame still poses a 'reasonable certainty of no
      harm,' the standard used for gauging the safety of food additives," said
      CSPI executive director Michael F. Jacobson.
      "But consumers, particularly parents, shouldn't wait for the FDA to act.
      People shouldn't panic, but they should stop buying beverages and foods
      containing aspartame."

      The Acceptable Daily Intake of aspartame in the United States is 50 mg
      per kg of body weight.

      The new study looked at doses less than that (20 mg per kg) and greater
      (100 mg per kg).

      Though few people would consume aspartame at the higher dose, the lower
      does is equivalent to a 50-pound child drinking 2 1/2 cans of diet soda per
      day, or a 150-pound adult drinking about 7 1/2 cans of diet soda per day.

      But aspartame also enters the diet through sugar-free or reduced-sugar
      gums, candies, yogurts, and hundreds of other products.

      Many aspartame-containing products are likely to be consumed by kids,
      including sugar-free Kool-Aid, Jell-O gelatin dessert and pudding mixes,
      and some Popsicles.

      A 2006 National Cancer Institute study seemed to ease cancer fears
      related to aspartame, but that study had major limitations, including
      its reliance on imprecise food-frequency questionnaires, and it included
      only subjects between the ages of 50 and 69 who first consumed aspartame
      as adults.

      The effects of consuming aspartame from infancy or childhood might be
      very different, says CSPI, as suggested by the new animal study.

      Among those who today called on FDA Commissioner Andrew von Eschenbach
      to review the new aspartame study are former Occupational Safety and
      Health Administration officials John Froines (now at UCLA)
      and Peter F. Infante (now at George Washington University); James Huff,
      current Associate Director for Chemical Carcinogenesis at the National
      Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS);
      and Kamal M. Abdo, a toxicologist formerly at the National Toxicology
      Program of the NIEHS.

      As a result of the new study, for the first time CSPI downgraded
      aspartame http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm#aspartame on
      its online Chemical Cuisine directory
      http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm from a "use caution"
      rating to "everyone should avoid."

      CSPI also urges everyone to avoid the artificial sweeteners acesulfame
      potassium and saccharin.

      It rates sucralose, also known by the brand name Splenda, as safe.

      CSPI also called on the food industry
      http://cspinet.org/new/pdf/aspartame_letter1.pdf to voluntarily switch
      to other sugar substitutes.

      "Switching to safer ingredients now could be a wise precautionary
      action," Jacobson wrote to Cal Dooley, president of the Food Products
      Association/Grocery Manufactures Association.

      According to a 1996 report in the Minneapolis Star Tribune, the FDA
      rejected repeated proposals by NIEHS to test aspartame using more modern
      methods than were originally used.

      David Rall, the former director of NIEHS and its National Toxicology
      Program, said, "any compound that is that widely used needs to be
      retested with modern methods every once in a while."

      The State of California, too, has urged new testing of aspartame.

      The FDA also rejected NIEHS's proposal to test acesulfame potassium,
      which CSPI says was "abysmally tested" by its manufacturer and showed
      signs of causing cancer in animals.

      For more information, contact: Center for Science in the Public Interest
      1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
      phone 202.332.9110 fax 202.265.4954 cspi@...


      June 25, 2007
      Dr. Andrew von Eschenbach
      Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      5600 Fishers Lane
      Rockville, MD 20857

      Dear Dr. von Eschenbach:

      An important new long-term animal feeding study,
      published in Environmental Health Perspectives,
      from the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center
      at the European Ramazzini Foundation of Oncology and Environmental
      Sciences in Italy
      raises anew serious questions about the safety of the artificial
      sweetener aspartame.1

      Dose-dependent increases in total malignant tumors, lymphomas/leukemias,
      mammary carcinomas were observed in male and/or female rats.

      At the higher dosage level, the increases were statistically significant
      lymphomas/leukemias in both male and female rats,
      mammary carcinomas in females,
      and tumor-bearing males.

      Nonsignificant increases were observed at the higher dosage
      for total tumors in males and females
      and for mammary carcinomas in male
      and at the lower dosage
      for total tumors in females,
      lymphomas/leukemias in males and females,
      and mammary carcinomas in females.

      Those non-significant increases would tend to elevate the dose-response

      The new study follows up on a study from the same laboratory, but is
      more sensitive
      because the rats were exposed to aspartame in utero;
      in the earlier study the rats were not fed aspartame until they were 8
      weeks old.

      In the new study, groups of animals were exposed from the 12th day in
      utero to aspartame at levels of 0, 20, or 100 mg/kg bw/day
      (mg/kg) administered to the pregnant dams and,
      after weaning, to the animals through their feed.

      The previous study used those and several additional dosage
      (4; 500; 2,500; 5,000 mg/kg).2

      That study found statistically significant increased incidences of
      leukemias/lymphomas in both male and female rats,
      malignant schwannomas of peripheral nerves in males,
      and transitional cell carcinomas of the renal pelvis
      and ureter and their precursors (dysplasias) in females.

