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corporate corruption of health sciences, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, entire issue, 2005 Oct-Dec: Gary N Greenburg, OEM-L: aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity, Murray 2005.07.14

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  • Rich Murray
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1184 corporate corruption of health sciences, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health,
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 14 1:07 AM
      corporate corruption of health sciences, International Journal of
      Occupational and Environmental Health, entire issue, 2005 Oct-Dec: Gary N
      Greenburg, OEM-L: aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity,
      Murray 2005.07.14

      UK Co-op chain bans MSG and 21 food dyes; health food desire in UK, Asia,
      France: Feed Me Better school lunch campaign, Jamie Oliver: Caroline Walker
      Trust: Lindsay Partos, Novis NutraIngredients.com: Murray 2005.07.13

      [ Comments by Rich Murray are in square bracketts.
      These news reports all arrived Monday July 11. They indicate a rapidly
      evolving worldwide citizen consensus for healthy, non-toxic food. It is
      unprecendented for a huge business to take its own initiative to ban MSG and
      21 food dyes.

      http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
      Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
      free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
      Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
      P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561
      858-481-9333 adandjack@...

      http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/ Food Intolerance Network
      Sue Dengate sdengate@... ]

      From: "Gary Greenberg" <gngreenberg@...>
      To: <Occ-Env-Med-L@...>
      Subject: IJOEH Vol. 11, No. 4 Oct-Dec, 2005 Contents
      Date: Wednesday, July 13, 2005 11:01 PM

      ---------------------- Information from the mail
      header -----------------------
      Sender: Occupational & Environmental Medicine for Clinicians & Public
      Health Professionals <Occ-Env-Med-L@...>
      Poster: Gary Greenberg <gngreenberg@...>
      Subject: IJOEH Vol. 11, No. 4 Oct-Dec, 2005 Contents

      On 7/13/05, Joeladou@... wrote:

      International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
      IJOEH Vol. 11, No. 4 October-December, 2005
      Corporate Corruption of Science

      Guest Editor: David S. Egilman, MD, MPH,
      Susanna Rankin Bohme, AM
      Never Again Consulting, Attleboro, MA 02703, USA. degilman2@...

      Over a Barrel: Corporate Corruption of Science and Its Effects
      on Workers and the Environment
      David S. Egilman, MD, MPH,
      Susanna Rankin Bohme, AM

      Industry Influence on Health and the Environment: Fantasy,
      Paranoia, Reality? An Insider's Personal Experience
      James Huff, PhD
      National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of
      Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. huff1@...

      Maximizing Profit and Endangering Health: Corporate Strategies
      to Avoid Litigation and Regulation
      Susanna Rankin Bohme, AM,
      John Zorabedian, (860) 347-3331 ext. 219 jzorabe-dian@...
      David S. Egilman, MD, MPH

      Lifting the Veil of Secrecy from Industry Funding of Nonprofit
      Health Organizations Michael F. Jacobson, PhD
      Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1875 Connecticut Ave. NW Suite
      300, Washington, DC, USA. mjacobson@...

      Business Bias: Or How an Increased Risk of Cancer and Other
      Diseases May Be Underestimated or Remain Undetected in
      Epidemiological Studies
      Valerio Gennaro, MD, PhD,
      Lorenzo Tomatis, MD
      Servizio di epidemiologia ambientale e biostatistica, Istituto nazionale per
      la ricerca sul cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova.
      Cave 25/r, 34011 Aurisina (Trieste), Italy. ltomatis@...

      Abuse of Epidemiology: The Automobile Manufacturers Manufacture
      a Defense to Asbestos Liability
      David S. Egilman, MD, MPH,
      Marion A. Billings

      Safeguarding Scientific Evaluations of Governmental Agencies: A
      Case Study of OSHA and 1,3-Butadiene
      Peter Infante, DDS, DrPH 703-534-6811, pinfante@...

      Industry Efforts to Weaken EPA Health Assessment of 1,3-
      Jennifer Beth Sass, PhD
      Senior Scientist, Natural Resources Defense Council nrdcinfo@...

      Ethyl leaded gasoline: How a Classic Occupational Disease Became
      an International Public Health Disaster
      William Kovarik, PhD Radford University wkovarik@...

      Mining and Mendacity or How to Keep a Toxic Product in the
      Jock McCulloch, PhD jock.mcculloch@...

      Fluoride Poisoning: A Puzzle with Hidden Pieces
      Phyllis J. Mullenix, PhD

      The Dirty Work of "Recycling" America's Sewage Sludge
      Caroline Snyder, PhD cgsnyder@...

      Genetic Engineering in Agriculture and Corporate Engineering in
      Public Debate: Risk, Public Relations, and Public Debate over
      Genetically Modified Crops
      Rajeev Patel, MSc PhD,
      Robert J. Torres, MS, PhD,
      Peter Rosset, MSc, PhD
      www.foodfirst.org The Institute for Food and Development Policy
      398 60th Street, Oakland, CA 94618 USA
      Tel: 510-654-4400 Fax: 510-654-4551

      Who's Afraid of National Laws?: Pesticide Corporations Use Trade
      Negotiations to Avoid Bans and Undercut Public Health
      Protections in Central America
      Erika Rosenthal, JD, MSL erosenthal@...

