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[ONLINE MEDIA] Google ("Frenemy") Not a Threat / David Eun / Google's Asian Team

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  • madchinaman
    Google an ally, not a threat, media exec says David Eun calls the Web ad broker a strategic partner that won t compete in content. By Chris Gaither, Times
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 9, 2007
      Google an ally, not a threat, media exec says
      David Eun calls the Web ad broker a strategic partner that won't
      compete in content.
      By Chris Gaither, Times Staff Writer
      http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-eun8jan08,1,7346973,


      -

      Profile: David Eun
      VP of Content Partnerships, Google

      Education: Harvard, B.A., J.D.

      Employment: Bain & Co.: management consultant; NBC: VP, business
      affairs, NBC Entertainment; VP, NBC Enterprises; Arts Alliance:
      partner; Time Warner: chief of staff, Media & Communications Group;
      current position since February

      Personal: Married, two sons

      -


      MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIF. — When some of the world's biggest media and
      advertising companies talk about Google Inc., they borrow a term from
      the teen flick "Mean Girls."

      Google, as they see it, is a "frenemy" — an enemy who acts like a
      friend, or part friend, part enemy. Martin Sorrell, chairman and
      chief executive of advertising giant WPP Group, recently used the
      term. He is among the media executives who can't decide whether
      Google is trying to help their business or kill it.

      That's where David Eun comes in. As vice president of content
      partnerships, the former NBC and Time Warner Inc. executive is
      Google's ambassador to the television, movie, publishing and local-
      media industries.

      With its digital distribution power in high demand, Google has
      developed some goodwill in the media business. Whereas Yahoo Inc.,
      Microsoft Corp. and AOL are developing original video programming,
      Google says it won't create content to compete with traditional
      media. Eun and his colleagues have struck deals to distribute MTV
      Networks clips on websites that run Google-brokered ads and with CBS,
      Universal Music Group and others to distribute video on YouTube,
      which Google bought in November for $1.65 billion.

      Still, many media and advertising executives are wary of Google's
      expanding role in connecting audiences to digital content. The
      Internet company is defending against lawsuits brought by publishers
      and foreign news organizations alleging improper copying of their
      material. Record labels and TV networks are also upset about the
      unlicensed posting of their copyrighted works on YouTube.

      In an interview at the company's campus in Mountain View, Calif., Eun
      reflected on a turbulent year for the media business and made his
      case for Google as friend, not foe.

      Question: This fall, for the first time in the history of television,
      just about every prime-time show was available, legally, the next
      day, either for purchase on iTunes or free on the networks' websites.
      Is that a promising sign?

      Answer: It is a good sign. I think it's just that, though — it's a
      sign, not necessarily a conclusion of a large strategic shift in the
      industry. What it signals to me is that, to their credit, content
      owners are willing to experiment.

      No one knows exactly how it's going to shake out. But we believe that
      if you stay focused on the user and you respect the copyright of the
      content owners, then you can work together to try things — to learn
      and gather information. We think there will be a business one day,
      but you need everyone being very thoughtful about it and working
      together. It's not like you're going to flip on a switch and all of a
      sudden it's as large as the DVD business or the network television
      advertising business.

      Q: In the evolution of the media, what do you think 2006 is going to
      be remembered for?

      A: One is the fact that a lot of traditional media companies were
      very publicly aggressive about making their programming available on
      the Web.

      The second would be the amount of change in the organizations, which
      signals that these companies are trying to figure out how to
      structure themselves to really understand and benefit from the
      Internet, how to create a real business from it.

      Third is, you can't ignore YouTube.

      Q: What are you learning from YouTube?

      A: What we're finding is that there are huge similarities. They're
      very dedicated to the user experience. They're really focused
      on "What's the best thing we can do for our users?" They really are
      committed to working with content owners, as are we. They understand
      and respect copyrights, they truly do.

      YouTube was doubling down on what we were doing before. They don't
      own the content, they're a platform. They're offering … tools to
      people to upload their stuff.

