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President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 8.3.3

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  • Rich Murray
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartameNM/message/1016 President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation carcinogenicity results Dec
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 3, 2003
      President Bush & formaldehyde (aspartame) toxicity: Ramazzini Foundation
      carcinogenicity results Dec 2002: Soffritti: Murray 8.3.3

      Col. Richard Jay Tubb, MD MC, USAF, SFS
      Physician to the President
      White House Medical Unit #105
      Washington., D.C. 20502
      202-757-2481 202-757-2483 fax
      Family Practice, Alexandria, VA 22312

      August 3 2003
      Dear Dr. Tubb:

      It is indeed good news that President Bush is in outstanding health.
      However, I have evidence for concern about his use of diet soda, also
      mentioned in your health report a year ago. On April 10, the European
      Parliament voted 440 to 20 to have the safety of aspartame reevaluated
      within a year, despite their own EU Scientific Committee on Food report
      in early Dec 2002 on aspartame safety-- essentially a whitewash that
      followed standard industry PR lines and ignored or dismissed mainstream
      research since 1998, especially the June, 1998 study by Trocho and
      Alemany that proved accumulation of adducts of formadelhyde to DNA, RNA,
      and proteins in rats that ingested aspartame. These many studies are
      summarized below, along with contact information for the authors.

      Clearly, Europe has placed the issue of aspartame toxicity on the table
      as a legitimate, urgent issue for evidence-based public discussion.
      Perhaps this shift in the climate of opinion is due to:
      European Ramazzini Foundation, led by Morando Soffritti, MD.
      crcfr@... Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for
      Oncology and Environmental Sciences, Bentivoglio Castle, 40010
      Bentivoglio (BO), Italy. +39-051-6640460 fax +39-051-6640223

      Annuals of the New York Academy of Science. 2002 Dec; Vol. 982:

      The RF research program was started in 1966 by the eminent Cesare
      Maltoni, (1930-2001): p. 6 "Maltoni was known for his meticulous
      and carefully documented experiments. He studied 198 chemicals and
      agents and conducted 394 separate experiments using 138,281 animals. Of
      the 135 agents studied, 68.9% were found to be carcinogenic, 5.92%
      showed borderline carcinogenicity, and 25.18% were found to be
      noncarcinogenic in the animals tested." Often, the hundreds to
      thousands of rats in each study were exposed daily for two years and
      then thoroughly examined for cancers after their later natural deaths.

      Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
      Carcinogenesis Bioassays and Protecting Public Health:
      Commemorating the Lifework of Cesare Maltoni and Colleagues
      Edited by Myron A. Mehlman (Collegium Ramazzini, Princeton, NJ);
      [Dept. of Environmental Medicine, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New
      York City, mehlman@... 609-683-4750]
      Eula Bingham (University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati,
      OH); Philip J. Landrigan (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY);
      Morando Soffritti, Fiorella Belpoggi, European Ramazzini Foundation;
      Ronald L. Melnick, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
      Research Triangle Park, NC

      Proceedings of an April 29-30, 2002 Academy conference.
      Volume 982 ISBN 1-57331-406-4
      231 pages 14 papers 0 posters Price: $135.00
      Member Price *: $15.00 December 2002

      Long-term experimental carcinogenesis studies are the cornerstone of
      human health protection and risk assessment for drugs and chemicals.
      Great contributions to the development of bioassay methodology and the
      understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis were made by Professor
      Cesare Maltoni at the European Foundation of Oncology and Environmental
      Sciences "B. Ramazzini," Bologna, Italy. This volume is based on a
      conference that was held on the first anniversary of Professor Maltoni’s
      death to honor him and to celebrate the work on carcinogenesis bioassays
      carried out at the Ramazzini Foundation Cancer Research Center in Italy
      and at the National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, in the United States.
      Papers include reviews of previously unreported findings and discussion
      of the continued utility of such studies for the protection of public
      health. Full text of volume 837 and forward is available at Annals
      Online to Academy Members at Members Online and to subscribing
      libraries. New York Academy of Sciences 2 East 63rd St., NY, NY 10021

      "(3) formaldehyde may produce lymphomas and leukemias..."