      Additionally, a few uncommonly occurring brain tumors occurred only in
      aspartame-treated animals.

      The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the study and
      concluded for various reasons that aspartame was not demonstrated to be

      While EFSA's rationale may be debated, it must be reconsidered due to
      the results of the new study.

      To put the doses used in the study in context, consider that the
      Acceptable Daily Intake of aspartame in the United States is 50 mg/kg.

      page 2

      The 20 mg/kg dose is equivalent to a 50-pound child's drinking about 2 1/2
      cans of soda per day
      and a 150-pound adult's drinking about 7 1/2 cans of soda per day (assuming
      175 mg per 12-ounce serving of beverage4).

      The higher dose is equivalent to about 12 1/2 and 37 1/2 cans of soda per day.5

      The lower dose is something that about 5 percent of American teenagers
      actually consume.6

      Obviously, few people drink the larger amounts of aspartame-sweetened
      soda, but one must presume that lower levels of consumption would lead
      to increased, but proportionately lower, cancer risks.

      Of course, increasing exposure to aspartame is the fact that Americans
      are also consuming aspartame in powdered soft drinks, chewing gum,
      confections, gelatins, dessert mixes, puddings and fillings, frozen
      desserts, yogurt, tabletop sweeteners, and some pharmaceuticals such as
      vitamins and sugar-free cough drops.

      In comparison to most animal toxicology studies, the new study has three
      significant strengths.

      First, it used more than the usual number of animals per sex/dosage
      group (95 controls and 70 in each group exposed to aspartame, as
      compared to the usual 50), thereby increasing the sensitivity of the study.

      Second, the animals were monitored until they died a natural death (as
      long as three years), as opposed to most studies, which are terminated
      after two years (104 weeks).

      Rats at two years of age are very roughly comparable to people at
      "retirement age," about 65, whereas three-year-old rats are more
      equivalent to people 80 to 90 years of age.

      Thus, the longer experiment sheds light on the effects of aspartame on
      "elderly" animals.

      Third, as noted above, the animals were exposed to aspartame during part
      of their fetal life (ideally, the dams would have been exposed to
      aspartame prior to pregnancy).

      In utero exposure reflects human experience and likely increases the
      sensitivity of the study.

      We recognize that the FDA discounted the reliability of the first
      aspartame study on several grounds, particularly because the sponsor did
      not provide all the desired data.7

      Another reason was that transgenic mouse assays done by the National
      Toxicology Program did not identify problems.

      However, compared to such short- or medium-term assays and
      modes-of-action conjectures, chronic animal feeding studies are accepted
      widely as valid predictors of likely carcinogenic risks for humans:
      importantly, all acknowledged human carcinogens when tested adequately
      in animals are also carcinogenic,
      and many known human carcinogens were first discovered in animals.

      The FDA also noted that a recent large epidemiology study did not
      associate aspartame use with cancer.

      However, that study involved people who did not consume aspartame until
      they were over 50 years old, and measurement of aspartame consumption
      was imprecise.

      The present animal study is much stronger in those respects.

      page 3

      In light of the new aspartame study, which extends and corroborates the
      finding from an earlier study, we urge the FDA to immediately commence a
      careful review of the new study.

      Considering how widely aspartame in consumed by young children, as well
      as adults, in the United States and abroad, it is essential that this
      review be done as expeditiously as possible.

      If that review confirms that aspartame caused cancer in the laboratory
      animals, the FDA must invoke the
      "Delaney amendment" and revoke its
      approval for the artificial sweetener.8


      Dr. Kamal M. Abdo, PhD
      National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (retired)*
      National Toxicology Program Bahama, NC 27503

      Carlos A. Camargo, Jr., MD, DrPH
      Associate Professor of Medicine & Epidemiology, Harvard Medical School
      Massachusetts General Hospital
      Boston, MA 02114
      [ www.medicineonearth.com/display.php?id=224
      Center for D-receptor Activation Research
      Department of Emergency Medicine
      Massachusetts General Hospital
      Harvard Medical School, Boston
      +1 617 726 5276
      Mass. General Hospital +1 617 525 0859

      to send email ]

      Devra Lee Davis, PhD, MPH
      Director, Center for Environmental Oncology
      University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute
      Hillman Cancer Pavillion
      Pittsburgh, Pa. 15232
      [ dld20@... w 412-623-4716 f 412-623-3201 c 412-897-1539


      www.upci.upmc.edu/ UPCIwebupdates@...
      UPCI receives a total of $149 million in research grants, and is ranked
      11th in funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
      The Institute's 500 faculty and staff, representing over 30 disciplines,
      work together closely to improve the understanding of cancer and to
      develop new lifesaving procedures in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and
      The University of Pittsburgh is ranked 7th in funding from the NIH.



      Leading Expert on Environmental Dangers and Best Selling Author
      Recruited as Director and Professor of Public Health

      PITTSBURGH, Sept. 20 -- Devra Davis, PhD, MPH, award-winning author of
      the best-seller
      When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the
      Battle Against Pollution,
      has been recruited by the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute
      (UPCI) to direct a new center for environmental oncology.