      Q: One of your jobs is to be the guy who says, "We're not the enemy"
      to media companies. What do you think when you hear people like
      Martin Sorrell call you a "frenemy"?

      A: At the end of the day, I just point to actual data. [In the third
      quarter], we paid $780 million out to partners in our AdSense
      program. Clearly, we do best when our partners do well. Our whole
      business model is structured around partnering. As we think about our
      mission of connecting users with information — beyond Web pages, into
      what's printed on newspapers, magazines or a book, or what's on
      video — we think about it in a partner-centric way.

      When people say we're to be feared, I never quite know what to make
      of that. You can always opt out: We never force you to work with us.
      We typically don't do exclusive deals, so you're never stuck working
      with us. And it's public that in most cases we still give the
      majority of every dollar we create from a partnership to the
      partners, so you still get the lion's share of the money. What about
      that sounds so unfriendly?

      You have a company that's 8 years old, that's growing very quickly,
      that's created a new business approach. And meanwhile, you know,
      there are challenges to your current business. So there's a lot of
      questions, sometimes a lot of anxiety. Sometimes I think that it's
      displaced on us.

      We represent the new way of doing things — the unknown. A lot of that
      is placed on us. We must have an agenda, we must be aspiring to be a
      media company, when in fact we have no such aspirations. We kind of
      like the way our business runs as it is. If anything, we have an
      incentive to make sure our media companies are as successful as
      possible so they continue to make great content because we don't do
      that, we don't know how to do it.

      Q: These media companies see their business threatened, then see
      Google making so much money and think they're getting a raw deal. Is
      that part of it?

      A: Of course. I don't know that it's warranted. No one is forcing
      anyone to do anything. I think the benefits flow in both directions.
      That's the only way a partnership works. What I hear a lot of times
      is people say, "Look what the record labels did for MTV. They gave
      [MTV] their content but the record labels didn't get a share of MTV."
      But when you think about it, the record labels got a huge benefit.
      They were getting promoted and selling their CDs, and at the time
      they couldn't get enough of their content on MTV.

      It's not as if one is doing another a favor, that it's a charity or
      something. If we work with content partners going forward, the only
      way it's going to work is if there's mutual benefit.

      Q: You're trying hard to convince them that you're a good partner.
      Then you acquire YouTube, a company that many media companies have to
      spend time trolling for pirated copies of their work. Did the
      acquisition hurt your outreach efforts?

      A: It's not black or white. If content owners have concerns about
      what happens to their business or their content, they're also really
      impressed and attracted to the distribution and promotion YouTube can
      offer.

      We know for a fact that there were some companies that were very
      vocal about the legal concerns, whose own marketing departments were
      uploading content to YouTube. It's a complicated thing. We think
      there's huge benefit, and we think there are ways that you can
      absolutely respect copyright.

      Q: Do you have a professional New Year's resolution?

      A: It's an extension of the whole we're-a-friend-not-a-foe line I've
      been out there publicly with. I'd like to get to a point where we're
      working with media companies and are gathering more information,
      where we can point to a larger body of information and success.

      2007 is going to be the year of how, hopefully, we really work
      closely with a few content owners and absolutely prove how we are a
      fantastic technology partner for them.

      ===========

      Our approach to content
      Posted by David Eun, VP, Content Partnerships
      http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/09/our-approach-to-content.html


      The Internet has broken down many of the barriers that exist between
      people and information –- effectively democratizing access to human
      knowledge. By typing just a few keywords into a computer you can
      learn about almost any subject. Google is one of many organizations
      that work to make this possible.

      But today only a fraction of the world's information is available
      online. Our aim to help organize the world's information and make it
      universally accessible and useful means working with a lot of
      information – newspaper articles (many written over a century ago),
      books (of which there are millions), images, videos (including all of
      the new footage users are creating), websites, important financial
      information and much, much more.