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 26-45.
      Ramazzini Foundation cancer program: history and major projects,
      life-span carcinogenicity bioassay design, chemicals studied, and
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Minardi F, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      The Ramazzini Foundation research program was started over thirty years
      ago. The features of this program are:
      (1) systematic and integrated project design;
      (2) consistency over time;
      (3) homogeneity of approach: key members of the team remain unchanged;
      and (4) choice to work on new frontiers of scientific research.
      The program centers mainly on three projects:
      Project 1: experimental carcinogenicity bioassays;
      Project 2: experimental anticarcinogenesis assays to identify factors
      and active principles (compounds) capable of opposing the onset of
      tumors while being suitable for preventive/chemopreventive intervention;
      Project 3: epidemiological studies, both descriptive and analytical, on
      tumor incidence and mortality in persons professionally and
      environmentally exposed to industrial carcinogenic risks.
      The project involving experimental carcinogenicity bioassays for the
      identification of exogenous carcinogens (environmental and industrial
      above all) began in 1966.
      This project has included 398 experimental bioassays on 200
      compounds/agents using some 148,000 animals monitored until their
      spontaneous death.
      Among the studies already concluded, 47 agents have shown "clear
      evidence" of carcinogenicity.
      The results have demonstrated for the first time that
      (1) vinyl chloride can cause liver angiosarcoma as well as other tumors;
      (2) benzene is carcinogenic in experimental animals for various tissues
      and organs;
      (3) formaldehyde may produce lymphomas and leukemias; and
      (4) methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the most common oxygenated additive
      used in gasolines, can cause lymphomas/leukemias.
      Many of the results achieved have led to the introduction of norms and
      measures of primary prevention.
      Publication Types: Historical Article PMID: 12562627

      p. 48 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
      tract to become free methyl alcohol. (25)"
      "(25) Medinsky MA & Dorman DC. 1994; Assessing risks of low-level
      methanol exposure. CIIT Act. 14: 1-7.
      (30) Monte WC. 1984; Aspartame, methanol and the public health.
      Journal Applied Nutrition. Vol 36: 42-54."

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 46-69.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Cevolani D, Guarino M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Methyl alcohol was administered in drinking water supplied ad libitum at
      doses of 20,000, 5,000, 500, or 0 ppm to groups of male and female
      Sprague-Dawley rats 8 weeks old at the start of the experiment.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Ethyl alcohol was administered by ingestion in drinking water at a
      concentration of 10% or 0% supplied ad libitum to groups of male and
      female Sprague-Dawley rats; breeders and offspring were included in the
      Treatment started at 39 weeks of age (breeders), 7 days before mating,
      or from embryo life (offspring) and lasted until their spontaneous
      Under tested experimental conditions, methyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol
      were demonstrated to be carcinogenic for various organs and tissues.
      They must also be considered multipotential carcinogenic agents.
      In addition to causing other tumors, ethyl alcohol induced malignant
      tumors of the oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
      These sites have been shown to be target organs in man by epidemiologic
      studies. Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial PMID: 12562628

      p. 88 "The sweetening agent aspartame hydrolyzes in the gastrointestinal
      tract to become free methyl alcohol, which is metabolized in the liver
      to formaldehyde, formic acid, and CO2. (11) [Medinsky & Dorman 1994]"

      Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 982: 87-105.
      Results of long-term experimental studies on the carcinogenicity of
      formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in rats.
      Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Lambertin L, Lauriola M, Padovani M, Maltoni C.
      Cancer Research Center, European Ramazzini Foundation for Oncology and
      Environmental Sciences, Bologna, Italy. crcfr@...

      Formaldehyde was administered for 104 weeks in drinking water supplied
      ad libitum at concentrations of 1500, 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, or 0 mg/L
      to groups of 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at
      seven weeks of age.
      Control animals (100 males and 100 females) received tap water only.
      Acetaldehyde was administered to 50 male and 50 female Sprague-Dawley
      rats beginning at six weeks of age at concentrations of 2,500, 1,500,
      500, 250, 50, or 0 mg/L.
      Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death.
      Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were found to produce an increase in total
      malignant tumors in the treated groups and showed specific carcinogenic
      effects on various organs and tissues. PMID: 12562630

      Surely the authors deliberately emphasized that aspartame is well-known
      to be a source of formaldehyde, which is an extremely potent, cumulative
      toxin, with complex, multiple effects on all tissues and organs.

