Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.
 

[HISTORY] Japanese Americans: Immigrants to Internees to First Class Citizens

Expand Messages
  • madchinaman
    SMITHSONIAN TRIBUTE TO THE JAPANESE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES ** Editor s Note: Personal stories are in the next post ============== A MORE PERFECT UNION
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 5, 2003
      SMITHSONIAN TRIBUTE TO THE JAPANESE AMERICAN COMMUNITIES
      ** Editor's Note: Personal stories are in the next post

      ==============


      A MORE PERFECT UNION
      http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/experience/index.html

      =======================

      special words

      The aim of the Constitution was not to create a 'perfect union' —
      none of the framers believed mortal beings were capable of
      a 'perfect union.' They wanted instead to form a 'more perfect
      union.'

      The important thing is, we're still trying to accomplish that.


      =======================

      Intro
      John Chancellor: Introduction
      Two centuries ago, the framers of the Constitution wrestled with the
      fundamental problem of government: how to balance the rights of
      individual citizens and minority groups against the need for order
      and defense of the society itself.

      This is the story of a group of Americans who suffered a great
      wrong. The American Civil Liberties Union called it 'the worst
      single wholesale violation of the civil rights of American citizens
      in our history.'

      The story began shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, when this
      country was mobilizing for a long war, and the future looked bleak,
      and when some Americans wondered if the United States might lose.
      The country made a big and tragic error in 1942, but we learned from
      our mistakes, so we won't make them in the future.

      The aim of the Constitution was not to create a 'perfect union' —
      none of the framers believed mortal beings were capable of
      a 'perfect union.' They wanted instead to form a 'more perfect
      union.'

      The important thing is, we're still trying to accomplish that.

      (John Chancellor Video, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Issei: The First Generation
      Mutsu H.: Getting Married
      DG: Did your father do part of this ceremony?

      MH: No, bishop did. It's Dr. Fox. And it's wedding funny was after
      platform and now, "She is your wife. Will you please kiss her?" And
      then he said, "Oh, no Japanese doesn't." And then Dr. Fox said, "No,
      you have to. This is America. America people kiss wife." "No."

      BF: And this was going on during the ceremony?

      MH: Yes, in the ceremony-arguing. And finally Doctor. said, "Well,
      then never complain later." He said, "Yeah, I know." And then okay.
      We didn't kiss. [Laughs]

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      U.S. Mainland
      Mary Tsukamoto: Nisei in Florin
      And so my husband's father was 75 years old. He had come to Florin
      when he was 25, and so he had been in Florin more than 50 years, and
      had raised and planted every grape, and all the persimmon trees and
      walnut trees in our yard and everything. So we worried about the
      elderly Isseis, about what would happen to Grandpa, who was no
      longer young.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Crisis: Pearl Harbor
      Akiko K.: No Longer an Equal American
      Well, I'd just come home from church. And then we kept
      hearing, "Pearl Harbor was bombed, Pearl Harbor was bombed." I had
      no idea where Pearl Harbor was. My geography was not that
      sophisticated. I had no idea, and my father said, "Uh-oh, there's
      going to be trouble." And I said, "Well, how come?" He said, "Well,
      Japan just bombed Pearl Harbor." And, he says, "We're at war with
      Japan." But, I thought, "Why should it bother me?" You know, "I'm an
      American." And then he said, "You know, we are aliens." My
      parents... "We don't have the citizenship, so they're gonna' do
      something, we'll probably get taken away." But at that time, my
      parents had no feeling that we would be removed because-so they were
      saying my brother would have to take on the responsibility to keep
      the family together, because they may be removed or put into camp or
      whatever. And, then when I went back to school that following
      morning, you know, December 8th, one of the teachers said, "You
      people bombed Pearl Harbor." And I'm going, "My people?" All of a
      sudden my Japaneseness became very aware to me. I no longer felt I'm
      an equal American, that I felt kind of threatened and nervous about
      it.

      (Akiko K. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Constitution and Executive Order
      Mary Tsukamoto: Learning of E.O.
      We were shocked to realize that the President had signed this. We
      just kept saying, "But... we live out in the valley, not on the West
      Coast, not near, a... a airport or a naval base." Surely, you know,
      they wouldn't think that we needed to move too because we were busy
      raising strawberries, and harvesting crops that would really help
      our nation. We couldn't believe that they would need all of us to
      quit our work to produce our fruit, food for victory... and then be
      put away.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: No Possibility of Resistance
      There was no question of refusing or resisting that order. And I
      think one has to appreciate what our parents, the immigrant parents
      taught us: "Always respect order coming from the people above you.
      Respect your teachers, respect the government, respect the law. Be
      obedient, be reserved, be a good Japanese according to good Japanese
      traditions. We as parents are telling you to do what your teachers
      say you do." What do our teachers say? "Be aggressive. Say your
      peace. If you disagree, say you disagree." They were often in
      conflict here.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Process


      Sue Embrey: Registering After the Notice
      These men in jeeps, they went around posting the notices up, and in
      our area everyone was supposed to report to the Union Church. So my
      oldest brother went down and he signed in all of us. And my Mother
      felt that we should all go together because she didn't know what
      would happen if we were separated. So he got a family number for all
      of us, I think I still remember it... 2614.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Rae T.: FBI Search
      RT: I didn't realize the enormity until much later, but I soon found
      out what it meant for all of us because they came for my dad that
      night, early in the morning of December 8th. And...

      AI: What happened?

      RT: They picked him up. Well, I was sleeping in a bedroom on the
      main floor, which was fairly close to my folks' room; in other
      words, not quite adjacent. But I was awakened by this commotion. ...
      Oh, my, my mother. I told you she's very outspoken. And she is the
      one that I heard. I did not hear my father say anything, but my
      mother went on a rampage. I mean, she didn't care if they were FBI
      men or not, and she was proclaiming to them that she was "an
      American citizen," and she "had the rights of an American citizen,
      and how dare they come breaking into my house." [Laughs] And oh yes,
      I heard her. And I wasn't sure what was going on. I really didn't
      know that they were going to take my dad. I just thought that it was
      a little — it must be a very wild event for my mother, for sure,
      because she was really carrying on, but that didn't matter to them.