      The mission of the center, based on an approach that is
      prevention-focused and multi-disciplinary, is to reduce the risk of
      cancer by applying the latest scientific findings on the avoidable
      causes of cancer to protect individuals and the community at large.

      "Most of our national efforts against cancer have focused on detecting
      and treating disease after it has occurred," said Ronald Herberman, MD,
      director of UPCI and the UPMC Cancer Centers.
      "While this type of research is imperative, we simultaneously need to
      greatly improve our research efforts to develop effective interventions
      to address the known and suspected causes of cancer that may help us in
      our efforts at prevention.
      The development of this center is a crucial step in that direction and
      Devra is unquestionably the best person for the job, given the breadth
      of her knowledge and expertise in this area."

      "Dr. Davis is a national leader in the field of epidemiology. We
      anticipate that she will have a major impact in synthesizing the vast
      amount of scientific data that is available on the causes of cancer and
      converting this information into effective public policy and education
      programs," said Bernard Goldstein, MD, dean of the University of
      Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (GSPH).

      In her role as director of the new program, Dr. Davis, who also will
      serve as professor of epidemiology at GSPH, will work
      to create a center for excellence in research, education and public
      policy that seeks to identify novel causes of cancer,
      to develop and evaluate instruments for assessment and control of
      environmental risk factors for cancer and strategies to protect people
      from environmental cancer risks,
      and to create public and professional programs that inform, educate and
      change individual and institutional behaviors.

      According to the National Cancer Institute, an estimated two-thirds of
      all cancer cases are linked to environmental causes;
      many of these to lifestyle factors that can be modified.

      "There are about ten million cancer survivors in the United States
      today, each of whom is concerned with both their own survival and with
      preventing disease from occurring in their family members," said Dr. Davis.
      "Unfortunately, however, aside from smoking, drinking, other bad habits,
      and some workplace exposures, most cases of cancer occur in people who
      have led otherwise healthy lives.
      Patterns of the disease remain largely unexplained.
      With this new center, we aim to more fully understand our risks for
      developing cancer by identifying controllable conditions and urging
      prudent ways to lower the risk of the disease.
      One of our first goals is to discover and promote concrete steps that
      can be taken by individuals, hospitals, health professionals, the
      surrounding communities, and private and public sector organizations to
      prevent cancer and reduce the chance of recurrence."

      According to Dr. Davis, research at the center seeks to address a key
      What causes the majority of people who are born with a healthy array of
      genes, some 95 percent of women with breast cancer, for example, to
      develop defects during their lifetime that lead to cancer?

      "While we know that there are more cases of cancer today because the
      population is older, and the technology for identifying disease has
      advanced, we cannot explain most cases of this disease," commented Dr.

      A few of the environmental risk factors that will be examined at the
      center include good and bad personal habits, such as nutrition,
      exercise, alcohol drinking and smoking as well as factors in the
      physical and chemical environment that have been linked to cancer such
      as toxic chemicals, indoor and outdoor air pollutants, chlorination
      by-products in domestic water, ingredients in personal care products,
      and organochlorine residues in animal and fish fat.

      By evaluating and consolidating the information on these and other
      cancer hazards and prevention strategies, the program seeks to create
      communication programs to inform patients, their families, the
      government and private sector about hazards that can be controlled to
      keep cancer from arising and the steps that can be taken to reduce the
      chance that cancer will recur.
      c2007 The University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI)
      412-647-2811/ PCI-INFO@... ]

      David Egilman MD, MPH
      Clinical Associate Professor, Brown University
      Attleboro, Massachusetts 02703
      [ Bio Med Community Health David_Egilman_MD@...
      Telephone (508) 226-5091 Other Telephone (508) 472-2809 ]

      Samuel S. Epstein, MD
      Professor Emeritus, Environmental & Occupational Medicine
      University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health,
      Chairman, Cancer Prevention Coalition
      Chicago, Illinois
      [ www.preventcancer.com/about/epstein.htm

      Samuel S. Epstein, M.D.
      Cancer Prevention Coalition
      c/o University of Illinois at Chicago

      School of Public Health, MC 922
      2121 West Taylor Street
      Chicago, IL 60612 Phone: 312-996-2297 Fax: 312-413-9898 ]

      John R. Froines, PhD
      Director, Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
      University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, CA 90095
      Formerly Director, Toxic Substances, Occupational Safety and Health
      Deputy Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
      [ www.ph.ucla.edu/ehs/froines.htm
      (310) 206-6141

      Professor Froines joined the faculty of the School of Public Health in
      He received a B.S. in chemistry from UC Berkeley (1963), M.S. in
      chemistry (1964) and Ph.D. in physical-organic chemistry (1967) from
      Yale University. He conducted postdoctoral research at the Royal
      Institution of Great Britain under Nobel Laureate, Sir George Porter
      from 1966-68.
      Before coming to the UCLA School of Public Health, Dr. Froines was
      Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oregon
      and later served as Director of Toxic Substances at the Occupational
      Safety and Health Administration
      and Deputy Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety
      and Health.
      Dr. Froines is currently the Director of the Center for Occupational and
      Environmental Health.
      He is also the Director of the Southern California Particle Center and
      He is Associate Director of the Southern California Environmental Health
      Sciences Center
      and the Director of the UCLA Fogarty Program in Occupational and
      Environmental Health.