      This is even more significant, considering that they have already tested
      aspartame, but not yet released the results:

      p. 29-32 Table 1: The Ramazzinni Foundation Cancer Program
      Project of [200] Long-Term Carcinogenicity Bioassays: Agents Studied

      No. No. of Bioassays Species No. Route of Exposure
      108. "Coca-Cola" 4 Rat 1,999 Ingestion, Transplantal Route
      109. "Pepsi-Cola" 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      110. Sucrose 1 Rat 400 Ingestion
      111. Caffeine 1 Rat 800 Ingestion
      112. Aspartame 1 Rat 1,800 Ingestion

      Soffritti said that Coca-Cola showed no carcinogenicity.

      It may be time to disclose these important aspartame results.

      Sincerely, Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-986-9103

      Headaches, joint pains, skin problems, and muscle strains are common
      aspartame symptoms.

      Bush Declared Healthy in Annual Physical
      Updated 12:36 PM ET August 3, 2003
      By Maggie Fox, Health and Science Correspondent

      WASHINGTON (Reuters) - President Bush has gained 5 pounds and modified
      his exercise regimen but remains in top condition, doctors said on

      "The president remains in excellent health and fit for duty," the
      doctors said in a statement after testing Bush for more than two hours
      at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland....

      "The president remains in the superior fitness category for men his
      age," they said. The right calf strain Bush suffered recently while
      running has been "resolved," they added.

      A fitness advocate and nondrinker, Bush runs three miles three times
      weekly, "water jogs" once a week and uses an elliptical trainer for 25
      minutes three times weekly, McClellan said. Elliptical trainers are
      similar to step machines but are designed to put less pressure on the

      But he takes an aspirin a day -- which has been shown to reduce the risk
      of heart attack and stroke -- pops vitamins and also takes supplements
      called chondroitin and glucosamine, which are marketed, but have not
      been proven, to help prevent and ease the symptoms of arthritis and
      other joint problems.

      McClellan and the doctors did not say why Bush started taking the
      supplements but his exercise routine appears designed to protect his

      He had four small lesions called actinic keratoses -- usually caused by
      the sun -- taken off his cheeks and left arm with liquid nitrogen. Such
      growths are usually removed because they can eventually develop into
      squamous cell skin cancer.

      A skin tag, also a common and harmless growth, was removed, as were some
      spider veins on his nose, known medically as nasal telangiectasias.

      Doctors noted that Bush has "an occasional cigar" and drinks diet sodas
      and coffee. (Additional reporting by Steve Holland and Patsy Wilson)

      August 4 2001 exam report: "Caffeine: diet soda and coffee"

      aspartame & formaldehyde toxicity: Murray 4.1.3 rmforall

      Aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia, E951) is an artificial
      sweetener, used by hundreds of millions of world citizens since 1981 in
      thousands of products. The NutraSweet Company has always stubbornly
      claimed it to be "the most thoroughly tested food additive in history".

      But many scientific studies and case histories report: * headaches
      * many body and joint pains (or burning, tingling, tremors, twitching,
      spasms, cramps, or numbness) * fever, fatigue
      * "mind fog", "feel unreal", poor memory, confusion, anxiety,
      irritability, depression, mania, insomnia, dizziness, slurred speech,
      ringing in ears, sexual problems, poor vision, hearing, or taste
      * red face, itching, rashes, hair loss, burning eyes or throat,
      dry mouth or eyes, mouth sores * obesity, bloating, edema, anorexia,
      poor or excessive hunger or thirst * breathing problems
      * nausea, diarrhea or constipation * coldness * sweating
      * racing heart, high blood pressure, erratic blood sugar levels
      * seizures * birth defects * brain cancers * addiction
      * aggrivates diabetes, autism, allergies, ADHD, fibromyalgia,
      chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, multiple
      sclerosis, and interstitial cystitis (bladder pain).

      This rather overwhelming litany of symptoms is a plausible outcome of
      chronic toxicity from long-term, low-level exposure to formaldehyde.