      (Rae T. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Moving Out:
      Mary Tsukamoto: Getting Ready
      We just figured they were sending us up in the mountains
      somewhere... you know, to be... And so I started to gather rice,
      small sacks of rice and... and collected the packages of dehydrated
      soup and jello and things that were light, so that they wouldn't be
      such a heavy baggage for us to carry because they said you could
      only take what you carry. And we knew we had to take blankets and
      sheets and bedding and things as well as some of our clothes. And we
      had no idea whether we were going to a hot place or a cold place, so
      our family was quite concerned about how to get ready.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: One Week to Leave
      We had one week to get ready. And what we could carry would include:
      bedding eating utensils and clothing. Questions arose: Where are we
      going? we don't know, we're not gonna tell you. How long are we
      going? We don't know , we' won't tell you. There was a rumor that we
      were being sent to Manzana, and no, that didn't prove true, we were
      sent to Santa Nita racetrack.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Sue Embrey: We are American Citizens
      I had a neighbor who said something to me toward the last few days
      before we left Los Angeles. He says, "You know, we're American
      Citizens, and we really could fight this thing." And, you know, I
      was just 18. It's hard for me to believe that other people who may
      have been older than I hadn't thought of it, there were lawyers in
      our community. I just had the feeling that this was something the
      whole community was going to go through because, even though there
      were alternatives, maybe this was the best way to... to tell the
      government that, you know, we're loyal, and we'll do whatever we
      need to do in order to help in the war effort. And... because there
      was so much suspicion cast on the Japanese population regardless of
      whether they were citizens or not, that maybe this was the only way
      out.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      First Stop: Assembly Centers
      Mary Tsukamoto: Treated Like Animals
      And I never will forget, the train stopped and we got off and they
      put us on a big truck. It looked like one of those cattle cars.
      Anyway, we stood up because there were no chairs for us to sit on
      this pickup and crowded into this truck. They drove us to the Fresno
      Assembly Center. And then we got off there and they told us to get
      in and there was the barbed wire gate, and the MPs around there and
      uh... We had to go in through that gate and after we got in there we
      knew that the gate was shut. And so, we saw all these people behind
      the fence, looking out, hanging onto the wire, and looking out
      because they were anxious to know who was coming in. But I will
      never forget the shocking feeling that human beings were behind this
      fence like animals [crying]. And we were going to also lose our
      freedom and walk inside of that gate and find ourselves... cooped up
      there. And the police, the MPs with their guns and some of them had
      bayonets. I don't know what they were going to do with it, if they
      thought we were gong to run away I guess. But anyway, when the gates
      were shut, we knew that we had lost something that was very
      precious; that we were no longer free.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Permanent Camps:
      Morgan Yamanaka: Arriving at Camps
      We were sent... to Topaz, from uh, Santa Anita; we were again not
      told exactly where we were going. All I remember was going through
      desert country that was Barstow — god-forsaken country, never been
      back there. Somehow wound up in this middle of nowhere...
      absolutely. And that's all I remember. This stark, naked... I had
      never been out of San Francisco, and to be dropped in the middle of
      Utah desert was — in retrospect, it was a traumatic experience. To
      think of it at that point, it was shocking at best. Sand, dust,
      nothing except these tar-paper buildings. Middle of nowhere.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mutsu H.: A Human Being
      Amache camp guarded by very young soldiers. One time soldier stop me
      and, "Hey you." "You want to talk to me?" He said, "Yeah. Are you a
      human being?" I said, "Yes. Don't you think so?" "Yeah. You look
      like a human being, but when I came from South Carolina, they said
      that the Jap is not a human being. They are like a gorilla so if you
      want to, kill them. That's what I learned when I came. And then I
      looked from top every day and you people look like a human being,
      and you people all wearing beautiful clothes."

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)

      Masao W.: Rejection is Very Hard
      You grow up thinking you're a citizen, and you want to be a part of
      this society you're in, and then the, let's say the weight of the
      rejection, is something that was pretty unexpected. But when reality
      sets in, like the "Camp Harmony" and these little shacks in
      Minidoka, then the real negative things start coming to your head,
      you know. "What the hell is this?" And I think it bothered a lot of
      us tremendously. You try to be a good citizen, you try to do what
      you're supposed to be doing, and the rejection is very hard,
      difficult.

      (Masao W. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Conditions
      Nancy K. Araki: A Child's Perspective
      We were in Amache for about six to eight months, I.. I'm not quite
      sure, but then we left camp and went to Provo, Utah and spent
      probably about another six to eight months. I started kindergarten
      there and that was very traumatic. It was really difficult, both
      because I just felt really alone and just having the experience of
      not knowing where I am, and who I was in relationship to everything
      else, and there was just some hostility, um within the township. For
      example, you know, I couldn't get an ice cream cone... and that was,
      you know, for an adult, that seems, probably doesn't mean too much,
      but for a little kid, it meant a lot.

      (Nancy Araki Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Frank Y.: Sand and Food
      It was very, very dusty. The dust was powdery fine and if I recall,
      it was about 3 or 4 inches deep. So every time you take a step there
      was just a puff of smoke, I mean of dust, and if you had even the
      slightest breeze... wow, you're in like a fog. And when you go to
      the mess hall to eat, of course when you chew the food, you can feel
      the grit of the sand. And it's amazing, even that, you get used to
      it. I gradually got used to the mixture of sand and food. [Laughs]
      It was terrible.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Work:
      Sue Embrey: Working for the War Effort
      Then the end of May, they set up a camouflage net factory, which the
      U.S. Army wanted to put in Manzanar and have people who really
      wanted to help in the war effort uh, make camouflage nets. So, they
      said we would get paid for that. So, a lot of us went down, and I
      helped make camouflage nets for the Army for maybe a month or so.
      And then it created a lot of friction in the camp itself because
      only American citizens could, could work there. And a lot of the
      resident-aliens, you know, our parents group, who wanted to help,
      couldn't do it. And then there was also a lot of agitation
      about 'why were you doing this when you were put in a camp...'
      and 'you shouldn't be helping in the war effort' and so, I think
      they closed it down later.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Loyalty
      Morgan Yamanaka: A No-No Response
      Number one, If I had been in San Francisco, chances of me saying 'No-
      No'... inconceivable, being an athlete, and a fairly good student,
      dean's list, and academic standing Aloha high School, university
      bound... I would have been the first one to volunteer. You put me...
      and I become dissatisfied, because of the treatment... OK, you
      isolate a certain group, as I said earlier, it becomes a question
      of 'we' against 'they.'