      Dr. Froines' area of expertise is toxicology and exposure assessment.
      His research interests are in the qualitative and quantitative
      characterization of risk factors in environmental and occupational health.

      Dr. Froines' research focuses on1) Chemical mechanisms and exposure
      assessment related to the health effects from exposure to airborne
      particulate matter; 2) Evaluation of toxicokinetic factors in defining
      and characterizing chemical toxicity;
      and 3) Risk assessment including pollution prevention.
      His current research emphasizes the study of etiologic factors in air
      pollution related health effects, but also includes projects to:

      1. Study the role of toxicokinetics, and host factors in the
      carcinogenicity of arsenic and chromium VI.

      2. Develop new approaches to exposure assessment for multi-component
      systems with a focus on measures of internal dose as characterized by
      evaluation of metabolites, biomarkers and other toxicological factors.
      In particular, he leads a research project to investigate pesticide
      exposure among pesticide applicators, farmworkers, and their families in

      3. Toxicokinetic modeling to explain toxic interactions between multiple
      chemicals including studies of enhancement and antagonism.
      He is currently PI on a project to investigate new approaches to
      addressing exposure to beryllium metal.

      Dr. Froines chairs the State of California's Scientific Review Panel;
      the central review panel at the State level for identifying toxic air

      He is a member of the National Toxicology Program's Board of Scientific
      He is a member of the Institute of Medicine's Environmental Health
      Roundtable. ]

      Dale Hattis, PhD
      Research Professor, George Perkins Marsh Institute
      Clark University
      Worcester, MA 01610
      [ Research Professor dhattis@...
      Department: Marsh Institute
      Campus Phone: 751-4603 ]

      Kim Hooper, PhD*
      Environmental Chemistry Laboratory
      California Department of Toxic Substances Control
      California Environmental Protection Agency
      Berkeley, CA 94710
      [ 2151 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94707 USA.
      Telephone: (510) 540-3499 Fax: (510) 540-2305


      [ California ] OEHHA
      Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
      Proposition 65 - Prioritization Notices

      Availability of Final Data Summaries and Priorities for Chemicals With
      Respect to Their Evaluation by the OEHHA Science Advisory Board's
      Identification Committee [03/12/04]

      Cynthia Oshita coshita@... Subject: batch 4 priorities
      Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
      P.O. Box 4010 Sacramento, California 95812-4010
      FAX: (916) 323-8803 Telephone: (916) 445-6900


      Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
      California Environmental Protection Agency March 2004

      On October 17, 2003, OEHHA announced the release of draft priority
      assignments and draft data summaries for 47 of 50 chemicals ("Batch 4")
      selected for prioritization with respect to their potential to cause
      Final priority assignments and data summaries for 45 of the 47
      chemicals for which draft priorities had been assigned are presented here.



      Preliminary evaluation of carcinogenicity and exposure data

      Aspartame [Equal; NutraSweet; L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester;
      CAS No. 22839-47-0] did not reach a level of carcinogenicity concern
      to be placed on the candidate list.

      There is, however, some carcinogenicity concern over observations of brain
      tumors in aspartame-treated rats.

      Reliable animal studies have not been conducted despite the widespread
      exposure to this artificial sweetener.

      Epidemiologic data provide inadequate information on which to judge
      One small epidemiologic study found no evidence of an effect of aspartame
      consumption on brain tumor risk in children.

      Aspartame has been suggested as an explanation for increased rates of human
      brain cancer.

      Further epidemiologic and toxicologic studies are needed on the
      carcinogenicity of this chemical.

      No large epidemiological studies of carcinogenicity have been conducted.

      Olney et al. (1996), performing a descriptive analysis of national cancer
      data, suggested the possibility that aspartame might be associated with
      increased incidence of brain tumors in the U.S.

      A small study (Gurney et al., 1997) of aspartame consumption in children
      brain tumor risk found no evidence that cases (n=56) were more likely to
      consume foods containing aspartame than controls (n=90).

      There have been multiple carcinogenicity studies of aspartame in animals,
      each of which is inadequate for judging carcinogenicity...... ]

      James Huff, PhD*
      Associate Director for Chemical Carcinogenesis, National Institute of
      Environmental Health Sciences
      Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
      [ 301-435-1498 Fax 301-451-5462 james.huff1@... ]

      Michael F. Jacobson, PhD** mjacobson@...
      Executive Director, Center for Science in the Public Interest
      1875 Connecticut Ave. Suite 300
      Washington, DC 20009
      [ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_F._Jacobson


      For more than three decades, Dr. Michael Jacobson has been a relentless
      advocate for accuracy in food labeling and disclosure of nutrition
      He is Executive Director of the acclaimed Center for Science in the
      Public Interest (CSPI), the organization he co-founded in 1971.
      CSPI was the driving force behind such consumer protections as warning
      notices on alcoholic beverage labels and the landmark Nutrition and
      Labeling Education Act, which required the placement of nutrition
      information on most food labels.