      Formaldehyde is formed in the body quickly and inevitably from methanol
      (wood alcohol), which is a component of the aspartame molecule, 11% by
      weight. Many heavy users drink 2 liters daily, almost 6 12-oz cans, for
      years. This is a daily dose of 1,120 mg aspartame, which releases its
      123 mg methanol into the body. Most of the methanol is quickly
      converted into formaldehyde, which binds to and thus severely impairs
      DNA and proteins in all cells. This is 60 times more than 2 mg, the EPA
      limit for formaldehyde in daily drinking water.

      This limit was set to provide the average user from any known danger.
      But few people are "average". Some will be unusually heavy users, and
      some will be unusually vulnerable. Like many other poisons, such as
      lead or mercury, formaldehyde accumulates day after day. Also, there is
      evidence that some people develop a great sensitivity to it-- even a
      single stick of aspartame chewing gum is enough to trigger a migraine
      headache. Many users will not find any problems, but some will start to
      have painful, puzzling, and increasing symptoms for months and years.

      Aspartame reactors often go from doctor to doctor for years, spending a
      fortune on tests and drugs, before starting to suspect that aspartame
      might be the cause. Quiting can lead to dramatic and increasing relief,
      but may also incur painful withdrawal symptoms for weeks. Aspartame
      reactors who successfully quit often report that again having a single
      diet soda triggers a severe attack of their usual symptoms.

      People, once warned, can decide for themselves whether they are using
      too much aspartame and have many of the typical problems, and they can
      choose to give it up for two months to see if there is lasting relief.
      This means examining the labels on all foods, drinks, and medicines, and
      also looking for the mandatory warning, "Contains Phenylalanine", an
      amino acid that is 50% of aspartame.

      Anyone can readily access copious information on the Net by going to
      http://google.com and searching "aspartame". They will find 142,000
      listed web sites, of which the first ten are anti-aspartame, often with
      citizen case reports, opinions by informed physicians, critical
      histories, and recent results from mainstream scientific research.
      Google rates sites by the number of other quality sites that link to a
      site, so the fact that the top ten sites in the world are very critical
      of aspartame shows that aspartame is widely rejected. Excellent
      information is provided by volunteer activists: Mark Gold, David Rietz,
      Bryant Holman, Betty Martini, Rich Murray, and many others.

      Aspartame was developed over three decades ago by G.D. Searle and Co.
      Their lab, led by J.A. Oppermann, gave unusually detailed evidence in
      the Journal of Nutrition (Oct, 1973). A low dose of aspartame with a
      radioactive methanol component was put into the stomachs of small
      monkeys, and after a day about 30% of the methanol products were still
      in their bodies, ie, formaldehyde and formic acid. Inevitably, daily use
      must lead to constantly increasing accumulation-- a conclusion that they
      did not draw.

      K.E. McMartin and T.R. Tephly, authors of many pro-aspartame studies, in
      Biochemical Pharmacology (1979) remarked, "It is now generally accepted
      that the toxicity of methanol is due to the formation of toxic
      metabolites, either formaldehyde or formic acid." They put damage doses
      of methanol into the stomachs of three monkeys, and, using insensitive
      tests, found no formaldehyde in many tissues-- except for a single datum
      in the midbrain, 1.5 times the detection limit. The use of inadequate
      tests is common in industry research that is funded to claim the safety
      of profitable toxins. Since then, industry scientists have been very
      wary of doing studies on primates, which all too easily show the dangers
      to humans.

      Rats and mice not only are cheaper, but happen to be over ten times more
      resistant to methanol toxicity than primates and humans. Nevertheless,
      P.M. Mashford in Zenobiotica (Feb 1982) found that when rats were
      injected with formaldehyde, 10% remained in the body after two days.