      A Systemic Approach to Occupational and Environmental Health
      Skip Spitzer, MA spitzer@...
      Skip Spitzer, Pesticide Action Network North America (831) 423-8670
      Program Coordinator: Corporate Accountability and Industrial Agriculture;
      Internet Coordinator
      http://www.panna.org/ panna@... (415) 981-1771

      Letter to the Editor

      Response to Rothman and Arellano
      David S. Egilman, MD, MPH,
      Susanna Rankin Bohme, AM

      Peter F. Infante, DDS, DrPH
      Dr. Peter Infante is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. From
      1983 through 2002 Dr. Infante directed the Office of Standards Review at the
      Ocupationational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA,) with
      responsibility for evaluation and regulation of toxic substances in the
      American workplace.
      Previously Dr. Infante was Director of the Office of Carcinogen
      Identification and Classification at OSHA, where he was responsible for
      identifying and classifying toxic substances according to their cancer
      causing properties. From 1975-78, Dr. Infante worked as an epidemiologist
      and Acting Director of the Biometry Section of the Industry-wide Studies
      Branch of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),
      where he conducted research on various occupational cancer hazards
      including, vinyl chloride, benzene, beryllium, asbestos, aromatic amines,
      fiber glass, etc.

      Dr. Infante has worked as an epidemiologist for both state and Federal
      government in the area of cancer and birth defects. Has served on numerous
      national and International panels, including the International Agency for
      Research on Cancer and advisory committees including those advising the
      National Cancer Institute, the President's Cancer Panel, the Office of
      Technology Assessment of the US Congress, the National Academy of Sciences
      Committee on Toxicology on issues related to occupation and cancer.

      Dr. Infante has testified before regulatory bodies in both the US and
      Canada, and several times before the US Congress on matters of industrial
      pollution. He testified before the World Trade Organization as part of its
      deliberations on the banning of asbestos containing products from the
      European Union countries.
      Contact Information: 703-534-6811, pinfante@...

      Int J Health Serv. 2003; 33(4): 769-812.
      The beryllium "double standard" standard.
      Egilman DS, Bagley S, Biklen M, Golub AS, Bohme SR.
      Never Again Consulting, Attleboro, MA 02703, USA. degilman2@...

      Brush Wellman, the world's leading producer and supplier of beryllium
      products, has systematically hidden cases of beryllium disease that occurred
      below the threshold limit value (TLV) and lied about the efficacy of the TLV
      in published papers, lectures, reports to government agencies, and
      instructional materials prepared for customers and workers.
      Hypocritically, Brush Wellman instituted a zero exposure standard for
      corporate executives while workers and customers were told the 2 microgram
      standard was "safe."
      Brush intentionally used its workers as "canaries for the plant," and
      referred to them as such.
      Internal documents and corporate depositions indicate that these actions
      were intentional and that the motive was money.
      Despite knowledge of the inadequacy of the TLV, Brush has successfully used
      it as a defense against lawsuits brought by injured workers and as a sales
      device to provide reassurance to customers.
      Brush's policy has reaped an untold number of victims and resulted in mass
      distribution of beryllium in consumer products.
      Such corporate malfeasance is perpetuated by the current market system,
      which is controlled by an organized oligopoly that creates an incentive for
      the neglect of worker health and safety in favor of externalizing costs to
      victimized workers, their families, and society at large.
      Publication Types: Historical Article PMID: 14758859

      http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2005/7716/7716.html free full text
      Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jul;113(7):809-12.
      Vinyl chloride: a case study of data suppression and misrepresentation.
      Sass JB, Castleman B, Wallinga D.
      Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC, USA.

      When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its 2000
      update of the toxicological effects of vinyl chloride (VC), it was concerned
      with two issues: the classification of VC as a carcinogen and the numerical
      estimate of its potency.
      In this commentary we describe how the U.S. EPA review of VC toxicology,
      which was drafted with substantial input from the chemical industry,
      weakened safeguards on both points.
      First, the assessment downplays risks from all cancer sites other than the
      liver. Second, the estimate of cancer potency was reduced 10-fold from
      values previously used for environmental decision making, a finding that
      reduces the cost and extent of pollution reduction and cleanup measures.
      We suggest that this assessment reflects discredited scientific practices
      and recommend that the U.S. EPA reverse its trend toward ever-increasing
      collaborations with the regulated industries when generating scientific
      reviews and risk assessments.
      Key words: angiosarcoma, cancer, corporate, EPA, industry, IRIS, polyvinyl
      chloride, PVC, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, vinyl chloride.
      PMID: 16002366

      http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/63/1/74 free full text
      Toxicol Sci. 2001 Sep; 63(1): 74-81.
      Methylmercury-induced decrement in neuronal migration may involve
      cytokine-dependent mechanisms: a novel method to assess neuronal movement in
      Sass JB, Haselow DT, Silbergeld EK.
      Program in Human Health and the Environment and Department of Epidemiology
      and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201,
      USA. esilbergeld@...

      A major toxic effect associated with methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in
      developing humans is damage to the nervous system, which involves inhibition
      of cell migration, particularly in the cerebellum.
      The mechanisms by which MeHg impairs neural migration are not fully known,
      especially at low doses.
      In this paper we report on a novel method for observing and quantitating the
      movement of individual cells in primary cultures of murine neonatal
      cerebellar cells, which offers an opportunity to assess the role of
      endogenous and exogenous factors on neural migration.
      We have used this system to test the hypothesis that treatment with
      methylmercury would inhibit movement of granule cell neurons, possibly via a
      cytokine-mediated mechanism.
      We demonstrate that LPS (50 ng/ml) increases movement of neurons,
      concomitant with increased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 secreted protein,
      and IL-1alpha mRNA. Treatment with LPS did not increase the number of
      neurons that moved, but, of the cells that did move, exposure to LPS
      significantly increased the total distances moved.
      Treatment with methylmercury (0.1 microM) decreased the number of moving
      cells and inhibited overall distance traveled by granule cells.
      PMID: 11509746

      Mullenix PJ; Denbesten PK; Schunior A; Kernan WJ,
      "Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats,"
      Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1995 March-April, 17(2): 169-177.

