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neurotoxic synergy of aspartame with Quinoline Yellow, and L-glutamic acid with Brilliant Blue, in mouse cells, Lau K, McLean WG, Williams DP, Howard CV, U. of Liverpool, Toxicol Sci 2005.12.13: Murray

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  • Rich Murray
    ******************************************************* http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1270 neurotoxic synergy of aspartame with Quinoline
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 16, 2005
      *******************************************************

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1270
      neurotoxic synergy of aspartame with Quinoline Yellow,
      and L-glutamic acid with Brilliant Blue, in mouse cells,
      Lau K, McLean WG, Williams DP, Howard CV, U. of Liverpool,
      Toxicol Sci 2005.12.13: Murray

      [ Rich Murray: This study by an expert mainstream research team shows
      that both aspartame and MSG harm developing mouse neuroblastoma
      cells: "Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations
      of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a
      typical snack and drink."

      The possibility that prolong daily exposures would cause cumulative
      effects was not studied.

      Aspartame generally exerts its toxic effects by its rapid
      disassociation in the GI tract into its three components:
      50% phenylalanine, 39% aspartic acid, and 11% methanol (wood alcohol),
      the last always quickly and largely turned into formaldehyde and then
      formic acid, both extremely potent, cumulative toxins that harm every
      cell and tissue.

      The effects of methanol can be conveniently tested by using dimethyl
      dicarbonate, approved as an additive to wines and other beverages,
      which readily releases about the same amount of methanol in the body
      as does aspartame:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
      DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds
      methanol 98 mg/L [ becomes formaldehyde in body ]:
      EU Scientific Committee on Foods 2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

      Without changing wording, I have increased spacing and altered
      sequences in the first abstract
      to increase clarity and add emphasis. ]

      Toxicol Sci. 2005 Dec 13; [Epub ahead of print]
      Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a
      developmental neurotoxicity test.
      Lau K, McLean WG, Williams DP, Howard CV.
      Developmental Toxicopathology Unit,
      Department of Human Anatomy & Cell Biology,
      University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK;
      Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics,
      University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK.
      W. Graham McLean w.g.mclean@...
      C. V. Howard c.v.howard@...
      D. P. Williams dom@... 0151 794 5791 http://www.liv.ac.uk/
      Miss. Karen Lau karenlau@... 0151 795 4223
      [ Deborah A. Sawatzky
      Paul J. Kingham
      Craig N. Lippe
      B. K. Park bkpark@...
      D. J. Naisbitt dnes@... ; d.j.naisbitt@... 0151 794 5346
      Richard W. Costello rcostello@...
      Patricia J. Manns trish.manns@...
      M. M. Yarborough yarbroug@...
      Dr Yvonne Allen Y.Allen@... 0151 794 5449 ]

      Exposure to non-nutritional food additives during the critical
      development window has been implicated
      in the induction and severity of behavioural
      disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

      Although the use of single food additives
      at their regulated concentrations is believed to be relatively safe
      in terms of neuronal development,
      their combined effects remain unclear.

      We therefore examined the neurotoxic effects of four common
      food additives in combinations of two
      ( aspartame and Quinoline Yellow,
      L-glutamic acid and Brilliant Blue )
      to assess potential interactions.

      Mouse NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate and
      grow neurites in the presence of additives.

      After 24 h, cells were fixed and stained and neurite length measured by
      light microscopy with computerised image analysis.

      Neurotoxicity was measured as an inhibition of neurite outgrowth.

      Two independent models were used to analyse combination effects:
      effect additivity and dose additivity.

      Significant synergy was observed between combinations
      of aspartame with Quinoline Yellow, and
      of L-glutamic acid with Brilliant Blue,
      in both models.

      Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in food
      additive-induced neurite inhibition
      was assessed with a NMDA antagonist, CNS-1102.

      L-glutamic acid- and aspartame-induced neurotoxicity
      was reduced in the presence of CNS-1102;
      however the antagonist
      did not prevent food colour-induced neurotoxicity.

      Theoretical exposure to additives was calculated based on analysis
      of content in foodstuff,
      and estimated percentage absorption from the gut.

      Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations of additives
      theoretically achievable in plasma
      by ingestion of a typical snack and drink.

      In addition, Trypan Blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the cellular
      toxicity of food additives on cell viability of NB2a cells;
      both combinations had a straightforward additive effect on cytotoxicity.