      Because we don't own this content, over the years we've come up with
      three primary principles to ensure that we respect content owners and
      protect their rights:

      ** we respect copyright;
      ** we let owners choose whether we index their content in our
      products;
      ** we try to bring benefit back to content owners by partnering with
      them.

      Respecting copyright
      There are many legal rights that help protect content. Among the most
      important is copyright. Content creators deserve to be rewarded for
      their creative work -- and copyright law is fundamental to ensuring
      that as well as fostering future creativity. While protecting the
      rights of owners, those laws also encourage others to make use of
      content in limited ways. That's why newspapers are allowed to include
      short quotations from in-copyright books in their reviews. That's
      also why search engines can show snippets (small excerpts) of text in
      their results. Copyright owners benefit from these types of usage
      because they help to publicize their works.

      Google News is a good example of how Google protects copyright in
      practice. We index the content of thousands of news sources online.
      When users go to Google News, they see only headlines, snippets and
      image thumbnails from the relevant news articles. If people want to
      read the story, they must click through links in our results to the
      original website.

      Google Book Search is another example. We're digitizing and indexing
      millions of books as part of our effort to make these works as easily
      found as web sites are today. Some of these books are in the public
      domain. For those, we will show the full text of the book. Other
      books are in copyright. For these we show only bibliographic
      information and a few snippets of text, unless we have the owners'
      prior permission to show more.

      There are also times when, in addition to securing permission, we pay
      for greater use of content. For example, we've agreed to pay the
      Associated Press (AP) for the right to make new uses of its news
      content – uses that go beyond the limited uses permitted by copyright
      laws. This use of AP's content will make our services even more
      valuable. We also license content from third parties for several
      other Google services such as Google Earth Google Finance and Google
      Maps.

      Letting content owners choose
      Even if use of their work would be perfectly legal, we respect the
      wishes of content owners. For example, if a content owner asks us to
      remove his or her content from our web search results, we do. If a
      newspaper does not want to be part of Google News, we take the
      paper's stories out. And if publishers would prefer not to have their
      books included in Google Book Search, we honor their request. It's
      simple: we always allow content owners to opt out – quickly and
      easily.

      Of course, some people argue that we should be asking content owners
      to opt in, not requiring them to opt out. Google aims to provide
      comprehensive search results. This would be impossible in a world
      where permission simply to index (which is entirely legal) was
      necessary. But we also believe that opt-out rather than opt-in
      benefits not just Google users, but also content owners. If content
      isn't indexed it can't be searched. And if it can't be searched, how
      can it be found? Imagine a library with no index of titles or
      subjects of the books on its shelves, or no catalogue of the authors
      who wrote them.

      Benefitting content owners
      There are around one billion people online today -- all of them
      wanting access to information. We partner with publishers, news
      organizations and others to help them to reach a wider global
      audience. By enabling people to discover information, Google drives
      web traffic, customer queries, advertising revenues and sales to our
      partners, both online and offline.

      Take our AdSense advertising program. We display ads on thousands of
      partners' websites – and we let them keep the majority of the revenue
      generated. The same is true for our Book Search publisher partners –
      they keep the lion's share of the advertising on the books they
      include in our program. And Google Video helps media companies
      generate revenues in a number of different ways. They can upload
      their videos and share them freely with millions of users globally,
      generating awareness for their content – and some may sell their
      videos through our online store. We also place ads within videos on
      Google Video and throughout our AdSense network through a new product
      called Adsense for Video -- and as with AdSense and Book Search, we
      share the money with the content owner.

      And we have other initiatives to help our partners sell their
      content. In Google News, we work with some companies whose content is
      only available via subscription. We index their content and then when
      people click on their story we link them to the site where they can
      purchase the individual story, login if they are a subscriber, or
      subscribe to the paper. And we recently added a feature to Google
      News which enables searchers to find historical articles, many of
      which are only available from the owner for a fee.