      Fluoride (F) is known to affect mineralizing tissues, but effects upon the
      developing brain have not been previously considered.
      This study in Sprague-Dawley rats compares behavior, body weight, plasma and
      brain F levels after sodium fluoride (NaF) exposures during late gestation,
      at weaning or in adults.
      For prenatal exposures, dams received injections (SC) of 0.13 mg/kg NaF or
      saline on gestational days 14-18 or 17-19.
      Weanlings received drinking water containing 0, 75, 100, or 125 ppm F for 6
      or 20 weeks, and 3 month-old adults received water containing 100 ppm F for
      6 weeks.
      Behavior was tested in a computer pattern recognition system that classified
      acts in a novel environment and quantified act initiations, total times and
      time structures.
      Fluoride exposures caused sex- and dose-specific behavioral deficits with a
      common pattern.
      Males were most sensitive to prenatal day 17-19 exposure, whereas females
      were more sensitive to weanling and adult exposures.
      After fluoride ingestion, the severity of the effect on behavior increased
      directly with plasma F levels and F concentrations in specific brain
      Such association is important considering that plasma levels in this rat
      model (0.059 to 0.640 ppm F) are similar to those reported in humans exposed
      to high levels of fluoride.

      See also comment in: Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1995 Nov-Dec; 17(6):
      685-688 .


      Caroline Snyder.
      (Caroline Snyder is Professor Emeritus at the Rochester Institute of
      Technology where she taught environmental studies for 20 years and chaired
      the Science, Technology , and Society Division before taking early
      retirement. She has studied the sludge spreading issue extensively She
      served as co-chair of New Hampshire's Sludge Management Advisory Committee
      and is a member of the Sierra Club Sludge Task Force. The Sierra Club
      opposes land application of sewage sludge because they believe that current
      rules are not protective of health or the environment.)

      EPA did not take kindly to a two-page commentary by microbiologist David
      Lewis published by the British science journal Nature ("EPA Science:
      Casualty of Election Politics." Nature. 1996. 381:731-732). In it, Lewis
      talked about how poor science behind many of EPA's regulations stand to harm
      public health and the environment, rather than protect. Having worked at
      EPA's research laboratory in Athens, GA for over 30 years, Lewis has a
      wealth of first-hand knowledge on the subject.

      In the early 1990's, Lewis led a team of researchers from Washington
      University Medical School and Loma Linda University's School of Dentistry,
      which discovered that the AIDS virus could survive disinfection in dental
      equipment. The findings, which Lewis published in Lancet and Nature
      Medicine, led to new heat-sterilization standards for dentistry worldwide.

      When Nature published a second article by Lewis, which was critical of EPA's
      sludge rule (Lewis, DL, et al. 1999. "Influence of environmental changes on
      degradation of chiral pollutants in soils." Nature. 401:898-901), the agency
      removed his director, Dr. Rosemarie Russo, for approving the research

      Based on ethics rules requiring "reasonably prominent" disclaimers,
      Washington EPA officials retaliated by accusing Lewis of violating ethics
      rules. The print size Nature used for his disclaimer, saying he was not
      speaking for EPA policy, was smaller than that used in the body of the
      article. Lewis, of course, had no way of knowing what sizes of print the
      journal would use for different parts of his article. Department of Labor
      investigators found that EPA had applied its ethics rules in a
      discriminatory manner, and later determined that EPA also denied his
      promotion in a discriminatory manner.

      Although the Labor Department ruled in his favor in these cases, EPA
      demanded that he resign by age 55 (May 28, 2003) for criticizing the
      Agency's policies. EPA's Office of General Counsel (OGC) and the National
      Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) also took Lewis's supervision out of the
      hands of his local managers. Everything with his name associated with it had
      be approved by headquarters.

      In a settlement agreement dated October 7, 1998, EPA offered Lewis an
      opportunity to conduct research at the University of Georgia for up to four
      years under an Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) assignment if he would
      agree to resign after it was over. The purpose of the IPA, according to his
      IPA Assignment Agreements, was for him to apply his research on pathogens in
      dental or medical devices to EPA's mission.

      EPA's offer posed no financial or career benefit to Lewis. The Agency paid
      him no money and refused to grant him the promotion he had been unfairly
      denied. They did pay $25,000 in attorney fees; however, Lewis's attorney
      had taken the case on contingency. Lewis, therefore, did not personally owe
      attorney fees. Furthermore, Dr. Russo told Lewis that she would approve an
      IPA assignment without a settlement agreement, as she had done for many
      others at the Athens laboratory.

      Although Lewis had nothing to gain financially from EPA's offer, he had
      everything to lose in terms of why he went to work for EPA in the first
      place. His life's work has been protecting public health and the
      environment. He was the only scientist at EPA who would listen when several
      mothers and fathers argued that sewage sludge, which EPA approved as a cheap
      fertilizer, had taken the lives of their children. Hundreds more across the
      country were sick with the same illnesses that even appeared to affect farm
      animals and family pets.

      To keep his job, Lewis would have had to turn his back on sick people and
      grief-stricken mothers and fathers who were being taxed to pay his
      government salary. For anyone with any heart or conscience, Lewis said,
      there was really no other honorable choice than to fold under EPA's pressure
      to resign. EPA had dead-ended his career and going to the University of
      Georgia was the only way he could continue his research on pathogens in
      sludge. He could have a government job, or do it, but not both.

      Broken agreement What Lewis did not know was that EPA did not plan to let
      him continue his work on sludge at the University of Georgia. What he
      thought would be four years of unhampered research turned into an unending
      battle against the combined efforts of EPA, Synagro Technologies, Inc, and
      the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to stop his research on sludge.
      Synagro, based out of Houston, TX, is the leading sludge company and the WEF
      is a national trade association for the sludge industry.