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mary Tsukamoto: Respect for Government and Elders
      You know, we were so naive, and I guess, you know, we should have
      known what Americanism really meant. But we were young, and
      inexperienced, and uh, I hadn't trained to be a lawyer or anything
      like that, like Minoru Yasui. So we had no thought about defying the
      government. And of course the Japanese people respect the elderly,
      and those who are important, the President of the United States, we
      wouldn't, you know, even if he's wrong, we wouldn't say anything.
      And we would respect those people, and so, that's the way we felt
      about our government. We wouldn't do anything do defy the
      government... Different from our day, you know, where the society
      has changed. But in those days, no one — not just the Japanese
      people, but the rest of America — didn't protest or defy. There
      weren't any marches and things like that in those days. Very few
      protested, you know, and we were at war, and we should have been
      united and cooperating and helping our government. We were wrapping
      bandages and taking Red Cross first-aid classes and all, even after
      the war, because we felt this was the thing an American should do.
      And so, never did it occur to me, that we would defy the government
      and refuse to go. That thought never came, though we wished we
      could, you know, we never did say it, even.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mutsu H.: Nisei Means American Citizen
      I asked that, "What your father think about the war?", and then he
      said, "He's a Japanese. I'm a Nisei. And when I was small and
      then, "I owe allegiance to the flag of United States of America." I
      was memorizing. When he came and said, he listened, "Can you
      understand what that mean?" And I said, "I'm memorizing," and he
      said, "Think. Really think. And then if you are a Nisei, that means
      American citizen. If you memorize this one, you have to obey. Learn
      what it mean. So don't forget, America is your country." That's what
      he said. So he, after the camp — father was in camp, mother was in
      camp — and he was a volunteer to the war.

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Expatriation and Repatriation
      Frank K.: What Would You Do in Japan?
      And my mother told me the story of how she pleaded with him to
      sign "yes". She said, "You know, what would you do in Japan?" She
      knew, at that time, if you didn't sign yes and you couldn't prove
      you were a citizen that they were going to send you off (to)
      someplace else and maybe exchange you for Caucasian people that were
      trapped in Japan. She said, she was saying to him, "What would you
      do in Japan? You can't write Japanese, you can't read Japanese," you
      know, "What would you do there?" And she, she ended up saying, "I'd
      rather hang myself than go to Japan." And my dad was so angry with
      all this frustration that he said, "Go ahead!"

      (Frank K. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      The Draft
      Frank K.: Irony of the Draft
      ...we were unjustly put into this concentration camp — I didn't say
      concentration — to this camp, and if you will restore our lifestyle
      like before this evacuation. Yes, I would be more than willing to
      serve in the armed services. If not, I will not.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Soldier's Life
      Chet Tanaka: Your Helmet is Your Security
      In training, it's heavy, and you didn't want to wear it too much,
      but once you got into action, gee, you would put helmet all over
      your body if you had enough helmet... [laughs] It's a security
      blanket, really gave you a sense of security.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Chet Tanaka: How Can You Love a Gun?
      So in spite of the relative slowness, we grew to love this gun — how
      can you love a gun — but for that type of work, this was
      indispensable... it became part of you. At 9.3 pounds when you're
      training, it's too heavy. In combat, it's light as a feather. A
      great weapon. You wore it like you wear your shoes, or your helmet,
      or your backpack. You just... without it, you just felt, uh,
      undressed.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Chet Tanaka: 'B' is for Breakfast
      you'd start eating the axle grease, or whatever's in here... this is
      a supper menu... 'S' [points to box] they had a 'B' for breakfast,
      and I guess an 'L' for lunch. But during combat or whatever, you
      didn't notice what letters are on here, you didn't much care, you
      just grabbed a bunch of boxes and stuffed them in your shirt, and
      you start taking off... But they were the staple for front line
      fighting.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Military Intelligence
      Francis F.: Importance of Kibeis
      I don't know how much you know about the MIS, but in most of their
      practical applications, the real linguists in MIS were guys educated
      in Japan. They were Kibei. And it was kind of ironic, because jeez,
      you know DeWitt went on for a half a page justifying the evacuation
      of Japanese... One of the things that he pointed out was that,
      really these, that these Nisei were, couldn't be trusted because
      they had all this knowledge of Japanese and Japanese culture. And
      Kibeis were the worst of all because they were educated in Japan.
      And it's kind of ironic to me, that they took us and threw us into
      camp for that very reason, and the recruiters came in, really, and
      were recruiting us for that very same expertise... And really,
      especially the Kibei. If it weren't for the Kibei, I don't think
      they would have had a successful MIS. And cripes, I mean... boy,
      DeWitt had nothing but bad to say about them guys.

      (Francis F. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Ironies of Service
      Masao W.: Be a Part of Society
      Well, initially, I was wondering, "What the hell is this?" I think
      those of us who did react to it positively, I think we did the right
      thing. And to this day-well, regardless of what people think — I
      think we did the right thing in volunteering after being kicked in
      the butt... Because, gee, if you were going to live here, you've got
      to be a part of society, you've got to do what is expected of you.
      And I had no problem volunteering. I don't know which was worse:
      being locked up in camp or going off to war.

      (Masao W. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Post-War
      Nancy K. Araki: Remembering the Camps
      You know in the Japanese community, what happened is that
      afterwards, even among my age as we were going through grade school
      or junior high or high school even, whenever you meet someone, you
      say, "Oh, what camp were you in?" People five years younger than
      myself, you know, that's not a question. Or maybe it is, in the
      sense, "Where were you born?" and it could have well been in a camp.
      But for us, growing up, in grade school even "What camp were you
      in?" or "He was in Tule Lake. That's why he got put back..." or
      comments like that. And so, in some ways, it was very active, you
      know in our minds and in the discussions though never took place to
      pursue it, other that to maybe clarify: "Mom, you know, when I got
      this scar, my brother did this, this, this, was that in Topaz, or
      was that in Amache?" Or some kind of reference like that.