      These data have implications for the cellular effects of common chemical
      entities ingested individually and in combination. PMID: 16352620
      *******************************************************


      Toxicology. 2003 Mar 14; 185(1-2): 67-78.
      The effects of acute pesticide exposure on neuroblastoma cells
      chronically exposed to diazinon.
      Axelrad JC, Howard CV, McLean WG.
      Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
      University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK.

      Speculation about potential neurotoxicity due to chronic exposure
      to low doses of organophosphate (OP) pesticides
      is not yet supported by experimental evidence.

      The objective of this work was to use a cell culture model
      of chronic OP exposure to determine if such exposure
      can alter the sensitivity of nerve cells to subsequent
      acute exposure to OPs or other compounds.

      NB2a neuroblastoma cells were grown in the presence
      of 25 microM diazinon for 8 weeks.

      The OP was then withdrawn and
      the cells were induced to differentiate in the presence of
      various other pesticides or herbicides,
      including OPs and OP-containing formulations.

      The resulting outgrowth of neurite-like structures was measured
      by light microscopy and quantitative image analysis and
      the IC(50) for each OP or formulation was calculated.

      The IC(50) values in diazinon-pre-exposed cells were compared
      with the equivalent values in cells not pre-exposed to diazinon.

      The IC(50) for inhibition of neurite outgrowth
      by acute application of diazinon, pyrethrum, glyphosate
      or a commercial formulation of glyphosate was decreased
      by between 20 and 90% after pre-treatment with diazinon.

      In contrast, the IC(50) for pirimiphos methyl was unaffected and
      those for phosmet or chlorpyrifos
      were increased by between 1.5- and 3-fold.

      Treatment of cells with chlorpyrifos
      or with a second glyphosate-containing formulation
      led to the formation of abnormal neurite-like structures
      in iazinon-pre-exposed cells.

      The data support the view that chronic exposure to an OP may reduce
      the threshold for toxicity of some,
      but by no means all, environmental agents. PMID: 12505446
      *******************************************************


      Drug Discov Today. 2003 Nov 15; 8(22): 1044-50.
      Idiosyncratic toxicity: the role of toxicophores and bioactivation.
      Williams DP, Park BK. dom@...
      Drug Safety Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
      The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK L69 3GE. dom@...

      Drugs and chemicals can undergo enzyme-catalyzed bioactivation
      reactions within cellular systems,
      with the formation of reactive chemical species.

      These reactive metabolites can lead to thiol depletion, reversible
      protein modification (glutathionylation and nitration),
      further irreversible protein adduct formation
      and subsequent irreversible protein damage.

      The incorporation of potentially reactive chemical moieties --
      toxicophores -- within new therapeutic agents should be limited.

      However, this cannot always be prevented,
      particularly when the structural feature responsible for toxicity
      is also responsible for the pharmacological efficacy.

      The identification and further knowledge of critical levels
      of thiol depletion and/or covalent modification of protein will
      aid in the development of new drugs.

      Importantly, the identification of drug-thiol conjugation should
      provide a warning of potential problems,
      yet not hinder the development of a potentially therapeutically
      useful drug. Publication Types: Review PMID: 14690635
      ******************************************************


      Toxicology. 2002 May 1; 173(3): 259-68.
      Interactions between pesticides and components of pesticide
      formulations in an in vitro neurotoxicity test.
      Axelrad JC, Howard CV, McLean WG.
      Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool,
      Sherrington Buildings, L69 3GE, Liverpool, UK.

      Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are often used in combination
      with one another and with the components of formulations.

      Evidence already exists for interactions in the neurotoxic effects
      of OPs through interference with metabolism,
      but there is also potential for
      interactions related directly to cell damage.

      The purpose of this work was to investigate this possibility
      for OPs and the components of one of their common formulations
      in vitro.

      NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate in the
      presence of the OPs diazinon and chlorpyrifos,
      in combination with a commercial formulation
      (identified as Commercial Formulation 1)
      of the compounds and,
      independently, the components of that formulation.

      The compounds were tested in pairs in various proportions
      and the resulting inhibition of neurite outgrowth
      was measured by light microscopy and quantitative image analysis.

      Interactions were determined in terms of enhanced or reduced effects
      of the paired compounds in comparison
      with the expected additive effects estimated
      from the effects of each compound on its own.