      Both Synagro and the WEF appealed directly to EPA Administrator Christie
      Todd Whitman and other top EPA officials to withdraw EPA's support for
      Lewis's research. EPA was all too happy to work with the sludge industry
      and go after Lewis. At least one EPA official in the Office of Water went so
      far as to publicly distribute Synagro materials attacking Lewis's
      credibility. On another occasion, he solicited help from Synagro in writing
      a negative internal EPA peer-review of Lewis's research on sludge.

      First documented cases Overcoming strong opposition from EPA and the sludge
      industry, Lewis' research on sludge was recently published in a British
      medical journal ("Interactions of pathogens and irritant chemicals in
      land-applied sewage sludges (biosolids)" D. L. Lewis, et al BMC Public
      Health 2002, 2:11 (28 Jun 2002)

      The Journal of Environmental Science & Technology
      also featured the research in a 7-page article in their
      July 1, 2002 issue. This is the first time illnesses and deaths among
      residents exposed to sewage sludge have been documented in the medical and
      scientific literature. Simultaneously, the National Academy of Sciences
      released a report on July 3 citing Lewis work and supporting the science
      issues he raised.

      Altogether, Lewis's research on sludge prompted two hearings by the full
      Committee on Science in the U.S. House of Representatives, an EPA Office of
      Inspector General audit of the EPA's mishandling of science behind the 503
      Sludge Rule, and an earlier-than-planned review of that science by the
      National Academy of Sciences.

      Last May, the President of the United States signed the No Fear Act, which
      was intended to better protect federal employees from discrimination and
      retaliation. This legislation was drafted by the Science and Judiciary
      Committees partly as a result of the hearings into EPA's retaliations
      against Lewis and his director for his publications in Nature.

      Responding to a request from Lewis's attorney that he be allowed to stay at
      EPA, the Agency's Office of General Counsel replied on June 11, 2002,
      stating "should Dr. Lewis refuse to resign or retire no later than May 28,
      2003, the Agency will unilaterally effect his resignation on that date."

      Two weeks after receiving this letter, Lewis was invited to brief China's
      Ministers of Public Health, the Environment, and Agriculture in mid-October
      on his sludge research. When forwarding the invitation to EPA managers,
      Lewis questioned how he should explain to Communist China's leaders that
      he is being terminated for criticizing government policies and cannot
      continue his EPA research.

      Axelson O, Balbus JM, Cohen G, Davis D, Donnay A, Doolittle R, Duran BM,
      Egilman D, Epstein SS, Goldman L, Grandjean P, Hansen ES, Heltne P, Huff J,
      Infante P, Jacobson MF, Joshi TK, LaDou J, Landrigan PJ, Lee PR, Lockwood
      AH, MacGregor G, Melnick R, Messing K, Needleman H, Ozonoff D, Ravanesi B,
      Richter ED, Sass J, Schubert D, Suzuki D, Teitelbaum D, Temple NJ, Terracini
      B, Thompson A, Tickner J, Tomatis L, Upton AC, Whyatt RM, Wigmore D, Wilson
      T, Wing SB, Sharpe VA. Related Articles, Links Re: Regulatory Toxicology
      and Pharmacology.
      Int J Occup Environ Health. 2003 Oct-Dec;9(4):386-9; author reply 389-90. No
      abstract available.
      PMID: 14664493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      Jacobson MF, Sharpe VA, Angell M, Ashford NA, Blum A, Chary LK, Cho M, Coull
      BC, Davis D, Doolittle RF, Egilman D, Epstein SS, Greenberg M, Hooper K,
      Huff J, Joshi TK, Krimsky S, LaDou J, Levenstein C, Miles S, Needleman H,
      Pellegrino ED, Ravanesi B, Sass J, Schecter A, Schneiderman JS, Schubert D,
      Soffritti M, Suzuki D, Takaro TK, Temple NJ, Terracini B, Thompson A,
      Wallinga D, Wing S. Related Articles, Links Editorial policies on financial
      Nat Neurosci. 2003 Oct;6(10):1001. No abstract available.
      PMID: 14513030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      Breilh J, Branco Jefer C, Castelman BI, Cherniack M, Christiani DC,
      Cicolella A, Cifuentes E, Clapp R, Cole DC, Corn M, De Ben S, Diaz R,
      Egilman D, Finkelstein Y, Franco G, Frank AL, Friedman L, Gassert TH,
      Gochfeld M, Greenberg M, Hansen ES, Hay A, Hogstedt C, Huff J, Joshi TK,
      Kriebel D, Laborde A, LaDou J, Levenstein C, Levin SM, Loewenson R, Mikheev
      M, Montenegro R, Naidoo R, Ozonoff D, Partanen T, Pendito RI, Povey G,
      Richter ED, Robbins A, Rodrigues Correa Filho H, Rosenman KD, Samuels SW,
      Sousa SV, Schwartz BS, Siqueira CE, Soskolne CL, Spiegel J, Stephens C,
      Mansoureh T, Takaro TK, Teitelbaum DT, Tickner JA, Tomatis L, Victora C,
      Waltner-Toews D, Wedeen RP, Wegman DH, Wesseling C, Wing S, Yassi A. Related
      Articles, Links Texaco and its consultants.
      Int J Occup Environ Health. 2005 Apr-Jun;11(2):217-20. No abstract
      available. PMID: 15875903

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@... 505-501-2298
      1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA
      group with 187 members, 1,183 posts in a public, searchable archive

      Joining together: short review: research on aspartame (methanol,
      formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray 2005.07.08 rmforall

      research on aspartame (methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid) toxicity: Murray
      2004.04.29 rmforall

      methanol (formaldehyde, formic acid) disposition: Bouchard M et al, full
      plain text, 2001: substantial sources are degradation of fruit pectins,
      liquors, aspartame, smoke: Murray 2005.04.02 rmforall

      Fully 11% of aspartame is methanol-- 1,120 mg aspartame in 2 L diet soda,
      almost six 12-oz cans, gives 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol). If 30% of
      the methanol is turned into formaldehyde, the amount of formaldehyde is 18
      times the USA EPA limit for daily formaldehyde in drinking water, 2 mg in 2
      L water.