      Dr. Jacobson was also among the first to combat junk-food advertising
      aimed at children, and to address the nutritional quality of school
      meals and the safety of food additives.
      He has had a truly profound impact on the health of an entire nation,
      and the lives of millions of Americans affected by diabetes.

      In addition to his scholarly work featured in the New England Journal of
      Medicine and the Journal of Molecular Biology, among others, Dr.
      Jacobson has taken his messages directly to consumers with publications
      such as
      Restaurant Confidential (2002),
      What Are We Feeding Our Kids? (1994),
      and Nutrition Scoreboard (1975).

      Dr. Jacobson holds a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the Massachusetts
      Institute of Technology.

      Center for Science in the Public Interest
      1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20009
      phone 202.332.9110 fax 202.265.4954 cspi@...

      CSPI letter from Michael F Jacobson, Ph.D re aspartame carcinogenicity to
      FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford 2005.07.27

      Michael F. Jacobson of CSPI now and in 1985 re aspartame toxicity,
      letter to
      FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford; California OEHHA aspartame critique
      2004.03.12; Center for Consumer Freedom denounces CSPI: Murray 2004.07.27 ]

      Peter F. Infante, DDS, DrPH
      Professorial Lecturer, Environmental and Occupational Health
      School of Public Health
      George Washington University
      Washington, DC 20052
      formerly: Director, Office of Standards Review
      Health Standards Program
      Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      U.S. Department of Labor
      Washington, DC 20210
      [ www.collegiumramazzini.org/fellows1.asp?id=82

      pinfante@... 571-641-3047

      Dr. Peter F. Infante is Adjunct Professor of Environmental and
      Occupational Health at George Washington University School of Public
      Health and Health Services.
      He has a Doctor of Public Health degree from the Department of
      Epidemiology, University of Michigan and is a Fellow of the American
      College of Epidemiology.
      For the past 29 years Dr. Infante has been involved in the evaluation
      and regulation of toxic substances in the workplace.
      He is the former Director of the Office of Standards Review (OSHA), the
      office responsible for the evaluation and regulation of toxic substances
      in US workplaces.
      Dr. Infante has served on numerous international and national panels
      including at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
      He has also served on numerous Advisory Committees advising the National
      Cancer Institute (NCI), the President's Cancer Panel, the Office of
      Technology Assessment of the US Congress and the National Academy of
      Sciences Committee on Toxicology on issues related to occupation and
      cancer. ]

      page 4

      Daniel Thau Teitelbaum, MD
      Adjunct Professor of Environmental Sciences, Colorado School of Mines
      Golden, Colorado 80401
      Associate Clinical Professor of Preventive Medicine
      University of Colorado Health Sciences at Denver
      Denver, Colorado 80202
      [ www.collegiumramazzini.org/fellows1.asp?id=165


      Daniel Thau Teitelbaum M.D., is an occupational physician and medical
      toxicologist in Denver, Colorado, USA.
      He has worked in the diagnosis and management of toxic disease in
      workers and the general environment for more than forty years.
      He has been concerned about the impact of the Rocky Flats facility in
      Denver since he came to Colorado in 1965.
      As a faculty member at the Colorado School of Mines' Department of
      Environmental Sciences, he has taught many of the engineers and other
      professionals who were and are employed at the Rocky Flats site.
      Among his interests are groundwater and air pollution, occupational
      toxic disease and workplace toxics management.
      He has appeared often as an expert witness in various courts on behalf
      of workers injured by toxic exposures in the workplace and persons in
      the general environment who have been exposed to toxic materials as a
      result of careless industrial waste disposal practices and as a result
      of water and air pollution.
      He is a Fellow of the Collegium Ramazzini and serves as Treasurer of the

      Daniel Thau Teitelbaum, MD 155 Madison St, Denver CO 80206 303-355-2625
      Internal Medicine
      (303) 273-3427 ]

      Joel A. Tickner, ScD
      Assistant Professor, Department of Community Health and Sustainability
      Project Director, Lowell Center for Sustainable Production
      University of Massachusetts, Lowell
      Lowell, MA 01854
      [ www.uml.edu/College/she/CHS/Faculty/Joel_A_Tickner.html

      Joel A. Tickner, ScD, MSc, BA
      Assistant Professor

      Expertise: Environmental Health, Chemicals Ploicy, Pollution Prevention,
      Risk Assessment
      Phone: (978) 934-2981 Fax: (978) 934-2025

      Educational Background
      2000 ScD, Cleaner Production and Pollution, Department of Work
      Environment Prevention, University of Massachusetts Lowell
      1994 MSc, Environmental Studies, University of Montana
      1989 BA, Spanish and Environmental Science, Colby College

      Scholarly Interests
      Development of innovative scientific methods and policies to implement a
      precautionary and preventive approach to decision-making under
      uncertainty. Research and development of model long-term chemicals
      policies and application of the precautionary principle in environmental
      science and policy.
      Areas of teaching and research interests include regulatory science and
      policy, risk assessment, and cleaner production.