      Synergism was detected between combinations of:
      10 microM chlorpyrifos and 500 nM pyrethrum;

      chlorpyrifos and one of the solvents (regular spirit) found
      in Commercial Formulation 1.

      All other combinations of OPs and products were additive in their
      neurotoxicity.

      The data suggest that exposure to multiple OP-containing pesticide
      formulations may lead to synergistic neurotoxicity by a direct
      mechanism at the cellular level. PMID: 11960678
      ******************************************************


      Curr Drug Metab. 2002 Aug; 3(4): 351-66.
      Are chemically reactive metabolites responsible
      for adverse reactions to drugs?
      Williams DP, Kitteringham NR, Naisbitt DJ, Pirmohamed M,
      Smith DA, Park BK.
      Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
      The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

      Low molecular weight organic chemicals can be transformed by normal
      drug-metabolising systems into short-lived metabolites that are
      inherently reactive towards cellular macromolecules.

      There is direct evidence that the formation of such chemically
      reactive metabolites may lead to mutagenesis, carcinogenicity,
      apoptosis and necrosis in both cell and animal models.

      A number of drugs associated with non-pharmacological drug toxicities
      in man have been shown to undergo bioactivation
      either in vivo or in vitro.

      We have therefore examined the evidence
      for the role of reactive metabolites
      in the three most common drug-induced toxicities:
      hepatotoxicity, skin reactions and blood dyscrasias.
      Publication Types: Review PMID: 12093355
      *******************************************************


      Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2002 Jan; 5(1): 104-15.
      Toxicophores: groups and metabolic routes
      associated with increased safety risk.
      Williams DP, Naisbitt DJ. dom@...
      University of Liverpool, Drug Safety Research Group,
      Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,
      Liverpool, L69 3GE, UK.

      Drugs and chemicals can be metabolized in living organisms
      in an effort to remove them from the body.

      During this excretion process,
      certain chemicals can be transformed into
      unstable, highly reactive species.

      This can result in the overwhelming of cellular defense,
      allowing the reactive metabolite to bind to cellular macromolecules,
      and leading to abnormal cellular function.

      It is widely accepted that this process can lead to clinically
      observed toxicities in the form
      of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

      However, it is currently impossible to predict
      which chemical species will cause these reactions.

      This review focuses on drugs from which reactive metabolites
      have been detected and reiterates the need for a more thorough
      understanding of basic drug metabolism
      before attempting to relate chemical species formation
      to biological function. Publication Types: Review PMID: 11865664
      *******************************************************


      Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001 Aug; 1(4): 317-25.
      Reactive metabolites and their role in drug reactions.
      Naisbitt DJ, Williams DP, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR, Park BK.
      Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool,
      Liverpool, UK. dnes@...

      Adverse drug reactions are a major clinical problem
      and often preclude drug administration.

      Drug hypersensitivity (or allergy) represents
      one of the most severe and
      unpredictable reactions associated with drug therapy.

      Our current understanding of drug hypersensitivity
      is based on the hapten hypothesis
      of immune recognition of drugs by T cells.

      The onset of hypersensitivity involves drug bioactivation,
      covalent binding,
      followed by uptake, antigen processing and T cell proliferation.

      There is convincing evidence that drugs
      associated with a high incidence of hypersensitivity
      are converted to protein reactive intermediates
      by the normal processes of drug metabolism
      and stimulate a cellular immune response in sensitive individuals.

      Until recently, however, there has been little evidence
      to relate the formation of a reactive metabolite
      to the initiation of a cellular immune response.

      The purpose of this review is to detail recent advances
      in our understanding of the complex mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity,
      and using severe skin reactions as an example,
      assess recent evidence that supports the hapten hypothesis
      of drug hypersensitivity. Publication Types: Review PMID: 11964707
      *******************************************************

      Friday, December 16, 2005

      Any unsuspected source of methanol, which the body always quickly
      and largely turns into formaldehyde and then formic acid, must be
      monitored, especially for high responsibility occupations, often with
      night shifts, such as pilots and nuclear reactor operators.