      Protecting content owners' rights, respecting their wishes, helping
      to reward them for their creative endeavors – these are the primary
      principles that guide Google's approach. We believe it's the best way
      to make the world's information universally accessible and useful.


      ===========

      David Eun
      Vice President, Content Partnerships
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#eun


      David oversees Google's partnerships and alliances with leading
      providers of content and information. In this capacity, he directs
      the business development and operational execution of deals with
      Google's print, multimedia, and local content partners. He also works
      closely with Google's product management and engineering
      organizations to develop new products and services with this content.

      Prior to joining Google, David was at Time Warner as the Chief of
      Staff for the Media & Communications Group. There, he worked on
      strategy, operations, and new business formation, particularly in
      digital distribution and services. Before joining Time Warner, he was
      a partner at Arts Alliance, a trans-Atlantic venture capital firm
      focusing on digital media, information technology and business
      services.

      David started his career in media at NBC, where he led some of NBC's
      first cross-media partnerships involving television programming, on-
      air promotion, direct response marketing, third party websites, and
      retail entertainment products. He is a former management consultant
      with Bain & Co.

      David is a graduate of Harvard Law School and Harvard College, where
      he graduated Magna Cum Laude in Government.

      =========

      Google Video distribution, MTV deal
      http://battellemedia.com/archives/002797.php


      As previously reported, Google announced a new program allowing users
      to distribute ad-sponsored video streaming on websites and blogs.
      Google kicks-off its trial later this month in a partnership with
      MTV. I spoke with David Eun, VP of Google Content Partnerships, to
      get more detail.

      Google plans to use the trial period as experimental research to
      determine the final layout of ad types and the pricing systems. For
      the trial, MTV will sell and serve its own ads. The ads will be video
      spliced into the content, for the trial and forward.

      Google has not yet revealed other partnership negotiations in the
      wing, but an established deal with Viacom's MTV begs speculation
      about future deals on Viacom's full array of content subsidiaries.
      The biggest challenge Eun foresees is ramping up business development
      to the expectations of their partners.

      Google says publishers, advertisers and content owners are relying
      more on Google as a network supporting media distribution--first for
      hosting, then serving, and now monetizing.

      With a stress on scale, Eun said that the technology and publisher
      network already exists in the AdSense network.

      “We already have thousands of advertisers and content owners in
      our network. And now we can work together to make more money for
      everyone involved,” he todl me. Eun muses that this “will
      hopefully turn into a virtuous circle.”

      Eun did not detail if ads would continue to be sold algorithmically,
      or directly by Google's ad sales team.

      ============

      Google Sees Content Deals
      As Key to Long-Term Growth
      By KEVIN J. DELANEY
      http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115551216399934651-
      iLjqJYNEarKd1RWcq5Zbb1wFDA0_20060912.html?mod=tff_main_tff_top


      Google Inc. drew the ire of media and entertainment companies last
      year with audacious moves to search new information such as video and
      books. Now, in a reversal of those missteps, the Internet giant is
      bringing some of the biggest traditional content owners into its camp
      and sharing revenue with them.

      Last Monday, the Mountain View, Calif., company announced a deal to
      distribute video from Viacom Inc.'s MTV Networks on the Web and a
      separate agreement with News Corp.'s Fox Interactive Media division
      to provide it with search technology and broker advertising. Google
      has pledged $900 million in minimum payments to Fox under the tie-up.
      Google also recently said it would license content from the
      Associated Press news agency as part of a new, unspecified service.
      And Google has said there are likely more such deals to come.

      Google's improved relationships with media and entertainment
      companies reflects the confidence those companies have gained in
      online distribution in the past year, amid rapid growth in Americans'
      consumption of Web video and other Internet content.

      But just as importantly, it illustrates a coming of age in Google's
      approach to the owners of content it wants to search. One key
      development: Google has recruited executives from the media and
      entertainment industries in the past year to negotiate with those
      companies. Led by David Eun, a Time Warner Inc. and NBC alum who
      joined Google in February, these teams are prowling for deals and
      courting potential content partners with visits to Google's Silicon
      Valley headquarters.