      The industry does its best to let these disturbing early results
      languish, buried under the sands of time, while funding dozens of weak
      studies that purport to show the safety of aspartame. However, C. Trocho
      and a distinguished lab at the University of Barcelona, led by M.
      Alemany, in Life Sciences (June 26, 1998) gave low oral doses of
      aspartame for 10 days to rats and found adducts of formaldehyde, bound
      to DNA, RNA, and proteins in blood, liver, kidney, brain, and retina:
      ""These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a
      substance responsible for chronic deleterious effects (33), that has
      also been considered carcinogenic (34,47)....The cumulative effects
      derived from the incorporation of label in the chronic administration
      model suggests that regular intake of aspartame may result in the
      progressive accumulation of formaldehyde adducts. It may be further
      speculated that the formation of adducts can help to explain the chronic
      effects aspartame consumption may induce on sensitive tissues such as
      brain (6,9,19,50). In any case, the possible negative effects that the
      accumulation of formaldehyde adducts can induce is, obviously,
      long-term. The alteration of protein integrity and function may needs
      some time to induce substantial effects. The damage to nucleic acids,
      mainly to DNA, may eventually induce cell death and/or mutations."

      The industry has repeatedly sought to dismiss these results. Regardless,
      at the University of Athens, G.A. Karikas and G. Kokotos in Clinical
      Biochemistry (July, 1998) found that the other two components of
      aspartame, aspartic acid (39%) and phenylalanine (50%), also bind to
      DNA. "In conclusion, these in vitro findings are of interest because
      a widely used compound such as ASP along with its metabolites gave a
      measurable molecular interaction with DNA." So, there is evidence that
      all three components of aspartame are genotoxic, likely to cause complex
      cellular disfunctions, birth defects, still births, and cancers.

      Y.F. Sasaki and S. Tsuda in Mutation Research (Aug 26 2002) gave a
      remarkable pilot study that used the fast, sensitive, low-cost Comet
      assay to study the genotoxicity of 39 common food additives on groups of
      just 4 mice each, using single heavy oral doses, finding serious
      genotoxicity for sucralose, cyclamate, and saccharin, some for
      aspartame, and none for acesulfame-K and stevia. Stevia has been widely
      used in Japan for decades, but has been banned in the EU.

      All over the world, blindly following the lead of the USA FDA,
      governments have always stubbornly suported the safety of aspartame.
      Expert committees invariably ignor the disturbing findings by teams not
      funded by the industry. So it is unusual indeed that on Feb 19 2003,
      The European Parliament's Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy
      Committee voted for a re-evaluation of aspartame (E951) and also stevia.
      On April 10, the European Parliament voted 440-20 to reevaluate
      aspartame within a year, and also stevia.

      Also very unusual was the publication of clinical reports by S.O.
      Schmidt et al in Annals of Pharmacotherapy (June 2001) on four women:
      "Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome for two to 17 years
      are described. All had undergone multiple treatment modalities with
      limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete, resolution of
      their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium glutamate
      (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet." Case 3 had "...chronic
      musculoskeletal pain (very diffuse), chronic fatigue, migraine and
      tension headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, allergic rhinitis,
      gastroesophageal reflux disease, anxiety and depressive disorder,
      as well as a diagnosis in 1994 of fibromyalgia syndrome..."

      The industry always uses the terms "anecdotal evidence" and "rare
      ideosyncratic sensitivity" to dismiss such reports of myriad torments
      from aspartame.

      As yet, no research has been published on the actual biochemical
      pathologies of aspartame reactors. The Comet assay would cost $ 200 to
      test 100 white blood cells in a 10 ml blood sample and generate color
      images with a detailed computerized analysis to measure DNA damage.

      Jack D. Thrasher and K.J. Kilburn in Archives of Environmental Health
      (July 2001) give a long review of embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of
      formaldehyde: "Also, formaldehyde reacts chemically with organic
      compounds (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleosides, nucleotides,
      proteins, amino acids) by addition and condensation reactions, thus
      forming adducts and deoxyribonucleic acid-protein crosslinks....
      The major difference is that the Japanese demonstrated the incorporation
      of FA and its metabolites into the placenta and fetus. The quantity of
      radioactivity remaining in maternal and fetal tissues at 48 hours was
      26.9% of the administered dose. [Ref. 14-16]"

      In the same journal (July 1990), J.D. Thrasher gave specific biochemical
      data for people exposed to high formaldehyde levels from living in
      mobile homes: "The patients in our study had symptoms and complaints
      related to several organs, as described previously, (4,5,9) which were
      similar to symptoms of workers with multiple chemical sensitivity,(11)
      cacosmia,(12) and other chemical exposures. (13-15)" The symtoms are
      typical of aspartame reactors. Probably, research will show that heavy
      users of aspartame are more vulnerable to formaldhyde exposures, usually
      from indoor air polution.