      (Nancy Araki Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Court Cases
      Sue Embrey: To Correct Democracy
      For myself, I think I was really disillusioned about democracy, and
      what the Constitution stood for. Because all my life, and all
      through school, I was in it for 12 years, that's all I was learning,
      and all of a sudden, it really didn't mean anything when it came to
      my own personal freedom, and my civil liberties. I guess when I
      left, and went to the mid-west, and began to meet a lot of people,
      who couldn't believe that I had been treated that way, and that all
      of us, you know, had been treated that way, that it occurred to me
      that the government really wasn't doing something that the entire
      population supported them. It was just a governmental order, which
      many people didn't know about. And that if they knew about it they
      might have objected to it. And I think gradually, I began to realize
      that there are lots of things that we needed to do to correct
      democracy, to correct, you know our own personal lives, and that I
      needed to do something, you know, about it if I felt strongly enough
      about different things.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Gordon Hirabayashi: Violation of Exclusion Order
      I was charged with uh, violation of uh, exclusion order. And then,
      subsequently I was given a count two, uh, curfew violation by my own
      admission. They said: 'If you feel this way, what'd you do about the
      curfew?' I said: 'Well, uh what were you doing the last coupla'
      nights, were you out after eight?' And he says 'Yeah.' And I
      said: 'Well, so was I.' And he said: 'Oh, then you violated the
      curfew.' And he put me down. So those were the charges against me.
      The uh, instruction (I'm condensing this) but the instruction of the
      judge to the jury uh, as they were to leave was: 'You can forget all
      that Constitutional discussion by the defense. The Western Defense
      Command order is: That all persons of Japanese ancestry both alien
      and non-alien must abide by these orders. You are to determine first
      of all whether he is of Japanese ancestry. If he is, did he abide by
      these orders?' And, all of those questions were admitted by me.



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Apologies and Redress
      Frank Y.: Is $20,000 a Remedy?
      That money that was sent to us, does that remedy everything that was
      done? Can you imagine the Jews in Germany, saying, "Oh, they're
      going to give us $20,000 so now that's all right," What the Germans
      did to them. No. It's wrong. It should never be done again. And it's
      the same with the evacuation of Japanese; it should never be done
      again. ... It could be any other people.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)

      Rae T.: Hopes for Redress
      I was a little cynical. I thought, "Oh, this will never happen,
      $20,000, ha, ha, ha." Well, my mother, oh, she was so sure; "When I
      get my $20,000..." I mean, she was sure that it was gonna happen;
      and the rest of us, "Well, if it happens, it happens. If it doesn't,
      it doesn't." But she was the one who looked forward to it most, and
      then she died the year that redress was finally passed. And it's
      just a really sad thing for me that she never, she never got to see
      that because she would have really enjoyed it, the fact that there
      was some justice after all. Because here is this woman who was
      yelling about constitutional rights in 1941, and she waited all
      these years, but she knew it was coming. ... But, anyway, she passed
      away before it could finally be given to her.

      (Rae T. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Repairing the Constitution
      Gordon Hirabayashi: Constant Vigilance
      I would also say that if you believe in something, if you think the
      Constitution is a good one, and if you think the Constitution
      protects you, you better make sure that the Constitution is actively
      operating... and uh, in other words "constant vigilance". Otherwise,
      it's a scrap of paper. We had the Constitution to protect us in
      1942. It didn't because the will of the people weren't behind it.

      (Gordon Hirabayashi Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian
      Institution)

      Mary Tsukamoto: Will of the People
      America is a land with wonderful possibilities and a beautiful
      ideal, and the United States Constitution makes great promises for
      us and Liberty is a very meaningful thing. As we celebrated Ms
      Liberty's 100th birthday, we realized, what it could mean to our
      people. But we have to be sincere, and make it ring true. And so, in
      order to do that, we need to protect this fragile democracy. It
      depends on human feelings, and the quality of leadership and courage
      of the leaders are the ones that will determine which way it will
      go. But the people need to insist that; insist on having courageous
      leaders, people with integrity, people who are honest and will
      uphold the Constitution to the letter.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Japanese Americans Today
      Sparky Matsunaga: We Were Born on American Soil
      We were born on American soil, consequently, under the Constitution,
      we were Americans by birth. Of course we couldn't vote for the
      President, uh, because we were not a state. We had no representation
      in the Congress of the United States, so after the war, uh we
      thought we should be recognized, fully, uh and... full recognition
      would mean... making Hawaii a state of the Union.

      (Sparky Matsunaga Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Daniel Inyoue: The Price Was Very Heavy
      It was a time when some of us had to take extraordinary steps when
      our Constitution did not require it, to prove to our neighbors that
      we were worthy of being called Americans. The price was very heavy.
      There was much blood that had to be shed. But looking back, I can
      say with pride that I was part of it.

      (Daniel Inouye Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: Could it Happen Again?
      Today, I don't think this would ever happen to ethnic Japanese... at
      this point on. In the 1940s we had no power in Washington. Today, we
      have Senators, we have Congress people, we have mayors of cities of
      the United States, we have governors of ethnic Japanese. This would
      never happen with the ethnic Japanese community in the United
      States... but it might happen with another group, with no power. And
      therefore, I feel the ethnic Japanese community has a responsibility
      to keep on pushing this knowledge. It won't happen to ethnic
      Japanese, I'm pretty sure of that, but I don't want it to happen to
      any other group of people.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)


      =============

      IMMIGRATION
      http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-
      flash/immigration_main.html

      The first large groups of Asian immigrants reaching Hawaii — a U.S.
      territory — and the United States in the late 19th century faced
      racial prejudice. Restrictive laws in Hawaii and the U.S.
      specifically limited the rights of Asian immigrants to own property
      and to become citizens. Before 1907, most Japanese immigrants to the
      U.S. settled on the West Coast and excelled in the cultivation of
      marginal lands. As successful farmers, fruit growers, fishermen, and
      small businessmen, their ability to do well with little and to
      overcome great odds made them objects of envy by some members of the
      white community. Set apart by their physical appearance, they became
      further isolated from the white mainstream as envy fed racial
      hostility.

      ===============

      special story of getting married and picture brides

      Mutsu H.: Getting Married
      DG: Did your father do part of this ceremony?

      MH: No, bishop did. It's Dr. Fox. And it's wedding funny was after
      platform and now, "She is your wife. Will you please kiss her?" And
      then he said, "Oh, no Japanese doesn't." And then Dr. Fox said, "No,
      you have to. This is America. America people kiss wife." "No."

      BF: And this was going on during the ceremony?