      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
      Turner: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
      Murray 2000.07.10 rmforall

      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 1999.11.06 rmforall

      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 2002.12.23 rmforall

      RTM: Merisant Co., MSD Capital, Dell Computer Corp., NutraSweet Co.,
      JW Childs Assc.: aspartame-neotame toxicity 2002.07.10 rmforall

      hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
      aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 2002.10.09 rmforall

      re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame
      toxicity: Murray: 2002.02.24 2002.09.29 rmforall

      politicians and celebrities hooked on diet sodas (aspartame):
      Murray 2004.03.24 rmforall

      faults in 1999 July EPA 468-page formaldehyde profile:
      Elzbieta Skrzydlewska PhD, Assc. Prof., Medical U. of Bialystok, Poland,
      abstracts -- ethanol, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetaldehyde,
      lipid peroxidation, green tea, aging: Murray 2004.08.08 2005.07.11

      eyelid contact dermatitis by formaldehyde from aspartame, AM Hill & DV
      Belsito, Nov 2003: Murray 2004.03.30 rmforall [ 150 KB ]

      critique of aspartame review, French Food Safety Agency AFSSA 2002.05.07
      aspartamgb.pdf (18 pages, in English), Martin Hirsch:
      Murray 2004.04.13

      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 2003.01.12 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food, a whitewash

      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame ( 2002.12.04 ): 59 pages, 230 references

      J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Feb; 104(2): 255-75.
      Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and
      nonnutritive sweeteners. American Dietetic Association.

      critique of aspartame review by American Dietetic Association Feb 2004,
      Valerie B. Duffy & Madeleine J. Sigman-Grant: Murray 2004.04.03 rmforall

      C. Trocho (1998):
      "In all, the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
      label, half of it in the liver."

      They used a very low level of aspartame ingestion, 10 mg/kg, for rats, which
      have a much greater tolerance for aspartame than humans.
      So, the corresponding level for humans would be about 1 or 2 mg/kg.
      Many headache studies in humans used doses of about 30 mg/kg daily.

      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 1998.06.26: Murray 2002.12.22 rmforall

      http://ww.presidiotex.com/barcelona/index.html full text
      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue components in
      Life Sci June 26 1998; 63(5): 337-49.
      Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular,
      Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
      http://www.bq.ub.es/cindex.html Línies de Recerca: Toxicitat de
      l'aspartame http://www.bq.ub.es/grupno/grup-no.html
      Sra. Carme Trocho, Sra. Rosario Pardo, Dra. Immaculada Rafecas,
      Sr. Jordi Virgili, Dr. Xavier Remesar, Dr. Jose Antonio
      Fernandez-Lopez, Dr. Marià Alemany [male]
      Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021521, FAX: (93)4021559
      Sra. Carme Trocho "Trok-ho" Fac. Biologia Tel.: (93)4021544,
      FAX: (93)4021559
      alemany@... bioq@... josefer@...
      rafecas@... remesar@...

      Adult male rats were given an oral dose of 10 mg/kg aspartame,
      14C-labeled in the methanol carbon.
      At timed intervals of up to 6 hours, the radioactivity in plasma and several
      organs was investigated.
      Most of the radioactivity found (>98% in plasma, >75% in liver) was bound to
      Label present in liver, plasma and kidney was in the range of 1-2% of total
      radioactivity administered per g or mL, changing little with time.
      Other organs (brown and white adipose tissues, muscle, brain, cornea and
      retina) contained levels of label in the range of 1/12th to 1/10th of that
      of liver.
      In all. the rats retained, 6 hours after administration, about 5% of the
      label, half of it in the liver.

      The specific radioactivity of tissue protein, RNA and DNA was quite uniform.
      The protein label was concentrated in amino acids, different from
      methionine, and largely coincident with the result of protein exposure to
      labeled formaldehyde.
      DNA radioactivity was essentially in a single different adduct base,
      different from the normal bases present in DNA.
      The nature of the tissue label accumulated was, thus, a direct consequence
      of formaldehyde binding to tissue structures.

      The administration of labeled aspartame to a group of cirrhotic rats
      resulted in comparable label retention by tissue components, which suggests
      that liver function (or its defect) has little effect on formaldehyde
      formation from aspartame and binding to biological components.
      The chronic treatment of a series of rats with 200 mg/kg of non-labeled
      aspartame during 10 days results in the accumulation of even more label when
      given the radioactive bolus, suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde
      adducts coming from aspartame in tissue proteins and nucleic acids may be

      It is concluded that aspartame consumption may constitute a hazard because
      of its contribution to the formation of formaldehyde adducts. PMID: 9714421

      [ Extracts ]
      "The high label presence in plasma and liver is in agreement with the
      carriage of the label from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein.
      The high label levels in kidney and, to a minor extent, in brown adipose
      tissue and brain are probably a consequence of their high blood flows (45).
      Even in white adipose tissue, the levels of radioactivity found 6 hours
      after oral administration were 1/25th those of liver.
      Cornea and retina, both tissues known to metabolize actively methanol
      (21,28) showed low levels of retained label.
      In any case, the binding of methanol-derived carbon to tissue proteins was
      widespread, affecting all systems, fully reaching even sensitive targets
      such as the brain and retina....