      Now "we can approach them (the media and entertainment firms) in a
      way that we can actually do business together and not screw things
      up," said Google Chief Executive Eric Schmidt at a press conference
      Wednesday.

      Making such tie-ups work is crucial to Google's long-term advertising
      revenue growth, providing the company with additional places to
      display lucrative ads, such as alongside video clips. It's also key
      to Google's mission of letting consumers search the world's
      information. For years, individuals could access billions of Web
      pages through Google, which the company indexed without their owners'
      explicit permission. Now the company is trying to extend that search
      to diverse sets of commercial information, including movies and books.

      Google alienated some content owners as it intensified such efforts
      in 2005, and those concerns haven't totally subsided. Separate
      lawsuits filed last year by five major book publishers, an authors'
      trade association and the Agence France Presse news service alleging
      that Google is abusing their copyrights are still pending. Some
      content owners, wary of Google's power, are lining up with smaller
      advertising and distribution networks.

      "The biggest challenge is explaining to them we're friend and not
      foe," says Mr. Eun, 39 years old, Google's vice president of content
      partnerships.

      In one miscue, Google in late 2004 recorded TV programs on its
      computers with the intention of letting consumers do some limited
      searches of them. It did so without TV companies' permission, and
      only notified some of them days before the service's January 2005
      launch. Executives at CBS and Warner Bros. television, a unit of Time
      Warner Inc., were among those who asked Google to back off, citing
      possible copyright violations.

      Google "didn't show proper respect for us as potential partners,"
      said Larry Kramer, president of digital media at CBS, last year. (CBS
      in January announced a deal to distribute episodes of several shows,
      including "CSI" and "Survivor," through Google Video. "We're quite
      happy with them," Mr. Kramer says now. "They have more people who
      have taken more time to understand the business of their partners.")

      Google's program to digitize millions of books in university and
      public libraries, launched in late 2004, also triggered the lawsuits
      last year from publishers and authors. Those groups objected to
      Google's scanning of copyrighted works without permission. Google
      was "freeloading on the talent and property of authors and
      publishers," the Association of American Publishers trade group said
      in an October statement.

      Google executives say they never intended to own content themselves
      or steamroll the owners of information.

      Despite these missteps, partnerships with Google remained attractive
      to media and entertainment firms because of its reach to consumers
      and the numerous advertisers buying online ads through its system.
      Google has far outpaced Yahoo Inc. and other rivals in maximizing the
      revenue it generates each time it displays a search ad, partly by
      showing ads more likely to appeal to users based on how the ads
      performed in the past. That efficiency and its broad reach on the Web
      allow it to promise more money to content owners, with whom it shares
      the majority of revenue from ads its brokers. In December, Google
      beat out Microsoft Corp. for a search advertising and technology pact
      with Time Warner's AOL unit that included Google's paying $1 billion
      for a stake in AOL.

      Importantly, Google has worked on offering commercial content free to
      consumers online financed by advertising, a model with high usage and
      remuneration potential. In one experiment, it provided free ad-
      supported access to full-length commercial videos consumers usually
      need to pay for, ranging from old cartoons to the Charlie Rose Show.
      Major content owners are growing more comfortable with such ad-
      supported distribution online.

      Now Mr. Eun, a Harvard law school graduate who worked on Internet
      deals at NBC in the 1990s and more recently helped oversee Time
      Warner's Media and Communications Group, has launched a partnership
      offensive. He says his team is signing hundreds of content deals each
      quarter in the areas of video, books and other print publications,
      and local content such as maps and guides.

      Mr. Eun uses his Old Media pedigree to reassure traditional media and
      entertainment companies. Specialized deal teams identify potential
      partners and bring them to Google's headquarters to meet with staff
      who explain how the company's business works.