      Finally, Martin L. Pall in Federation of American Societies of
      Experimental Biology Journal (Sept 2002) has given a general theory for
      complex disorders like Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, specifically
      discussing the role of formaldehyde as an initial trigger. "The
      hypersensitivity is often exquisite, with MCS individuals showing
      sensitivity that appears to be at least two orders of magnitude greater
      than that of normal individuals."

      aspartame review: methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid toxicity:
      Murray 8.3.3 rmforall

      Rich Murray, MA Room For All rmforall@...
      1943 Otowi Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA 505-986-9103

      [NutraSweet, Equal, Canderel, Benevia. E951]

      for 1016 posts in a public searchable archive 119 members

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/aspartame/ 15591 posts 684 members

      EU votes 440 to 20 to approve sucralose, limit cyclamates & reevaluate
      aspartame & stevia: Murray 4.12.3 rmforall

      Mark Gold exhaustively critiques European Commission Scientific
      Committee on Food re aspartame (12.4.2): 59 pages, 230 references

      formaldehyde & formic acid from methanol in aspartame:
      Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall

      immune system reactions due to formaldehyde from the 11% methanol in
      aspartame: Thrasher: Tephly: Monte: Murray 9.27.2 rmforall

      formaldehyde toxicity: Thrasher & Kilburn: Shaham: EPA: Gold: Murray:
      Wilson: CIIN: 12.12.2 rmforall

      Confirming evidence and a general theory are given by Pall (2002):
      testable theory of MCS type diseases, vicious cycle of nitric oxide &
      peroxynitrite: MSG: formaldehyde-methanol-aspartame:
      Martin L. Pall: Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall

      Functional Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disease Part 1/2:
      Perlmutter 7.15.99: Murray 1.10.3 rmforall

      24 recent formaldehyde toxicity [Comet assay] reports:
      Murray 12.31.2 rmforall

      Comet assay finds DNA damage from sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin in
      mice: Sasaki YF & Tsuda S Aug 2002: Murray 1.1.3 rmforall
      [Also borderline evidence, in this pilot study of 39 food additives,
      using a test group of 4 mice, for DNA damage from for stomach, colon,
      liver, bladder, and lung 3 hr after oral dose of 2000 mg/kg aspartame--
      a very high dose.]

      genotoxins, Comet assay in mice: Ace-K, stevia fine; aspartame poor;
      sucralose, cyclamate, saccharin bad: Y.F. Sasaki Aug 2002:
      Murray 1.27.3 rmforall [A detailed look at the data]

      RTM: Smith, Terpening, Schmidt, Gums:
      full text: aspartame, MSG, fibromyalgia 1.17.2 rmforall
      Jerry D Smith, Chris M Terpening, Siegfried OF Schmidt, and John G Gums
      Relief of Fibromyalgia Symptoms Following
      Discontinuation of Dietary Excitotoxins.
      The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2001; 35(6): 702–706.
      Malcolm Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA.
      BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a common rheumatologic disorder that is
      often difficult to treat effectively.
      CASE SUMMARY: Four patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome
      for two to 17 years are described.
      All had undergone multiple treatment
      modalities with limited success. All had complete, or nearly complete,
      resolution of their symptoms within months after eliminating monosodium
      glutamate (MSG) or MSG plus aspartame from their diet.
      All patients were women with multiple comorbidities
      prior to elimination of MSG.
      All have had recurrence of symptoms whenever MSG is ingested.