      The amount of label recovered in tissue components was quite high in all the
      groups, but especially in the NA rats.
      In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the
      methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame, and the rest of
      the body stored an additional 2 % or more.
      These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
      substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also
      been considered carcinogenic (34,47).
      The repeated occurrence of claims that aspartame produces headache and other
      neurological and psychological secondary effects-- more often than not
      challenged by careful analysis-- (5, 9, 10, 15, 48) may eventually find at
      least a partial explanation in the permanence of the formaldehyde label,
      since formaldehyde intoxication can induce similar effects (49).

      The cumulative effects derived from the incorporation of label in the
      chronic administration model suggests that regular intake of aspartame may
      result in the progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts.
      It may be further speculated that the formation of adducts can help to
      explain the chronic effects aspartame consumption may induce on sensitive
      tissues such as brain (6, 9, 19, 50).
      In any case, the possible negative effects that the accumulation of
      formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously, long-term.
      The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs some time to
      induce substantial effects.
      The damage to nucleic acids, mainly to DNA, may eventually induce cell death
      and/or mutations.
      The results presented suggest that the conversion of aspartame methanol into
      formaldehyde adducts in significant amounts in vivo should to be taken into
      account because of the widespread utilization of this sweetener.
      Further epidemiological and long-term studies are needed to determine the
      extent of the hazard that aspartame consumption poses for humans."

      Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
      adducts in rats: Murray 2002.09.08 rmforall
      Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
      against criticism:
      Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
      Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
      available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
      "When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
      premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
      clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
      regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
      [ They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
      in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
      aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by W.C. Monte. ]
      In the same report, Schiffman concludes on page S49, not citing any
      research after 1997, "Thus, the weight of the scientific evidence
      indicates that aspartame does not cause headache."
      Dr. Susan S. Schiffman, Dept. of Psychiatry, Duke University
      sss@... 919-684-3303, 660-5657

      RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 2002.12.09 rmforall

      aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
      AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
      J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
      Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks: Murray 2002.07.16 rmforall

      Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
      in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
      Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
      [ Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
      while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg. ]
      Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
      Department of Neurology newmanache@...
      Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
      Innovative Medical Research RLipton@...

      Blumenthall & Vance: aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997:
      Murray 2002.07.28 rmforall

      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
      Chewing Gum Headaches. Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
      Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
      Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@...
      Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
      susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
      with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
      gum sweetened with aspartame. [ 6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum ]

      Subject: Re: Murray: Butchko:
      Tephly: critique of Trocho report Apr 2002 8.29.2
      Date: Fri, 30 Aug 2002 09:49:56 +0200
      From: Marià Alemany <alemany@...>
      To: "Rich Murray" <rmforall@...>
      References: 1

      Dear Rich,

      Thank you for the opportunity to say something about the "paper" by Tephly
      that followed our study on the incorporation of aspartame-derived methanol
      label into DNA and protein of rats.
      I don't know if responding to that publication is worth the effort.

      Surprisingly, a serious journal, such as Life Sciences published a rebuttal
      of our previous paper as a normal "research paper", but including no new
      information neither experimental work.
      This is only a sample of the "scientific" power of the advocates of

      Anybody can extract conclusions from this anomaly, but it seems to me that
      there was nothing new in that pamphlet that may add information to what we
      already explained in our paper.
      The responses to the questions raised by Tephly are already in our paper,
      which means that either that it was not read or, worst, it was misread.

      The presence of aspartame-derived label in DNA and protein adducts is
      unquestionable and unquestioned, and agrees with previous studies.
      Then, what importance has the mechanism of incorporation?
      There were adducts, and they represent loss of function and mutation.
      That was our thesis.

      The reference to previous studies showing very low levels of formaldehyde in
      blood do not refute our data.
      First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky,
      and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of
      detection for most of the methods used.
      That is the current explanation for the low levels of methanol in plasma
      after aspartame loading: they are zero, using most of the methods available
      for methanol, since the expected levels are currently below the limit of

      In addition, it is not logical to expect to find measurable levels of
      formaldehyde in a medium (blood) containing a huge amount of protein.
      Formaldehyde reacts immediately with proteins because it is highly reactive:
      that is the reason why we have found it in cell protein and DNA.
      It is absurd to expect it to forfeit binding with cell proteins and go all
      the way into the bloodstream!
      Remember that formaldehyde is used to preserve corpses precisely because it
      binds protein (including those of putrefactive bacteria) and prevents its

      The "alternative" point expressed by Tephly, suggesting that aspartame
      methanol-label goes all the way into formic acid and the C1 pathway was
      thoroughly refuted by us, using experimental data.
      There was no labelled methionine nor thymine in protein and DNA respectively
      in the rat protein we recovered from rats treated with aspartame.
      This means--unequivocally-- that the label present in DNA and protein
      adducts was NOT incorporated into amino acids or nucleic acid bases.
      The only explanation for our data was that the label was in the form of
      formaldehyde adducts.

      If this explanation does not satisfy other scientists, they are free to
      repeat the experiment and show where we went wrong, or to probe and prove
      experimentally their hypotheses.
      Otherwise, our results stand unchecked and, consequently, should be deemed

      I hope that this information will help any attentive reader understand why
      we have left for good this field of study.

      Best regards.
      Prof.Dr. Marià Alemany
      Grup de Recerca Nitrogen-Obesitat
      Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia
      Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona
      Av. Diagonal, 645; 08028 Barcelona Espanya/España/Spain
      tel. +34 93 403 4606; fax: +34 93 403 7064; E-mail: alemany@...

      Life Sci 1999; 65(13): PL157-60. [ letter, usually not peer reviewed ]
      Comments on the purported generation of formaldehyde and adduct
      formation from the sweetener aspartame.
      Tephly TR Thomas R. Tephly 319-335-7979 thomas-tephly@...
      ttephly@... Department of Pharmacology
      The University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.