      Curriculum Vitae
      Department of Community Health and Sustainability
      3 Solomont Way Suite 3, Lowell, MA 01854-5127
      Phone: 978-934-4515 Fax: 978-934-3006 Beverly_Volicer@...

      * Affiliations listed for identification purposes only.
      ** Please respond via Dr. Jacobson at 1875 Connecticut Ave., #300,
      Washington, DC

      1 Soffritti M, et al. EHPonline.org
      (www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10271/10271.pdf, accessed June 13, 2007).

      2 Soffritti M, et al. Env Health Persp. 2006;114:379-85.

      3 Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavouring,
      Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food. The EFSA Journal.
      2006; 356:1-44.

      4 A Coca-Cola website indicates that a diet soda contains 175 mg of
      accessed June 18, 2007)
      Other web sites indicate slightly different amounts.

      5 The quantities of soft drinks would be significantly lower if dosages
      were calculated on the basis of body surface, as some agencies do,
      instead of body weight.

      6 Jacobson M. Liquid Candy Supplement (Center for Science in the Public
      Interest, 2005).
      accessed June 18, 2007)

      7 FDA-CFSAN. FDA statement on European aspartame study. April 20, 2007.
      accessed June 19, 2007)

      8 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act S 409(c)(1)(3)(A).


      Science Writers Honor One of Their Own

      Jennifer Couzin

      Jennifer Couzin, a journalist who writes for the news pages of the AAAS
      journal, Science, has been named the recipient of the 2003 Evert
      Clark/Seth Payne Award, a prize that recognizes young science writers
      for excellent work.

      According to a press release issued by the National Press Foundation,
      the judges cited Couzin "for reporting on tough issues, for her
      excellent use of many sources, for fluent and informative writing, and
      for bringing new facts and perspectives to familiar topics."

      The $1000 prize is given each year in memory of journalists Ev Clark and
      Seth Payne, who were known for their willingness to offer guidance and
      support to their younger colleagues.

      Couzin was recognized for three stories in Science:
      "Diabetes' Brave New World," "The Great Estrogen Conundrum,"
      and "Tracing the Steps of Metastasis, Cancer's Menacing Ballet."

      The award will be presented by the Evert Clark Fund and the National
      Association of Science Writers, in conjunction with the National Press
      Foundation. The presentation will take place 14 February 2004, during
      the AAAS Annual Meeting in Seattle.

      Judges for the 2003 award were National Public Radio editor Peggy Girshman;
      Bob Meyers, president of the National Press Foundation;
      Gary Ellis of the Congressional Research Service;
      Gail Porter, editor at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,
      and science book author and freelance journalist Steve Olson.
      08 January 2004
      Copyright 2007. American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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      Tel: 202-326-6400 webmaster@...

      AAAS is located on 12th Street, N.W., with entrances at H Street and New
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      A staff of nearly 300 people handles AAAS's day-to-day activities,
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      For information about membership or to join, phone 202-326-6417 or
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      fair summary of Ramazzini aspartame cancer studies, UPI Food Writer Julia
      Watson: Murray 2007.07.02



      Lifetime exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal
      life increases cancer effects in rats, Morando Soffritti et al,
      European Ramazzini Foundation, USA EPA Environmental Health
      Perspectives 2007.06.13 free full text 24 pages: Murray 2007.06.16

      www.ehponline.org/members/2007/10271/10271.pdf free full text 24 pages

      praise for second aspartame cancer rat study by Ramazzini Foundation,
      Soffritti et al, by informed MDs -- Blaylock, Landigan, Walton, Roberts:
      Martini: Murray 2007.06.15

      second large Ramazzini study on low dose lifetime aspartame in rats
      carcinogenicity -- Morando Soffritti will give data and get Selikoff
      award April
      23 at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in NYC: Murray 2007.04.19

      aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
      Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
      National Toxicology Program
      of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

      USA National Institutes of Health National Toxicology
      Program aids eminent Ramazzini Foundation, Bologna, Italy,
      in more results on cancers in rats from lifetime low levels
      of aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde), Felicity Lawrence,
      www.guardian.co.uk: Murray 2005.09.30

      aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats, full plain text,
      M Soffritti, F Belpoggi, DD Esposti, L Lambertini: Ramazzini
      Foundation study 2005.07.14: main results agree with their previous
      methanol and formaldehyde studies: Murray 2005.09.03