      In particular, the next review gives many recent mainstream
      peer-reviewed studies that show formaldehyde,
      always inevitably derived in the body from any methanol source,
      including aspartame, causes endothelial injury,
      ie, diabetic neuropathy -- among the most serious and complex
      complications of diabetes.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1263
      many studies on endothelial injury (diabetic neuropathy) by adducts of
      formaldehyde derived from methylamine from many of the same sources
      as also supply methanol (formaldehyde), including aspartame:
      PH Yu et al: DJ Conklin et al: Murray 2005.12.04

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1237
      ubiquitous potent uncontrolled co-factors in nutrition research are
      formaldehyde from wood and tobacco smoke and many sources,
      including from methanol in dark wines and liquors, in pectins
      in fruits and vegetables, and in aspartame: Murray 2005.12.16

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1250
      aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
      Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
      National Toxicology Program
      of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

      As a medical layman, I suggest that evidence mandates immediate
      exploration of the role of these ubiquitious, potent formaldehyde
      sources as co-factors in epidemiology, research, diagnosis,
      and treatment in a wide variety of disorders.

      Folic acid, from fruits and vegetables, plays a role by powerfully
      protecting against methanol (formaldehyde) toxicity.

      Many common drugs, such as aspirin, interfere with folic acid,
      as do some mutations in relevant enzymes.

      The majority of aspartame reactors are female.

      In mutual service, Rich Murray
      *******************************************************

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      505-501-2298 1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/messages
      group with 149 members, 1,270 posts in a public, searchable archive
      http://RoomForAll.blogspot.com http://AspartameNM.blogspot.com

      Dark wines and liquors, as well as aspartame, provide
      similar levels of methanol, above 100 mg daily, for
      long-term heavy users, 2 L daily, about 6 cans.

      Methanol is inevitably largely turned into formaldehyde,
      and thence largely into formic acid.
      It is the major cause of the dreaded symptoms of "next
      morning" hangover.

      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol -- 1,120 mg aspartame
      in 2 L diet soda, almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg
      methanol (wood alcohol). If 30% of the methanol is turned
      into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde, 37 mg,
      is 18.5 times the USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in
      drinking water, 2.0 mg in 2 L average daily drinking water.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1108
      faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
      Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of
      Bialystok, Poland, abstracts -- ethanol, methanol,
      formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde, lipid peroxidation,
      green tea, aging: Murray 2004.08.08 2005.07.11

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/835
      ATSDR: EPA limit 1 ppm formaldehyde in drinking water July
      1999: Murray 2002.05.30 rmforall

      Aspartame is made of phenylalanine (50% by weight) and
      aspartic acid (39%), both ordinary amino acids, bound
      loosely together by methanol (wood alcohol, 11%).
      The readily released methanol from aspartame is within hours
      turned by the liver into formaldehyde and then formic acid,
      both potent, cumulative toxins.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1141
      Nurses Health Study can quickly reveal the extent of aspartame
      (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray 2004.11.21
      [ Any scientist can get access to this data for free by submitting a proper
      research proposal.
      No one has admitted mining the extensive data on diet soda use
      and many symptoms for decades for about 100,000 nurses. ]

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1213
      aspartame (methanol, phenylalanine, aspartic acid) effects, detailed
      expert studies in 2005 Aug and 1998 July, Tsakiris S, Schulpis KH,
      Karikas GA, Kokotos G, Reclos RJ, et al,
      Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece: Murray 2005.09.09

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/939
      aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
      Karikas July 1998: Murray 2003.01.05 rmforall
      Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
      Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
      its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
      Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
      http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@...
      K.H. Schulpis inchildh@... G.J. Reclos reklos@...

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1088
      Murray, full plain text & critique: chronic aspartame in rats affects
      memory, brain cholinergic receptors, and brain chemistry, Christian B,
      McConnaughey M et al, 2004 May: 2004.06.05

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1067
      eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame,
      AM Hill & DV Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30

      Thrasher (2001): "The major difference is that the Japanese
      demonstrated the incorporation of FA and its metabolites into the
      placenta and fetus.
      The quantity of radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues
      at 48 hours was 26.9% of the administered dose." [ Ref. 14-16 ]

      Arch Environ Health 2001 Jul-Aug; 56(4): 300-11.
      Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. [100 references]
      Thrasher JD, Kilburn KH. toxicology@...
      Sam-1 Trust, Alto, New Mexico, USA.
      http://www.drthrasher.org/formaldehyde_embryo_toxicity.html full text

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1052
      DMDC: Dimethyl dicarbonate 200mg/L in drinks adds
      methanol 98 mg/L [ becomes formaldehyde in body ]: EU Scientific
      Committee on Foods 2001.07.12: Murray 2004.01.22