      A recent paper by Trocho et al. (1) describes experiments meant to show that
      formaldehyde adducts are formed when rats are administered the sweetener
      These authors assume that the methanol carbon of aspartame generates
      formaldehyde which then forms adducts with protein, DNA, and RNA.
      Doses employed range widely.
      In this letter, studies which have been published previously and which were
      not cited by these authors are reviewed in order to put into perspective the
      disposition of methanol and formaldehyde in monkeys and humans, species
      relevant to the toxicity of methanol and its toxic metabolite, formic acid.
      PMID: 10503962, UI: 99431287

      [ A number of pro-aspartame studies by Tephly and associates, invariably
      funded by the aspartame industry (Monsanto, NutraSweet) are criticized in
      detail at:

      http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame mgold@...
      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301 603-225-2100
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      Gold points out that industry methanol assays were too insensitive to
      properly measure blood methanol levels. ]

      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
      carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 2003.08.03 rmforall

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
      tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11)"
      Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
      methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water supplied
      ad libitum at concentrations of 1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
      to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
      seven weeks of age.
      Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
      Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley
      rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of 2,500, 1,500,
      500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase in total
      malignant tumors in the treated groups and showed specific carcinogenic
      effects on various organs and tissues. PMID: 12562630

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water supplied ad libitum at
      doses of 20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
      Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
      concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
      female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in the
      Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
      or from embryo life (offspring) and lasted until their spontaneous death.
      Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
      were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
      They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
      In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
      tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
      These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by epidemiologic
      studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

      Surely the authors deliberately emphasized that aspartame is well-known
      to be a source of formaldehyde, which is an extremely potent, cumulative
      toxin, with complex, multiple effects on all tissues and organs.

      This is even more significant, considering that they have already tested
      aspartame, but not yet released the results:

      p. 29-32 Table 1: The Ramazzinni Foundation Cancer Program
      Project of [200] Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassays: Agents Studied

      No. No. of Bioassays Species No. Route of Exposure
      108. "Coca-Cola" 4 Rat 1,999 Ingestion, Transplantal Route
      109. "Pepsi-Cola" 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      110. Sucrose 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      111. Caffeine 1 Rat 800 Ingestion
      112. Aspartame 1 Rat 1,800 Ingestion

      Soffritti said that Coca-Cola showed no carcinogenicity.

      It may be time to disclose these important aspartame results.

      aspartame toxicity coverup increases danger of corporate meltdown:
      Michael C. Carakostas of Coca-Cola: Murray 2003.08.11 rmforall
      The International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
      Carakostas, Michael C., DVM, PhD Director/Scientific & Regulatory
      Affairs The Coca-Cola Company PO Drawer 1734 Atlanta, GA 30301
      T. 404/676-4234 F. 404/676-7166 E-mail: mcarakostas@...
      http://www2.coca-cola.com/ourcompany/columns_aspartame.html [photo]
      Aspartame: The world agrees it's safe By Michael Carakostas, DVM, PhD
      Director, Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, Coca-Cola

      It is commendable that Carakostas mentions the core problem, albeit
      disparagingly, and overlaid with multiple untruths: "During digestion,
      aspartame yields a very small amount of methanol-- as do many other food
      substances. The body converts this methanol to formaldehyde, which is
      instantly converted to formate. Formate is quickly eliminated as carbon
      dioxide and water."

      Carakostas deceptively make claims, unsupported by research, that the amount
      of methanol from aspartame is "very small", that many foods release as much,
      and that little of the inevitable formaldehyde or formic acid toxic products
      accumulate in body tissues. This executive, with a PhD in veterinary
      science, is deceiving people about very serious multiple toxicities.

      Thus, there is evidence here cited from 1973 to 2004 that research and
      reviews by immense vested interests about aspartame must be scrutinized with
      the greatest skepticism. The greatest Internet myth about aspartame is
      this: "Aspartame is the most thoroughly tested food additive in history."

      www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research: Murray 2002.07.31 rmforall

      Samuels: Strong: Roberts: Gold: flaws in double-blind studies re
      aspartame and MSG toxicity: Murray 2002.08.01 rmforall

      "Survey of aspartame studies: correlation of outcome and funding
      sources," 1998, unpublished: http://www.dorway.com/peerrev.html
      Walton found 166 separate published studies in the peer reviewed
      medical literature, which had relevance for questions of human safety.
      The 74 studies funded by industry all (100%) attested to aspartame's
      safety, whereas of the 92 non-industry funded studies, 84 (91%)
      identified a problem. Six of the seven non-industry funded studies
      that were favorable to aspartame safety were from the FDA, which
      has a public record that shows a strong pro-industry bias.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
      OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...

      Gold: Koehler: Walton: Van Den Eeden: Leon:
      aspartame toxicity: Murray 2001.06.04 rmforall four double-blind studies

      Headache 1988 Feb; 28(1): 10-4
      The effect of aspartame on migraine headache.
      Koehler SM, Glaros A PMID: 3277925, UI: 88138777
      Shirley M. Koehler, PhD 904-858-7651 skoehler@...
      Alan Glaros glarosa@... 816-235-2074

      They conducted a double-blind study of patients, ages 18-55, who had
      a medical diagnosis of classical migraines (normally having 1-3
      migraines in 4-weeks), who were not on medications (other than
      analgesics), and who suspected that aspartame had a negative effect on
      their migraine headaches. The subjects were given 1200 mg daily,
      aspartame or placebo, for four weeks, about 17 mg/kg. The placebo
      group had no increase in headaches. Approximately half of the subjects
      (5 of 11) who took aspartame had a large, statistically significant
      (p = 0.02), increase in migraine headache frequency, but not in
      intensity or duration, compared to baseline or placebo. Only 11 of
      25 subjects completed the program: 8 dropped out, 4 began new
      medications, 2 had incomplete records. They were at home.
      Since 1/3 of the subjects dropped out, they may have been choosing
      to avoid headaches-- were they unpaid? To achieve statistical
      signifance with only 11 subjects hints that the incidence rate from
      aspartame is very high, about 1/2, for migraine cases who believe
      that they are hurt by aspartame.

