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[TIMELINE] Immigration Policy, Angel Island and Chinese American Communities

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  • madchinaman
    IMMIGRATION POLICY AND ANGEL ISLAND http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch405/IUP/immigrationPolicy.html Introduction A timeline of U.S. immigration policy
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 1, 2005
      IMMIGRATION POLICY AND ANGEL ISLAND
      http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch405/IUP/immigrationPolicy.html


      Introduction

      A timeline of U.S. immigration policy towards the Chinese

      The Chinese Exclusion Acts
      Angel Island

      INTRODUCTION: We chose this topic for other people to know the past
      and the present immigration policy of the United States towards the
      Chinese. Because the past laws discriminated against the Chinese.
      From the information, we know that the Chines-American were hard in
      the past in American because of the policy. We are lucky in the
      present day of American.

      A TIMELINE OF U.S. IMMIGRATION POLICY TOWARDS THE CHINESE:

      1800s PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS: During the 1800s, all persons entering
      the United States had to have their papers checked. They also needed
      to be examined by doctors to make sure that they were not ill nor
      coming with any diseases. The processing for the Chinese began with
      physical examination. Chinese were forced to go through tests for
      hookworm and liver flukes.

      1860s BURLINGAME TREATY: During the 1860s, when California needed
      Chinese labor, the United States wanted to maintain good relations
      with China. American diplomats negotiated this treaty with China in
      1868. This treaty agreed to Chinese immigration to American and
      American immigration to China.

      1870s FIFTEEM PASSENCER BILL: In 1870s, America no longer needed
      Chinese labor, but there was still a large number of Chinese
      immigrations came to San Francisco every year. The United States
      Congress wanted to stop Chinese immigration, so they passed this law
      to limit Chinese immigration.

      1882 EXCLUSION LAW: In 1882, American passed this law to permit
      teachers, students, merchants, and tourists to enter the United
      States, but it stopped the immigration of laborers for ten years. It
      also stated that no Chinese could become a naturalized American
      citizen. This was the irst of several Chinese Exclusion Acts passed
      by Congress. It severely curtailed Chinese immigration until 1943.
      By 1920, the Chinese American population shrinks by 40% as a result.

      As the Western frontier matured, the growth of industry gave rise to
      a white laboring class. Those with grievances against capitalist
      exploitation found a convenient scapegoat in the Chinese. Finding
      big business too powerful to fight, working class Americans struck
      instead at the Chinese minority. November 3, 1877 Letter from the
      Six Chinese Company to mayor of San Francisco was told the Chinese
      question. On the Chinese Exclusion Page 32 " Political careers
      balanced on the scale of the Chinese Question. The Chinese Question
      was expressed in terms of race." Anti-Chinese riots and conventions
      occupied western politics for over several decades.

      Lee York Suety, the son of a transcontinental railroad worker, Lee
      Wong San, was born in S.D., but his wife was detained in Angel
      Island for 16 months when she immigrated to the United States from
      China.

      1888 REGULATE CHINESE IMMIGRATION: In the same year of 1888, the
      king and legislature Hawaii kingdom passed this act that Chinese
      were no longer permited to land in Hawaii unless they passed a
      permits granted, signed, and sealed by the Minister of Foreign
      Affairs. Again, these permits were only given to non-laborers.

      1888 Scott Act: This prohibited Chinese laborers from returning to
      US even with valid re-entry permit.

      The United States vs. Wong Kim Ark established guarantee citizenship
      for US-born children even if the parents are ineligible for
      citizenship.

      1892 GEARY ACT: Congress extended the law for ten more years with
      this act during 1892. This act required Chinese to apple for a
      certificate of eligibility in order to remain in the United States.
      If approved, they were issued a photo passport which they had to
      carry at all time. If they didn't have it, they would be detained
      until someone could be found to bring the certificate for them.

      America reinforced the Exclusion Law by signing a new treaty with
      China in 1894. It prevented any Chinese laborer from coming into the
      United States unless his family already lived there.