      Michael F Jacobson of CSPI now and in 1985 re aspartame
      toxicity, letter to FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford;
      California OEHHA aspartame critique 2004.03.12; Center for
      Consumer Freedom denounces CSPI: Murray 2005.07.27

      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity:
      Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec 2002:
      Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the
      gastrointestinal tract to become free methyl alcohol,
      which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
      Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
      methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L,
      Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology
      and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water
      supplied ad libitum at concentrations of
      1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
      to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
      seven weeks of age.
      Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
      Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female
      Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of
      2,500, 1,500, 500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase
      in total malignant tumors in the treated groups
      and showed specific carcinogenic effects on various organs and tissues.
      PMID: 12562630

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D,
      Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology
      and Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water
      supplied ad libitum at doses of
      20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
      Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
      concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
      female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in
      the experiment.
      Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
      or from embryo life (offspring)
      and lasted until their spontaneous death.
      Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
      were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
      They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
      In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
      tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
      These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by
      epidemiologic studies.
      Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

      Obfuscation of the iatrogenic autism epidemic re mercury in kid
      vaccines, Kenneth P. Stoller, Pediatrics 2006.05.06;
      aspartame toxicity 2005.11.10: Comet assay can test genotoxicity,
      EFSA admits ignorance re methanol residues, Murray 2006.05.10

      Morando Soffritti of Ramazzini Foundation rebuts EFSA AFC critique,
      www.laleva.org: Murray 2006.05.05

      European Food Safety Authority discounts Ramazzini study re many
      cancers in 1800 rats fed lifetime doses of aspartame:
      Calorie Control Council press release: Murray 2006.05.05






      Aspartame: The healthy option? Richard A. Lovett, The New Scientist
      2006.05.04: Murray 2006.05.08

      The Lowdown on Sweet? (Ramazzini Foundation, M Soffritti proof that
      aspartame causes cancers), Melanie Warner, The New York Times:
      sucralose: Prof. DL Katz: Murray 2006.02.12

      David L. Katz MD comments briefly with Diane Sawyer on ABC
      Good Morning America re Ramazzini aspartame cancer study:
      excellent opus at Yale U: mainstream research on aspartame
      (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray 2006.02.14

      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
      2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ):
      59 pages, 230 references

      A very detailed, highly credible account of the dubious approval process
      for aspartame in July, 1981 is part of the just released two-hour
      documentary "Sweet Misery, A Poisoned World: An Industry Case
      Study of a Food Supply In Crisis" by Cori Brackett:
      http://www.soundandfuryproductions.com/ 520-624-9710
      2301 East Broadway, Suite 111 Tucson, AZ 85719

      Mary Nash Stoddard
      Toxicology Sourcebook: "Deadly Deception Story of Aspartame"
      Aspartame Consumer Safety Network and Pilot Hotline [since 1987]
      P.O. Box 2001 Frisco, Texas 75034 U.S. [ North of Dallas ]
      Phone/FAX: 214.387.4001
      marystod@... http://www.aspartamesafety.com

      http://www.sweetpoison.com/ http://www.issplendasafe.com/
      Dr. Janet Starr Hull, PhD, CN jshull@...
      Splenda: Is It Safe Or Not?

      http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
      Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
      free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
      Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
      P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
      858-481-9333 adandjack@...

      http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
      Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
      Townsend Letter 2000 Jan; HJRobertsMD@...
      http://www.sunsentpress.com/ sunsentpress@...
      Sunshine Sentinel Press P.O.Box 17799 West Palm Beach, FL 33416
      800-814-9800 561-588-7628 561-547-8008 fax

      1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
      published May 30 2001 $ 60.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
      available at http://www.amazon.com
      over 600 references from standard medical research

      Moseley: review Roberts "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic":
      Murray 2002.02.07 rmforall

      Roberts, Hyman J., 1924-- ,
      Useful insights for diagnosis, treatment and public heath: an updated
      anthology of original research, 2002, 798 pages,
      aspartame disease, pages 627-685, 778-780

      Roberts: the life work of a brilliant clinician: aspartame toxicity:
      Murray 2002.08.02 rmforall

      Russell L. Blaylock, MD 601-982-1175 Madison, Mississippi
      "Excitotoxins: The Taste that Kills", 1977, 298 p., 493 references.
      "Health and Nutrition Secrets that can save your life", 2002, 459 p.,
      558 + 30 references, $ 30 http://www.russellblaylockmd.com/

      aspartame, MSG, excitotoxins, NMDA glutamate receptors,
      multiple sclerosis: Blaylock: Murray 2004.06.09

      Lancet website aspartame letter 1999.07.29:
      Excitotoxins 1999 Part 1/3 Blaylock: Murray 2000.01.14
      The Medical Sentinel Journal 1999 Fall; (95 references)

      www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31

      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100 %) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91 %)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240
      Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...

      Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
      aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 four double-blind studies

      eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame,
      Prof. Ralph G. Walton, MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text:
      Murray 2004.04.26

      Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge
      in patients from a vulnerable population," 1993,
      with Robert Hudak and Ruth J. Green-Waite, rwalton193@...
      Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology,
      Northeastern Ohio Universities, College of Medicine,
      Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown, OH 44501,
      Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane,
      P.O. Box 240 Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621

      Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
      ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
      aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
      opposite. Each got 2100 mg aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
      equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon. Despite the
      very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
      statistically significant. The eight depressed patients reported with
      aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
      trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise.
      (For each symptom, p<0.01)
      The five normals did not report strong enough differences
      between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
      Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
      Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions
      among 3 of the depressed patients.

      Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
      "In this study, patients most often began to report significant
      symptoms after day 2 or 3." The incidence rate is very high,
      indeed, about 1/3. The most common symptoms are entirely typical
      of thousands of case histories.

      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp.,
      got aspartame FDA approval: Turner: Murray 2002.12.23

      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon,
      UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23

      phenylalanine and aspartic acid from low dose aspartame
      in rabbits interfere with blood coagulation,
      Pretorius E and Humphries P, U. of Pretoria,
      Ultrastruct Pathol 2007 March: Murray 2007.07.14

      Artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose) and coloring agents will
      be banned from use in newly-born and baby foods, the European
      Parliament decided: Latvia ban in schools 2006: Murray 2007.07.12

      Safe Food Campaign wants ban on aspartame in schools in New Zealand:
      Murray 2007.06.21

      Wellington, NZ lady, 25, free by 24 hours of severe muscle cramps (5
      months) after quitting 4-8 packs daily aspartame chewing gum (past few
      years): Murray 2007.06.20

      stevia to be approved and cyclamates limited by Food Standards Australia
      Zealand: JMC Geuns critiques of two recent stevia studies by Nunes: Murray

      more from The Independent, UK, Martin Hickman, re ASDA
      (unit of Wal-Mart Stores) and Marks & Spencer ban of aspartame,
      MSG, artificial chemical additives and dyes to prevent ADHD in kids:
      Murray 2007.05.16

      ASDA (unit of Wal-Mart Stores WMT.N) and Marks & Spencer
      will join Tesco and also Sainsbury to ban and limit aspartame,
      MSG, artificial flavors dyes preservatives additives, trans fats,
      salt "nasties" to protect kids from ADHD: leading UK media:
      Murray 2007.05.15

      combining aspartame and quinoline yellow, or MSG and
      brilliant blue, harms nerve cells, eminent C. Vyvyan
      Howard et al, 2005 education.guardian.co.uk,
      Felicity Lawrence: Murray 2005.12.21

      50% UK baby food is now organic -- aspartame or MSG
      with food dyes harm nerve cells, CV Howard 3 year study
      funded by Lizzy Vann, CEO, Organix Brands,
      Children's Food Advisory Service: Murray 2006.01.13

      formaldehyde as a potent unexamined cofactor in cancer research --
      sources include methanol, dark wines and liquors, aspartame, wood and
      tobacco smoke: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks
      to Humans implicate formaldehyde in #88 and alcohol drinks in #96:
      some related abstracts: Murray 2007.05.15

      aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde) toxicity research summary:
      Rich Murray 2007.06.16

      One liter aspartame diet soda, about 3 12-oz cans,
      gives 61.5 mg methanol,
      so if 30% is turned into formaldehyde, the formaldehyde
      dose of 18.5 mg is 37 times the recent EPA limit of
      0.5 mg per liter daily drinking water for a 10-kg child:
      2007.01.05 [ does not discuss formaldehyde from methanol
      or aspartame ]
      http://www.epa.gov/teach/teachsurvey.html comments

      "Of course, everyone chooses, as a natural priority,
      to actively find, quickly share, and positively act upon
      the facts about healthy and safe food, drink, and

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      group with 78 members, 1,453 posts in a public, searchable archive

      aspartame groups and books: updated research review of
      2004.07.16: Murray 2006.05.11

      Aspartame Controversy, in Wikipedia democratic
      encyclopedia, 72 references (including AspartameNM # 864
      and 1173 by Murray), brief fair summary of much more
      research: Murray 2007.01.01

      Dark wines and liquors, as well as aspartame, provide
      similar levels of methanol, above 120 mg daily, for
      long-term heavy users, 2 L daily, about 6 cans.

      Within hours, methanol is inevitably largely turned into
      formaldehyde, and thence largely into formic acid -- the
      major causes of the dreaded symptoms of "next morning"

      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
      in 2 L diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg
      methanol (wood alcohol). If 30% of the methanol is turned
      into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde, 37 mg,
      is 18.5 times the USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in
      drinking water, 2.0 mg in 2 L average daily drinking water.

      methanol products (formaldehyde and formic acid) are main
      cause of alcohol hangover symptoms [same as from similar
      amounts of methanol, the 11% part of aspartame]:
      YS Woo et al, 2005 Dec: Murray 2006.01.20

      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition:
      Bouchard M et al, full plain text, 2001: substantial
      sources are degradation of fruit pectins, liquors,
      aspartame, smoke: Murray 2005.04.02
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