      eight depressed people react strongly to aspartame, Prof. Ralph G. Walton,
      MD, 1993 double-blind study, full text: Murray 2004.04.26 rmforall

      Walton, RG, "Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in
      patients from a vulnerable population," 1993, with Robert Hudak and
      Ruth J. Green-Waite, Biological Psychiatry, 34 (1), 13-17.
      Ralph G. Walton, MD, Prof. of Clinical Psychology, Northeastern Ohio
      Universities, College of Medicine, Dept. of Psychiatry, Youngstown,
      OH 44501, Chairman, The Center for Behavioral Medicine,
      Northside Medical Center, 500 Gypsy Lane, P.O. Box 240 Youngstown,
      OH 44501 330-740-3621 rwalton193@...

      Eight depressed patients, ages 24-60, and five non-depressed controls,
      ages 24-56, employed at the hospital, were given for 7 days either
      aspartame or a placebo, and then after a 3 day break, given the
      opposite. Each got 2100 mg aspartame daily, 30 mg/kg bodyweight,
      equal to 10-12 cans of diet soda daily, about a gallon. Despite the
      very small number of subjects, the results were dramatic and
      statistically significant. The eight depressed patients reported with
      aspartame, compared to placebo, much higher levels of nervousness,
      trouble remembering, nausea, depression, temper, and malaise. (For each
      symptom, p<0.01) The five normals did not report strong enough
      differences between aspartame and placebo to be significant.
      Initially, the study was to be on a group of 40, but was halted by the
      Institutional Review Board because of severe reactions among 3 of the
      depressed patients.

      Again, statistical significance with only 8 depressed patients:
      "In this study, patients most often began to report significant
      symptoms after day 2 or 3." The incidence rate is very high,
      indeed, about 1/3. The most common symptoms are entirely typical
      of thousands of case histories.

      Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, T.D. Koepsell, W.T. Longstreth, Jr,
      G. van Belle, J.R. Daling, B. McKnight, "Aspartame ingestion and
      headaches: a randomized crossover trial," 1994, Neurology, 44, 1787-93
      Steven K. Van Den Eeden,PhD 550-450-2202 skv@...
      Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program
      3505 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94611-5714

      In their introduction, they comment:

      "In addition, the FDA had received over 5,000 complaints as of July,
      1991 in a passive surveillance system to monitor adverse side effects.
      (17) Neurologic problems constitute the primary complaints in these
      and several other case series, with headaches accounting for
      18 to 45 %,depending on the case series reported. (17-19)"

      Subjects, ages 18-57, were recruited who believed they got headaches
      from aspartame, but were otherwise mentally and physically healthy.
      They were paid $ 15 total, and were at home. Of the 44 subjects, 32
      contributed data to the 38-day trials: a week of inert placebo, a week
      of either aspartame or placebo, followed by a week of the opposite, and
      then this two-week cycle repeated. The daily dose was about 30 mg/kg.
      "The proportion of days subjects reported having a headache was
      higher during aspartame treatment compared with placebo treatment
      (aspartame = 0.33, placebo = 0.24; p = 0.04) (table 5)".
      Of the 12 subjects not included in the data, 7 reported adverse
      symptoms before withdrawing.

      Again, statistical significance with a moderate number of healthy
      subjects, willing to be recruited by a newspaper ad, who believed
      aspartame hurt them. The number of headaches for each subject
      for each treatment week are given: it appears that 4 subjects
      had the strongest increase in headaches from the run-in week
      or placebo week to their first week on aspartame, jumping from 0 to 5,
      1 to 6, 1 to 4, 0 to 5 headaches per week. So, about 4 of the 44
      healthy people recruited for the study, who believed aspartame hurt
      them, had a stong increase in headaches from the first week of daily
      asparame exposure, while 7 reported adverse symptoms before leaving,
      a total of 11 out of 44, an incidence ratio of 1/4.

      This is sky high, if we consider that, if the incidence ratio for the
      about two hundred million users in the USA is 1 of 100, that is 2
      million cases. It is plausible that the incidence ratio lies between 1
      and 10 out of 100 for continuous daily exposure. These three flames
      should have set off alarm bells, with extensive follow-up studies and
      much more careful study of thousands of case histories. But these
      little flares were adroitly smothered by thick blankets of industry
      funded fluff.
      http://www.readthelabel.org.uk/ Additives Survivors' Network (UK)
      Geoff Brewer <geoffbrewer@...>
      Sarah Rogers <sr8442@...>
      http://www.react.ie/Health/Nutrition/Aspartame.htm Ireland
      http://www.aspartame.ca/indexa.html John T. Linnell <admin@...>
      http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/ Australia FAILSAFE diet
      http://www.bradymax.com/nzaa/ New Zealand
      http://www.reseauproteus.net/therapies/nutritio/aspartame.htm France
      http://ww2.grn.es/avalls/aspa1.htm Spain
      http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/Falls/8669/ Brazil
      http://home.online.no/~dusan/foods/aspartame.html Norway
      http://www.ostara.org/aspartam/#menue Germany
      http://www.aspartaam.nl/info/product.html Holland, in Dutch
      http://www.laleva.org/ <archimede@...> Italy 9 languages
      http://www.laleva.cc/alimenti/alimenti.html aspartame vs stevia 4.17.03
      http://users.westnet.gr/~cgian/aspartame.htm Greece
      http://www.cseindia.org/html/cola-indepth/index.htm India
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