      MH: Yes, in the ceremony-arguing. And finally Doctor. said, "Well,
      then never complain later." He said, "Yeah, I know." And then okay.
      We didn't kiss. [Laughs]

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      U.S. Mainland
      Mary Tsukamoto: Nisei in Florin
      And so my husband's father was 75 years old. He had come to Florin
      when he was 25, and so he had been in Florin more than 50 years, and
      had raised and planted every grape, and all the persimmon trees and
      walnut trees in our yard and everything. So we worried about the
      elderly Isseis, about what would happen to Grandpa, who was no
      longer young.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Crisis: Pearl Harbor
      Akiko K.: No Longer an Equal American
      Well, I'd just come home from church. And then we kept
      hearing, "Pearl Harbor was bombed, Pearl Harbor was bombed." I had
      no idea where Pearl Harbor was. My geography was not that
      sophisticated. I had no idea, and my father said, "Uh-oh, there's
      going to be trouble." And I said, "Well, how come?" He said, "Well,
      Japan just bombed Pearl Harbor." And, he says, "We're at war with
      Japan." But, I thought, "Why should it bother me?" You know, "I'm an
      American." And then he said, "You know, we are aliens." My
      parents... "We don't have the citizenship, so they're gonna' do
      something, we'll probably get taken away." But at that time, my
      parents had no feeling that we would be removed because-so they were
      saying my brother would have to take on the responsibility to keep
      the family together, because they may be removed or put into camp or
      whatever. And, then when I went back to school that following
      morning, you know, December 8th, one of the teachers said, "You
      people bombed Pearl Harbor." And I'm going, "My people?" All of a
      sudden my Japaneseness became very aware to me. I no longer felt I'm
      an equal American, that I felt kind of threatened and nervous about
      it.

      (Akiko K. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Constitution and Executive Order
      Mary Tsukamoto: Learning of E.O.
      We were shocked to realize that the President had signed this. We
      just kept saying, "But... we live out in the valley, not on the West
      Coast, not near, a... a airport or a naval base." Surely, you know,
      they wouldn't think that we needed to move too because we were busy
      raising strawberries, and harvesting crops that would really help
      our nation. We couldn't believe that they would need all of us to
      quit our work to produce our fruit, food for victory... and then be
      put away.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: No Possibility of Resistance
      There was no question of refusing or resisting that order. And I
      think one has to appreciate what our parents, the immigrant parents
      taught us: "Always respect order coming from the people above you.
      Respect your teachers, respect the government, respect the law. Be
      obedient, be reserved, be a good Japanese according to good Japanese
      traditions. We as parents are telling you to do what your teachers
      say you do." What do our teachers say? "Be aggressive. Say your
      peace. If you disagree, say you disagree." They were often in
      conflict here.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Process


      Sue Embrey: Registering After the Notice
      These men in jeeps, they went around posting the notices up, and in
      our area everyone was supposed to report to the Union Church. So my
      oldest brother went down and he signed in all of us. And my Mother
      felt that we should all go together because she didn't know what
      would happen if we were separated. So he got a family number for all
      of us, I think I still remember it... 2614.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Rae T.: FBI Search
      RT: I didn't realize the enormity until much later, but I soon found
      out what it meant for all of us because they came for my dad that
      night, early in the morning of December 8th. And...

      AI: What happened?

      RT: They picked him up. Well, I was sleeping in a bedroom on the
      main floor, which was fairly close to my folks' room; in other
      words, not quite adjacent. But I was awakened by this commotion. ...
      Oh, my, my mother. I told you she's very outspoken. And she is the
      one that I heard. I did not hear my father say anything, but my
      mother went on a rampage. I mean, she didn't care if they were FBI
      men or not, and she was proclaiming to them that she was "an
      American citizen," and she "had the rights of an American citizen,
      and how dare they come breaking into my house." [Laughs] And oh yes,
      I heard her. And I wasn't sure what was going on. I really didn't
      know that they were going to take my dad. I just thought that it was
      a little — it must be a very wild event for my mother, for sure,
      because she was really carrying on, but that didn't matter to them.

      (Rae T. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Moving Out:
      Mary Tsukamoto: Getting Ready
      We just figured they were sending us up in the mountains
      somewhere... you know, to be... And so I started to gather rice,
      small sacks of rice and... and collected the packages of dehydrated
      soup and jello and things that were light, so that they wouldn't be
      such a heavy baggage for us to carry because they said you could
      only take what you carry. And we knew we had to take blankets and
      sheets and bedding and things as well as some of our clothes. And we
      had no idea whether we were going to a hot place or a cold place, so
      our family was quite concerned about how to get ready.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: One Week to Leave
      We had one week to get ready. And what we could carry would include:
      bedding eating utensils and clothing. Questions arose: Where are we
      going? we don't know, we're not gonna tell you. How long are we
      going? We don't know , we' won't tell you. There was a rumor that we
      were being sent to Manzana, and no, that didn't prove true, we were
      sent to Santa Nita racetrack.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Sue Embrey: We are American Citizens
      I had a neighbor who said something to me toward the last few days
      before we left Los Angeles. He says, "You know, we're American
      Citizens, and we really could fight this thing." And, you know, I
      was just 18. It's hard for me to believe that other people who may
      have been older than I hadn't thought of it, there were lawyers in
      our community. I just had the feeling that this was something the
      whole community was going to go through because, even though there
      were alternatives, maybe this was the best way to... to tell the
      government that, you know, we're loyal, and we'll do whatever we
      need to do in order to help in the war effort. And... because there
      was so much suspicion cast on the Japanese population regardless of
      whether they were citizens or not, that maybe this was the only way
      out.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      First Stop: Assembly Centers
      Mary Tsukamoto: Treated Like Animals
      And I never will forget, the train stopped and we got off and they
      put us on a big truck. It looked like one of those cattle cars.
      Anyway, we stood up because there were no chairs for us to sit on
      this pickup and crowded into this truck. They drove us to the Fresno
      Assembly Center. And then we got off there and they told us to get
      in and there was the barbed wire gate, and the MPs around there and
      uh... We had to go in through that gate and after we got in there we
      knew that the gate was shut. And so, we saw all these people behind
      the fence, looking out, hanging onto the wire, and looking out
      because they were anxious to know who was coming in. But I will
      never forget the shocking feeling that human beings were behind this
      fence like animals [crying]. And we were going to also lose our
      freedom and walk inside of that gate and find ourselves... cooped up
      there. And the police, the MPs with their guns and some of them had
      bayonets. I don't know what they were going to do with it, if they
      thought we were gong to run away I guess. But anyway, when the gates
      were shut, we knew that we had lost something that was very
      precious; that we were no longer free.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Permanent Camps:
      Morgan Yamanaka: Arriving at Camps
      We were sent... to Topaz, from uh, Santa Anita; we were again not
      told exactly where we were going. All I remember was going through
      desert country that was Barstow — god-forsaken country, never been
      back there. Somehow wound up in this middle of nowhere...
      absolutely. And that's all I remember. This stark, naked... I had
      never been out of San Francisco, and to be dropped in the middle of
      Utah desert was — in retrospect, it was a traumatic experience. To
      think of it at that point, it was shocking at best. Sand, dust,
      nothing except these tar-paper buildings. Middle of nowhere.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mutsu H.: A Human Being
      Amache camp guarded by very young soldiers. One time soldier stop me
      and, "Hey you." "You want to talk to me?" He said, "Yeah. Are you a
      human being?" I said, "Yes. Don't you think so?" "Yeah. You look
      like a human being, but when I came from South Carolina, they said
      that the Jap is not a human being. They are like a gorilla so if you
      want to, kill them. That's what I learned when I came. And then I
      looked from top every day and you people look like a human being,
      and you people all wearing beautiful clothes."