      Siegfried O. Schmidt, MD Asst. Clinical Prof. siggy@...
      Community Health and Family Medicine, U. Florida, Gainesville, FL
      Shands Hospital
      West Oak Clinic Gainesville, FL 32608-3629 352-376-5071

      RTM: aspartame in Merck Maxalt-MLT worsens migraine,
      AstraZeneca Zomig, Eli Lilly Zyprexa,
      J&J Merck Pepcid AC (Famotidine 10mg) Chewable Tab,
      Pfizer Cool Mint Listerine Pocketpaks 7.16.2 rmforall
      Migraine MLT-Down: an unusual presentation of migraine
      in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches.
      Newman LC, Lipton RB Headache 2001 Oct; 41(9): 899-901.
      [Merck 10-mg Maxalt-MLT, for migraine, has 3.75 mg aspartame,
      while 12 oz diet soda has 200 mg.]
      Headache Institute, St. Lukes-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY
      Department of Neurology newmanache@...
      Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
      Innovative Medical Research RLipton@...

      RTM: Blumenthall & Vance:
      aspartame chewing gum headaches Nov 1997 7.28.2 rmforall
      Harvey J. Blumenthal, MD, Dwight A Vance, RPh
      Chewing Gum Headaches.
      Headache 1997 Nov-Dec; 37(10): 665-6.
      Department of Neurology, University of Oklahoma College of Medicine,
      Tulsa, USA. neurotulsa@...
      Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some
      susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women
      with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing
      gum sweetened with aspartame. [6-8 mg aspartame per stick chewing gum]

      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 1/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall

      aspartame puts formaldehyde adducts into tissues, Part 2/2
      full text, Trocho & Alemany 6.26.98: Murray 12.22.2 rmforall

      Trocho C, Pardo R, Rafecas I, Virgili J, Remesar X,
      Fernandez-Lopez JA, Alemany M ["Trok-ho"]
      Formaldehyde derived from dietary aspartame binds to tissue
      components in vivo. Life Sci 1998 Jun 26; 63(5): 337-49.
      Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biologia,
      Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
      Maria Alemany, PhD (male) alemany@...

      Murray: Butchko, Tephly, McMartin: Alemany: aspartame formaldehyde
      adducts in rats 9.8.2 rmforall
      Prof. Alemany vigorously affirms the validity of the Trocho study
      against criticism:
      Butchko, HH et al [24 authors], Aspartame: review of safety.
      Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2002 April 1; 35 (2 Pt 2): S1-93, review
      available for $35, [an industry paid organ]. Butchko:
      "When all the research on aspartame, including evaluations in both the
      premarketing and postmarketing periods, is examined as a whole, it is
      clear that aspartame is safe, and there are no unresolved questions
      regarding its safety under conditions of intended use."
      [They repeatedly pass on the ageless industry deceit that the methanol
      in fruits and vegetables is as as biochemically available as that in
      aspartame-- see the 1984 rebuttal by Monte, below.]

      RTP ties to industry criticized by CSPI: Murray: 12.9.2 rmforall

      aspartame (aspartic acid, phenylalanine) binding to DNA:
      Karikas July 1998: Murray 1.5.3 rmforall
      Karikas GA, Schulpis KH, Reclos GJ, Kokotos G
      Measurement of molecular interaction of aspartame and
      its metabolites with DNA. Clin Biochem 1998 Jul; 31(5): 405-7.
      Dept. of Chemistry, University of Athens, Greece
      http://www.chem.uoa.gr gkokotos@...
      "K.H. Schulpis" <inchildh@...> "G.J. Reclos" <reklos@...>

      Aspartame: Methanol and the Public Interest 1984:
      Monte: Murray 9.23.2 rmforall

      Dr. Woodrow C. Monte Aspartame: methanol, and the public health.
      Journal of Applied Nutrition 1984; 36 (1): 42-54.
      (62 references) Professsor of Food Science [retired 1992]
      Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 woodymonte@...
      The methanol from 2 L of diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans, 20 mg/can, is
      112 mg, 10% of the aspartame. The EPA limit for water is 7.8 mg daily
      for methanol (wood alcohol), a deadly cumulative poison. Many users
      drink 1-2 L daily. The reported symptoms are entirely consistent
      with chronic methanol toxicity. (Fresh orange juice has 34 mg/L, but,
      like all juices, has 16 times more ethanol, which strongly protects
      against methanol.)