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/925
      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1224
      Aspartame disease: an FDA-approved epidemic, H. J. Roberts,
      MD 2004: Murray 2005.09.30

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1233
      Aspartame -- the shocking story, The Ecologist, 2005 Sept.,
      p. 35-51, full text: Murray 2005.09.30: the correct author,
      Pat Thomas, What Doctors Don't Tell You www.wddty.co.uk :
      2005.10.11

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1131
      genotoxicity of aspartame in human lymphocytes 2004.07.29
      full plain text, Rencuzogullari E et al, Cukurova University,
      Adana, Turkey 2004 Aug: Murray 2004.11.06

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1228
      NM EIB votes 4-2 for 5-day aspartame toxicity hearing July,
      2006, requesting a Hearing Officer and a medical expert from
      Environmental Dept. and legal advice from NM Attorney
      General: Murray 2005.10.04

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1237
      ubiquitous potent uncontrolled co-factors in nutrition research are
      formaldehyde from wood and tobacco smoke and many sources,
      including from methanol in dark wines and liquors, in pectins
      in fruits and vegetables, and in aspartame: Murray 2005.12.16

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1264
      fructose in rats increases uric acid, obesity, insulin resistance,
      endothelial damage -- RJ Johnson et al, U. Florida: Murray 2005.12.07
      *******************************************************

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1106
      hangover research relevant to toxicity of 11% methanol in
      aspartame (formaldehyde, formic acid): Calder I (full text):
      Jones AW: Murray 2004.08.05 2005.09.28

      Since no adaquate data has ever been published on the exact
      disposition of toxic metabolites in specific tissues in
      humans of the 11% methanol component of aspartame, the many
      studies on morning-after hangover from the methanol impurity
      in alcohol drinks are the main available resource to date.

      Jones AW (1987) found next-morning hangover from red wine
      with 100 to 150 mg methanol (9.5% w/v ethanol, 100 mg/L
      methanol, 0.01%, one part in ten thousand).

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1182
      Joining together: short review: research on aspartame
      methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray
      2005.07.08 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1071
      research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid)
      toxicity: Murray2004.04.29 rmforall

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1250
      aspartame causes cancer in rats at levels approved for humans,
      Morando Soffritti et al, Ramazzini Foundation, Italy &
      National Toxicology Program
      of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      2005.11.17 Env. Health Pers. 35 pages: Murray

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1226
      USA National Institutes of Health National Toxicology
      Program aids eminent Ramazzini Foundation, Bologna, Italy,
      in more results on cancers in rats from lifetime low levels
      of aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde), Felicity Lawrence,
      www.guardian.co.uk: Murray 2005.09.30

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1186
      aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats, full plain text,
      M Soffritti, F Belpoggi, DD Esposti, L Lambertini: Ramazzini
      Foundation study 2005.07.14: main results agree with their previous
      methanol and formaldehyde studies: Murray 2005.09.03

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1189
      Michael F Jacobson of CSPI now and in 1985 re aspartame
      toxicity, letter to FDA Commissioner Lester Crawford;
      California OEHHA aspartame critique 2004.03.12; Center for
      Consumer Freedom denounces CSPI: Murray 2005.07.27

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1143
      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition: Bouchard M
      et al, full plain text, 2001: substantial sources are
      degradation of fruit pectins, liquors, aspartame, smoke:
      Murray 2005.04.02
      *******************************************************

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1070
      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA
      2002.05.07 aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/957
      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF,
      EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash; Murray 2003.01.12

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1045
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/scf2002-response.htm
      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

      http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@...
      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
      http://www.holisticmed.com/aspartame/abuse/methanol.html
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
      properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

      http://www.eatright.org/Nutritive(1).pdf
      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1068
      critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association
      Feb 2004, Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant:
      Murray 2004.05.14

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240
      Youngstown, OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...
      http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/Psychiatry/walton.htm

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/857
      www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/858
      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01

      http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
      Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
      free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
      Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
      P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
      858-481-9333 adandjack@...

      http://www.dorway.com/upipart1.txt
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/262
      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3:
      Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter: Murray 2000.07.10

      http://www.dorway.com/enclosur.html
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/53
      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/928
      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/927
      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA
      approval: Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall
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