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)

      Masao W.: Rejection is Very Hard
      You grow up thinking you're a citizen, and you want to be a part of
      this society you're in, and then the, let's say the weight of the
      rejection, is something that was pretty unexpected. But when reality
      sets in, like the "Camp Harmony" and these little shacks in
      Minidoka, then the real negative things start coming to your head,
      you know. "What the hell is this?" And I think it bothered a lot of
      us tremendously. You try to be a good citizen, you try to do what
      you're supposed to be doing, and the rejection is very hard,
      difficult.

      (Masao W. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Conditions
      Nancy K. Araki: A Child's Perspective
      We were in Amache for about six to eight months, I.. I'm not quite
      sure, but then we left camp and went to Provo, Utah and spent
      probably about another six to eight months. I started kindergarten
      there and that was very traumatic. It was really difficult, both
      because I just felt really alone and just having the experience of
      not knowing where I am, and who I was in relationship to everything
      else, and there was just some hostility, um within the township. For
      example, you know, I couldn't get an ice cream cone... and that was,
      you know, for an adult, that seems, probably doesn't mean too much,
      but for a little kid, it meant a lot.

      (Nancy Araki Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Frank Y.: Sand and Food
      It was very, very dusty. The dust was powdery fine and if I recall,
      it was about 3 or 4 inches deep. So every time you take a step there
      was just a puff of smoke, I mean of dust, and if you had even the
      slightest breeze... wow, you're in like a fog. And when you go to
      the mess hall to eat, of course when you chew the food, you can feel
      the grit of the sand. And it's amazing, even that, you get used to
      it. I gradually got used to the mixture of sand and food. [Laughs]
      It was terrible.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Work:
      Sue Embrey: Working for the War Effort
      Then the end of May, they set up a camouflage net factory, which the
      U.S. Army wanted to put in Manzanar and have people who really
      wanted to help in the war effort uh, make camouflage nets. So, they
      said we would get paid for that. So, a lot of us went down, and I
      helped make camouflage nets for the Army for maybe a month or so.
      And then it created a lot of friction in the camp itself because
      only American citizens could, could work there. And a lot of the
      resident-aliens, you know, our parents group, who wanted to help,
      couldn't do it. And then there was also a lot of agitation
      about 'why were you doing this when you were put in a camp...'
      and 'you shouldn't be helping in the war effort' and so, I think
      they closed it down later.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Loyalty
      Morgan Yamanaka: A No-No Response
      Number one, If I had been in San Francisco, chances of me saying 'No-
      No'... inconceivable, being an athlete, and a fairly good student,
      dean's list, and academic standing Aloha high School, university
      bound... I would have been the first one to volunteer. You put me...
      and I become dissatisfied, because of the treatment... OK, you
      isolate a certain group, as I said earlier, it becomes a question
      of 'we' against 'they.'

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mary Tsukamoto: Respect for Government and Elders
      You know, we were so naive, and I guess, you know, we should have
      known what Americanism really meant. But we were young, and
      inexperienced, and uh, I hadn't trained to be a lawyer or anything
      like that, like Minoru Yasui. So we had no thought about defying the
      government. And of course the Japanese people respect the elderly,
      and those who are important, the President of the United States, we
      wouldn't, you know, even if he's wrong, we wouldn't say anything.
      And we would respect those people, and so, that's the way we felt
      about our government. We wouldn't do anything do defy the
      government... Different from our day, you know, where the society
      has changed. But in those days, no one — not just the Japanese
      people, but the rest of America — didn't protest or defy. There
      weren't any marches and things like that in those days. Very few
      protested, you know, and we were at war, and we should have been
      united and cooperating and helping our government. We were wrapping
      bandages and taking Red Cross first-aid classes and all, even after
      the war, because we felt this was the thing an American should do.
      And so, never did it occur to me, that we would defy the government
      and refuse to go. That thought never came, though we wished we
      could, you know, we never did say it, even.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Mutsu H.: Nisei Means American Citizen
      I asked that, "What your father think about the war?", and then he
      said, "He's a Japanese. I'm a Nisei. And when I was small and
      then, "I owe allegiance to the flag of United States of America." I
      was memorizing. When he came and said, he listened, "Can you
      understand what that mean?" And I said, "I'm memorizing," and he
      said, "Think. Really think. And then if you are a Nisei, that means
      American citizen. If you memorize this one, you have to obey. Learn
      what it mean. So don't forget, America is your country." That's what
      he said. So he, after the camp — father was in camp, mother was in
      camp — and he was a volunteer to the war.

      (Mutsu H. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Expatriation and Repatriation
      Frank K.: What Would You Do in Japan?
      And my mother told me the story of how she pleaded with him to
      sign "yes". She said, "You know, what would you do in Japan?" She
      knew, at that time, if you didn't sign yes and you couldn't prove
      you were a citizen that they were going to send you off (to)
      someplace else and maybe exchange you for Caucasian people that were
      trapped in Japan. She said, she was saying to him, "What would you
      do in Japan? You can't write Japanese, you can't read Japanese," you
      know, "What would you do there?" And she, she ended up saying, "I'd
      rather hang myself than go to Japan." And my dad was so angry with
      all this frustration that he said, "Go ahead!"