      1922 Cable Act: Any female citizen marrying someone not eligible for
      citizenship relinquished her citizenship of the United States. If
      the woman later divorced or was widowed, she regained her
      citizenship of the United States.

      1913 &1922 Alien Land Laws: Passed in California in 1913 and 1922,
      these laws were originally aimed at the Japanese, but later amended
      in 1923 and 1927 to cover all Asians. Arizona, Idaho, Oregon,
      Washington and Montana had laws similar to this. Chinese, as aliens,
      were ineligible for citizenship and were denied the right to buy or
      own land. These laws were declared unconstitutional in 1947.

      1924 IMMIGRANTS ACT : No Chinese women were allowed to enter the
      United States for permanent residence. Prior to this act, wives of
      Chinese merchants and wives of American-born Chinese were allowed to
      enter. This act stopped all Chinese women who were not the wives of
      merchants, teachers, students, and tourists from entering the United
      States. The Supreme Count in 1925 ruled that merchants' wives were
      admissible. Five years later an amendment to the Cable Act permitted
      other women to enter.

      The immigration law of 1924 was the final, most effective act
      against Chinese immigration. The law was challenged in the Supreme
      Court in the case of Chang Chan Angle, but the court ruled that
      Chinese wives of U.S. citizens were not entitled to residence. As a
      result, the Chinese population continued to have disproportionate
      number of men to women until early 1960s.

      In 1924 the National Origins Act drastically restricted immigration
      to the United States from all of Asia

      1943 REPEAL THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACTS: After the Japanese bombed
      Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States became an ally of China.
      This changed American foreign policy, and the Chinese Exclusion Acts
      were repealed in 1943. Chinese could become naturalized American
      citizens.

      1945 WAR BRIDES ACT: This allowed the wives of American servicemen
      to enter the United States.

      1948 DISPLACED PERSONS ACT: This act gave permanent resident status
      to 3,465 Chinese students, visitors and seaman who didn't want to go
      back to China.

      1956 IMMIGRATION ACT: This permitted residents of the Asian Pacific
      Triangle to enter the United States as quota immigrants, which
      resulted in heavy emigrations from Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and
      Indochina. Further legislation after the war had created an
      immigration system that aided family reunification and created
      preferences for immigrants with good educational backgrounds.

      Recent Trends: Today's immigrants arrive from all parts of the
      world. The current phase of immigration history began in 1965, when
      strict quotas based on nationality were eliminated. Congress passes
      the Immigration Act of 1965. Among its significant changes, the Act
      dramatically increased the quota set for Asian immigration, but it
      also favored middle class immigrants, thus influenced the changing
      demographics of Chinese Americans over the next 30 years. The new
      influx of low-skilled Chinese immigrants repopulated Chinatown with
      a new generation of Chinese Americans. Immigration and Nationality
      Act Amendment of 1965 in which the discriminatory national origin
      quotas were abolished. The Eastern Hemisphere each year was allowed
      170,000 people, 20,000 people for each country. The Western
      Hemisphere was permitted a yearly limits of 120,000 but without
      specified country limits. As Hong Kong was a colony of Great
      Britain, it allowed 600 people of immigration annually to the United
      State.

      In 1978, the United States government set a single annual world
      quota of 290,000, and this ceiling was raised again in 1990 to
      700,000. The Refugee Act of 1980 brought some order to admission of
      emigrants coming from Southeast Asia's war zone. During the 1990s,
      immigrants have arrived at a pace that at times have exceeded one
      million new arrivals per year, and have settled in all parts of the
      country.The Quota of Chinese in America:

      1979: Chinese has its own quota of 20,000

      1982: Taiwan awarded its own quota of 20,000

      1986: Hong Kong's quota expended to 5,000; legalization of aliens
      living in the United States before January 1,1982

      1993: New immigration laws pending because of the increase of ships
      with Asian immigrants attempting to illegally enter American ports
      and by way of way of Mexico and Canada.
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