[TIMELINE] Immigration Policy, Angel Island and Chinese American Communities
- IMMIGRATION POLICY AND ANGEL ISLAND
A timeline of U.S. immigration policy towards the Chinese
The Chinese Exclusion Acts
INTRODUCTION: We chose this topic for other people to know the past
and the present immigration policy of the United States towards the
Chinese. Because the past laws discriminated against the Chinese.
From the information, we know that the Chines-American were hard in
the past in American because of the policy. We are lucky in the
present day of American.
A TIMELINE OF U.S. IMMIGRATION POLICY TOWARDS THE CHINESE:
1800s PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS: During the 1800s, all persons entering
the United States had to have their papers checked. They also needed
to be examined by doctors to make sure that they were not ill nor
coming with any diseases. The processing for the Chinese began with
physical examination. Chinese were forced to go through tests for
hookworm and liver flukes.
1860s BURLINGAME TREATY: During the 1860s, when California needed
Chinese labor, the United States wanted to maintain good relations
with China. American diplomats negotiated this treaty with China in
1868. This treaty agreed to Chinese immigration to American and
American immigration to China.
1870s FIFTEEM PASSENCER BILL: In 1870s, America no longer needed
Chinese labor, but there was still a large number of Chinese
immigrations came to San Francisco every year. The United States
Congress wanted to stop Chinese immigration, so they passed this law
to limit Chinese immigration.
1882 EXCLUSION LAW: In 1882, American passed this law to permit
teachers, students, merchants, and tourists to enter the United
States, but it stopped the immigration of laborers for ten years. It
also stated that no Chinese could become a naturalized American
citizen. This was the irst of several Chinese Exclusion Acts passed
by Congress. It severely curtailed Chinese immigration until 1943.
By 1920, the Chinese American population shrinks by 40% as a result.
As the Western frontier matured, the growth of industry gave rise to
a white laboring class. Those with grievances against capitalist
exploitation found a convenient scapegoat in the Chinese. Finding
big business too powerful to fight, working class Americans struck
instead at the Chinese minority. November 3, 1877 Letter from the
Six Chinese Company to mayor of San Francisco was told the Chinese
question. On the Chinese Exclusion Page 32 " Political careers
balanced on the scale of the Chinese Question. The Chinese Question
was expressed in terms of race." Anti-Chinese riots and conventions
occupied western politics for over several decades.
Lee York Suety, the son of a transcontinental railroad worker, Lee
Wong San, was born in S.D., but his wife was detained in Angel
Island for 16 months when she immigrated to the United States from
1888 REGULATE CHINESE IMMIGRATION: In the same year of 1888, the
king and legislature Hawaii kingdom passed this act that Chinese
were no longer permited to land in Hawaii unless they passed a
permits granted, signed, and sealed by the Minister of Foreign
Affairs. Again, these permits were only given to non-laborers.
1888 Scott Act: This prohibited Chinese laborers from returning to
US even with valid re-entry permit.
The United States vs. Wong Kim Ark established guarantee citizenship
for US-born children even if the parents are ineligible for
1892 GEARY ACT: Congress extended the law for ten more years with
this act during 1892. This act required Chinese to apple for a
certificate of eligibility in order to remain in the United States.
If approved, they were issued a photo passport which they had to
carry at all time. If they didn't have it, they would be detained
until someone could be found to bring the certificate for them.
America reinforced the Exclusion Law by signing a new treaty with
China in 1894. It prevented any Chinese laborer from coming into the
United States unless his family already lived there.
1922 Cable Act: Any female citizen marrying someone not eligible for
citizenship relinquished her citizenship of the United States. If
the woman later divorced or was widowed, she regained her
citizenship of the United States.
1913 &1922 Alien Land Laws: Passed in California in 1913 and 1922,
these laws were originally aimed at the Japanese, but later amended
in 1923 and 1927 to cover all Asians. Arizona, Idaho, Oregon,
Washington and Montana had laws similar to this. Chinese, as aliens,
were ineligible for citizenship and were denied the right to buy or
own land. These laws were declared unconstitutional in 1947.
1924 IMMIGRANTS ACT : No Chinese women were allowed to enter the
United States for permanent residence. Prior to this act, wives of
Chinese merchants and wives of American-born Chinese were allowed to
enter. This act stopped all Chinese women who were not the wives of
merchants, teachers, students, and tourists from entering the United
States. The Supreme Count in 1925 ruled that merchants' wives were
admissible. Five years later an amendment to the Cable Act permitted
other women to enter.
The immigration law of 1924 was the final, most effective act
against Chinese immigration. The law was challenged in the Supreme
Court in the case of Chang Chan Angle, but the court ruled that
Chinese wives of U.S. citizens were not entitled to residence. As a
result, the Chinese population continued to have disproportionate
number of men to women until early 1960s.
In 1924 the National Origins Act drastically restricted immigration
to the United States from all of Asia
1943 REPEAL THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACTS: After the Japanese bombed
Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States became an ally of China.
This changed American foreign policy, and the Chinese Exclusion Acts
were repealed in 1943. Chinese could become naturalized American
1945 WAR BRIDES ACT: This allowed the wives of American servicemen
to enter the United States.
1948 DISPLACED PERSONS ACT: This act gave permanent resident status
to 3,465 Chinese students, visitors and seaman who didn't want to go
back to China.
1956 IMMIGRATION ACT: This permitted residents of the Asian Pacific
Triangle to enter the United States as quota immigrants, which
resulted in heavy emigrations from Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
Indochina. Further legislation after the war had created an
immigration system that aided family reunification and created
preferences for immigrants with good educational backgrounds.
Recent Trends: Today's immigrants arrive from all parts of the
world. The current phase of immigration history began in 1965, when
strict quotas based on nationality were eliminated. Congress passes
the Immigration Act of 1965. Among its significant changes, the Act
dramatically increased the quota set for Asian immigration, but it
also favored middle class immigrants, thus influenced the changing
demographics of Chinese Americans over the next 30 years. The new
influx of low-skilled Chinese immigrants repopulated Chinatown with
a new generation of Chinese Americans. Immigration and Nationality
Act Amendment of 1965 in which the discriminatory national origin
quotas were abolished. The Eastern Hemisphere each year was allowed
170,000 people, 20,000 people for each country. The Western
Hemisphere was permitted a yearly limits of 120,000 but without
specified country limits. As Hong Kong was a colony of Great
Britain, it allowed 600 people of immigration annually to the United
In 1978, the United States government set a single annual world
quota of 290,000, and this ceiling was raised again in 1990 to
700,000. The Refugee Act of 1980 brought some order to admission of
emigrants coming from Southeast Asia's war zone. During the 1990s,
immigrants have arrived at a pace that at times have exceeded one
million new arrivals per year, and have settled in all parts of the
country.The Quota of Chinese in America:
1979: Chinese has its own quota of 20,000
1982: Taiwan awarded its own quota of 20,000
1986: Hong Kong's quota expended to 5,000; legalization of aliens
living in the United States before January 1,1982
1993: New immigration laws pending because of the increase of ships
with Asian immigrants attempting to illegally enter American ports
and by way of way of Mexico and Canada.