      (Frank K. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      The Draft
      Frank K.: Irony of the Draft
      ...we were unjustly put into this concentration camp — I didn't say
      concentration — to this camp, and if you will restore our lifestyle
      like before this evacuation. Yes, I would be more than willing to
      serve in the armed services. If not, I will not.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Soldier's Life
      Chet Tanaka: Your Helmet is Your Security
      In training, it's heavy, and you didn't want to wear it too much,
      but once you got into action, gee, you would put helmet all over
      your body if you had enough helmet... [laughs] It's a security
      blanket, really gave you a sense of security.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Chet Tanaka: How Can You Love a Gun?
      So in spite of the relative slowness, we grew to love this gun — how
      can you love a gun — but for that type of work, this was
      indispensable... it became part of you. At 9.3 pounds when you're
      training, it's too heavy. In combat, it's light as a feather. A
      great weapon. You wore it like you wear your shoes, or your helmet,
      or your backpack. You just... without it, you just felt, uh,
      undressed.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Chet Tanaka: 'B' is for Breakfast
      you'd start eating the axle grease, or whatever's in here... this is
      a supper menu... 'S' [points to box] they had a 'B' for breakfast,
      and I guess an 'L' for lunch. But during combat or whatever, you
      didn't notice what letters are on here, you didn't much care, you
      just grabbed a bunch of boxes and stuffed them in your shirt, and
      you start taking off... But they were the staple for front line
      fighting.

      (Chet Tanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Military Intelligence
      Francis F.: Importance of Kibeis
      I don't know how much you know about the MIS, but in most of their
      practical applications, the real linguists in MIS were guys educated
      in Japan. They were Kibei. And it was kind of ironic, because jeez,
      you know DeWitt went on for a half a page justifying the evacuation
      of Japanese... One of the things that he pointed out was that,
      really these, that these Nisei were, couldn't be trusted because
      they had all this knowledge of Japanese and Japanese culture. And
      Kibeis were the worst of all because they were educated in Japan.
      And it's kind of ironic to me, that they took us and threw us into
      camp for that very reason, and the recruiters came in, really, and
      were recruiting us for that very same expertise... And really,
      especially the Kibei. If it weren't for the Kibei, I don't think
      they would have had a successful MIS. And cripes, I mean... boy,
      DeWitt had nothing but bad to say about them guys.

      (Francis F. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Ironies of Service
      Masao W.: Be a Part of Society
      Well, initially, I was wondering, "What the hell is this?" I think
      those of us who did react to it positively, I think we did the right
      thing. And to this day-well, regardless of what people think — I
      think we did the right thing in volunteering after being kicked in
      the butt... Because, gee, if you were going to live here, you've got
      to be a part of society, you've got to do what is expected of you.
      And I had no problem volunteering. I don't know which was worse:
      being locked up in camp or going off to war.

      (Masao W. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Post-War
      Nancy K. Araki: Remembering the Camps
      You know in the Japanese community, what happened is that
      afterwards, even among my age as we were going through grade school
      or junior high or high school even, whenever you meet someone, you
      say, "Oh, what camp were you in?" People five years younger than
      myself, you know, that's not a question. Or maybe it is, in the
      sense, "Where were you born?" and it could have well been in a camp.
      But for us, growing up, in grade school even "What camp were you
      in?" or "He was in Tule Lake. That's why he got put back..." or
      comments like that. And so, in some ways, it was very active, you
      know in our minds and in the discussions though never took place to
      pursue it, other that to maybe clarify: "Mom, you know, when I got
      this scar, my brother did this, this, this, was that in Topaz, or
      was that in Amache?" Or some kind of reference like that.

      (Nancy Araki Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Court Cases
      Sue Embrey: To Correct Democracy
      For myself, I think I was really disillusioned about democracy, and
      what the Constitution stood for. Because all my life, and all
      through school, I was in it for 12 years, that's all I was learning,
      and all of a sudden, it really didn't mean anything when it came to
      my own personal freedom, and my civil liberties. I guess when I
      left, and went to the mid-west, and began to meet a lot of people,
      who couldn't believe that I had been treated that way, and that all
      of us, you know, had been treated that way, that it occurred to me
      that the government really wasn't doing something that the entire
      population supported them. It was just a governmental order, which
      many people didn't know about. And that if they knew about it they
      might have objected to it. And I think gradually, I began to realize
      that there are lots of things that we needed to do to correct
      democracy, to correct, you know our own personal lives, and that I
      needed to do something, you know, about it if I felt strongly enough
      about different things.

      (Sue Embrey Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Gordon Hirabayashi: Violation of Exclusion Order
      I was charged with uh, violation of uh, exclusion order. And then,
      subsequently I was given a count two, uh, curfew violation by my own
      admission. They said: 'If you feel this way, what'd you do about the
      curfew?' I said: 'Well, uh what were you doing the last coupla'
      nights, were you out after eight?' And he says 'Yeah.' And I
      said: 'Well, so was I.' And he said: 'Oh, then you violated the
      curfew.' And he put me down. So those were the charges against me.
      The uh, instruction (I'm condensing this) but the instruction of the
      judge to the jury uh, as they were to leave was: 'You can forget all
      that Constitutional discussion by the defense. The Western Defense
      Command order is: That all persons of Japanese ancestry both alien
      and non-alien must abide by these orders. You are to determine first
      of all whether he is of Japanese ancestry. If he is, did he abide by
      these orders?' And, all of those questions were admitted by me.



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Apologies and Redress
      Frank Y.: Is $20,000 a Remedy?
      That money that was sent to us, does that remedy everything that was
      done? Can you imagine the Jews in Germany, saying, "Oh, they're
      going to give us $20,000 so now that's all right," What the Germans
      did to them. No. It's wrong. It should never be done again. And it's
      the same with the evacuation of Japanese; it should never be done
      again. ... It could be any other people.

      (Frank Y. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)

      Rae T.: Hopes for Redress
      I was a little cynical. I thought, "Oh, this will never happen,
      $20,000, ha, ha, ha." Well, my mother, oh, she was so sure; "When I
      get my $20,000..." I mean, she was sure that it was gonna happen;
      and the rest of us, "Well, if it happens, it happens. If it doesn't,
      it doesn't." But she was the one who looked forward to it most, and
      then she died the year that redress was finally passed. And it's
      just a really sad thing for me that she never, she never got to see
      that because she would have really enjoyed it, the fact that there
      was some justice after all. Because here is this woman who was
      yelling about constitutional rights in 1941, and she waited all
      these years, but she knew it was coming. ... But, anyway, she passed
      away before it could finally be given to her.