      J. Nutrition 1973 Oct; 103(10): 1454-1459.
      Metabolism of aspartame in monkeys.
      Oppermann JA, Muldoon E, Ranney RE.
      Dept. of Biochemistry, Searle Laboratories,
      Division of G.D. Searle and Co. Box 5110, Chicago, IL 60680
      They found that about 70% of the radioactive methanol in aspartame put
      into the stomachs of 3 to 7 kg monkeys was eliminated within a day as
      carbon dioxide in exhaled air and as water in the urine. They did not
      mention that this meant that about 30% of the methanol must transform
      into formaldehyde and then into formic acid, much of which must remain
      as toxic products in all parts of the body. They did not report any
      studies on the distribution of radioactivity in body tissues, except
      that blood plasma proteins after 4 days held 4% of the initial
      methanol. This study did not monitor long-term use of aspartame.

      http://www.dorway.com/tldaddic.html 5-page review
      Roberts HJ Aspartame (NutraSweet) addiction.
      Townsend Letter (Jan 2000) HJRobertsMD@...

      1038-page medical text "Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic"
      published May 30 2001 $ 85.00 postpaid data from 1200 cases
      available at http://www.amazon.com
      over 600 references from standard medical research

      http://www.dorway.com David O. Rietz over 12,000 print pages
      Mission-Possible-USA Betty Martini 770-242-2599
      Bettym19@... dorietz@...
      http://www.dorway.com/asprlink.html many links
      http://www.dorway.com/nslawsuit.txt Jeff Martin, Attorney
      What many informed doctors are saying/have said about aspartame

      http://www.HolisticMed.com/aspartame 603-225-2100
      Aspartame Toxicity Information Center Mark D. Gold
      mgold@... 12 East Side Drive #2-18 Concord, NH 03301
      "Scientific Abuse in Aspartame Research"

      http://google.com gives 142,000 websites for "aspartame" , with the top
      10 listings being anti-aspartame, while
      http://groups.google.com finds on 700 MB of posts from 20 years of
      Usenet groups, 79,300 posts, the top 10 being anti-aspartame.
      http://news.google.com 15 recent aspartame items from 4500 sources.
      http://www.AllTheWeb.com gives 239,091, the top 5 being leading and
      very well informed volunteer anti-aspartame sites.
      http://teoma.com/index.asp gives 42,900 websites, the top 7 are anti.
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed lists 734 aspartame items.

      http://www.truthinlabeling.org/ Truth in Labeling Campaign [MSG]
      Adrienne Samuels, PhD The toxicity/safety of processed
      free glutamic acid (MSG): a study in suppression of information.
      Accountability in Research 1999; 6: 259-310. 52-page review
      P.O. Box 2532 Darien, Illinois 60561 858-481-9333 adandjack@...

      Donald Rumsfeld, 1977 head of Searle Corp., got aspartame FDA approval:
      Turner: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

      revolving door, Monsanto, FDA, EPA: NGIN: Murray 12.23.2 rmforall

      hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) in George and Barbara Bush, 1991--
      aspartame toxicity? Roberts 1997: Murray 10.9.2 rmforall

      re "dry drunk": Bisbort: danger to President Bush from aspartame
      toxicity: Murray: 2.24.2 9.29.2 rmforall

      aspartame expose 96K Oct 1987 Part 1/3: Gregory Gordon, UPI reporter:
      Murray 7.10.0 rmforall

      aspartame history Part 1/4 1964-1976: Gold: Murray 11.6.9: rmforall

      RTM: www.dorway.com: original documents and long reviews of flaws in
      aspartame toxicity research 7.31.2 rmforall

      safety of aspartame Part 1/2 12.4.2: EC HCPD-G SCF:
      Murray 1.12.3 rmforall EU Scientific Committee on Food: pro-aspartame

      http://www.vegsource.com extensive vegan information

      Substitute stevia (at health food stores).
      Avoid all products with aspartame and MSG. Gradually reduce alcohol,
      caffeine (coffee, cocoa, and teas), meat, fish, eggs, milk, butter, and
      cheese, food additives and colors, fluoride, city water. Enjoy organic
      rice, beans, nuts, almond butter, vegetables, fruits, with modest use of
      soy products and sprouted grain breads, flax seed and olive oils, and
      fill your jugs with deionized water.
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