      (Rae T. Interview, Copyright 1998 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Repairing the Constitution
      Gordon Hirabayashi: Constant Vigilance
      I would also say that if you believe in something, if you think the
      Constitution is a good one, and if you think the Constitution
      protects you, you better make sure that the Constitution is actively
      operating... and uh, in other words "constant vigilance". Otherwise,
      it's a scrap of paper. We had the Constitution to protect us in
      1942. It didn't because the will of the people weren't behind it.

      (Gordon Hirabayashi Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian
      Institution)

      Mary Tsukamoto: Will of the People
      America is a land with wonderful possibilities and a beautiful
      ideal, and the United States Constitution makes great promises for
      us and Liberty is a very meaningful thing. As we celebrated Ms
      Liberty's 100th birthday, we realized, what it could mean to our
      people. But we have to be sincere, and make it ring true. And so, in
      order to do that, we need to protect this fragile democracy. It
      depends on human feelings, and the quality of leadership and courage
      of the leaders are the ones that will determine which way it will
      go. But the people need to insist that; insist on having courageous
      leaders, people with integrity, people who are honest and will
      uphold the Constitution to the letter.

      (Mary Tsukamoto Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Japanese Americans Today
      Sparky Matsunaga: We Were Born on American Soil
      We were born on American soil, consequently, under the Constitution,
      we were Americans by birth. Of course we couldn't vote for the
      President, uh, because we were not a state. We had no representation
      in the Congress of the United States, so after the war, uh we
      thought we should be recognized, fully, uh and... full recognition
      would mean... making Hawaii a state of the Union.

      (Sparky Matsunaga Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Daniel Inyoue: The Price Was Very Heavy
      It was a time when some of us had to take extraordinary steps when
      our Constitution did not require it, to prove to our neighbors that
      we were worthy of being called Americans. The price was very heavy.
      There was much blood that had to be shed. But looking back, I can
      say with pride that I was part of it.

      (Daniel Inouye Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)

      Morgan Yamanaka: Could it Happen Again?
      Today, I don't think this would ever happen to ethnic Japanese... at
      this point on. In the 1940s we had no power in Washington. Today, we
      have Senators, we have Congress people, we have mayors of cities of
      the United States, we have governors of ethnic Japanese. This would
      never happen with the ethnic Japanese community in the United
      States... but it might happen with another group, with no power. And
      therefore, I feel the ethnic Japanese community has a responsibility
      to keep on pushing this knowledge. It won't happen to ethnic
      Japanese, I'm pretty sure of that, but I don't want it to happen to
      any other group of people.

      (Morgan Yamanaka Interview, Copyright 2001 Smithsonian Institution)


      ===========

      REMOVAL
      http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-
      flash/removal_main.html

      The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 stunned the
      United States, and became a catalyst for challenging the loyalty of
      all Japanese people living in the U.S. On February 19, 1942,
      President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 authorizing
      military authorities to exclude "any and all persons" from
      designated areas of the country as necessary for national defense.
      E.O. 9066 was the first step in a program that uprooted Americans of
      Japanese ancestry from their West Coast communities and placed them
      under armed guard for up to four years.

      =============

      PEARL HARBOR
      http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-
      flash/removal_crisis.html

      Japan's alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in 1940 focused
      world attention on the Asian nation's military power and imperial
      ambition. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941
      plunged the United States into war and planted the notion of
      Japanese treachery in the minds of Americans. The hysteria that
      enveloped the West Coast during the early months of the war,
      combined with long standing anti-Asian prejudices, set the stage for
      what was to come.

      For both Japan and America, World War II had all of the ugly
      overtones of racial conflict. Although America was also at war with
      Germany and Italy, government officials did not recommend that
      German and Italian resident aliens (or American citizens of German
      or Italian ancestry) be rounded up as a group and confined for the
      duration of the war. While German or Italian enemies were often
      viewed as misguided victims of despotic leaders, Japanese people
      were referred to as "yellow vermin," "mad dogs," and "monkey men."
      Racist wartime propaganda further exacerbated fears of invasion and
      prejudice against people of Japanese decent.

      Members of the War Department argued for removal of the Issei and
      their Nisei children from areas regarded as vital to national
      security. National officials were influenced by politicians from
      West Coast districts, where opposition to Japanese Americans ran
      high.

      "Their racial characteristics are such that we cannot understand or
      trust even the citizen Japanese." — Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of
      War, 1942

      "I'm for catching every Japanese in America, Alaska, and Hawaii now
      and putting them in concentration camps....Damn them! Let's get rid
      of them now!" — Congressman John Rankin, Congressional Record,
      December 15, 1941


      On the evening of December 7, 1941, FBI agents, and local and
      military police took 736 Japanese aliens into custody. By December
      11, the number had grown to 1,370. This group included persons
      believed most likely to be spies or saboteurs: Shinto and Buddhist
      priests, newspapermen, community leaders, Japanese language
      teachers, and subscribers to suspect publications. Enemy Alien
      Hearing Boards were established to judge the loyalty of these
      individuals. All remained in detention during the slow course of the
      hearing process.

      =============

      special story (no longer an american)

      Akiko K.: No Longer an Equal American
      Well, I'd just come home from church. And then we kept
      hearing, "Pearl Harbor was bombed, Pearl Harbor was bombed." I had
      no idea where Pearl Harbor was. My geography was not that
      sophisticated. I had no idea, and my father said, "Uh-oh, there's
      going to be trouble." And I said, "Well, how come?" He said, "Well,
      Japan just bombed Pearl Harbor." And, he says, "We're at war with
      Japan." But, I thought, "Why should it bother me?" You know, "I'm an
      American." And then he said, "You know, we are aliens." My
      parents... "We don't have the citizenship, so they're gonna' do
      something, we'll probably get taken away." But at that time, my
      parents had no feeling that we would be removed because-so they were
      saying my brother would have to take on the responsibility to keep
      the family together, because they may be removed or put into camp or
      whatever. And, then when I went back to school that following
      morning, you know, December 8th, one of the teachers said, "You
      people bombed Pearl Harbor." And I'm going, "My people?" All of a
      sudden my Japaneseness became very aware to me. I no longer felt I'm
      an equal American, that I felt kind of threatened and nervous about
      it.

      (Akiko K. Interview, Copyright 1997 Densho Project)



      ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      -----------

      Constitution and Executive Order
      Mary Tsukamoto: Learning of E.O.
      We were shocked to realize that the President had signed this. We
      just kept saying, "But... we live out in the valley, not on the West
      Coast, not near, a... a airport or a naval base." Surely, you know,
      they wouldn't think<br/><br/>(Message over 64 KB, truncated)
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.