      In MTV's case, discussions leading to last week's deal got started
      after Michael Wolf, President and Chief Operating Officer of MTV
      Networks, contacted Mr. Schmidt earlier this year. Mr. Schmidt handed
      off the negotiations to Mr. Eun's group, which brought MTV's team to
      Google's headquarters for a daylong meeting. "Throughout the
      discussions we've had with Google they've been respectful of our
      brand, respectful of our content," says Mr.Wolf.

      While Mr. Eun declines to specify his team's size, Google earlier
      this year hired executive recruiters Spencer Stuart to find two
      additional executives to report to him, says a person familiar with
      the matter. One executive is to focus on working with premium content
      providers such as TV networks and movie studios, and the other with
      owners of archival TV, radio and training film footage, this person
      says. Google recently filled the spots with Yahoo and NBC Universal
      alums, the person says.

      In the books area, Google says it has recently recruited individuals
      from publishers Random House Inc., Reed Elsevier and Farrar, Straus
      and Giroux to cut deals and work with the publishers. Google last
      year also set up an advisory council of about a dozen senior
      publishing industry executives, with whom it meets roughly once a
      quarter. The company previews upcoming changes to its book search
      service with the group, and solicits their concerns.

      "We see that they've listened and they've done what we've been
      talking about," says Gordon Tibbitts, U.S. President at scholarly
      publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd. of Oxford.

      Still, critics haven't gone away. "Everybody needs to be careful when
      dealing with somebody who has a different point of view from the
      mainstream" on copyright, says Joshua Kaufman, a lawyer representing
      the AFP in its suit against Google. Scott Bailey, a general manager
      for business operations at Time Warner's Turner Sports New Media
      unit, for one, says he wonders whether Google services will undermine
      some content owners' own. "There's a fine line between competitors
      and partners," Mr. Bailey says.

      ==========

      Google's Eun Plays Matchmaker
      By Joel Topcik -- Broadcasting & Cable
      http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6383690.html?display=People


      When media companies bristle at the increasing prominence of Google
      in their industry, David Eun feels their pain. As a former executive
      at NBC and Time Warner, he knows that world well. But he has a
      message for those who are anxious about Google's ever-growing
      capacity to index and distribute their content: We come in peace.

      "We are not the enemy," says Eun, Google's VP of content
      partnerships. "We're not looking to be a media company. We provide
      technology and the tools and services to help content owners reach
      their objectives in the digital space."

      Since joining Google in February, Eun has been the company's
      ambassador to media companies and providers of print, multimedia and
      local content (such as maps and satellite images). And as the search
      engine evolves into one of the leading aggregators of online video—
      particularly with this month's agreement to acquire video-sharing
      site YouTube—he is drawing on his background to partner with TV
      networks.

      STRADDLING THE OLD AND NEW WORLDS
      In truth, Eun has straddled the worlds of old and new media since he
      left his job consulting on technology issues for Bain & Co. in San
      Francisco to work for NBC Entertainment in 1995.

      As VP of business affairs, he worked on the nascent NBC.com,
      exploring new-media possibilities for NBC shows, including an online
      extension for Homicide: Life on the Street that used images of the
      series' actors and sets to illustrate text-based stories.

      In 1997, Warren Littlefield, then president of NBC Entertainment,
      picked Eun to join an internal working group of "young guns" to help
      lead the network into the "future of TV." Eun started NBC
      Enterprises' Strategic Ventures Group, charged with creating new
      businesses and promotional opportunities for the network's programs.

      The group started a publishing imprint as well as a music label,
      which released a Billboard-charting soundtrack to NBC's 1999
      miniseries The Sixties with Polygram. Even though Polygram's studio
      co-produced the program, getting it to approve use of the show's
      artwork on the CD cover was an early lesson for Eun in the hazards of
      sharing content. "You'd think that would've been easy," he says.

      Littlefield was immediately impressed with Eun's strategic
      acumen. "If you were to sit in a large, executive power meeting," he
      says, "David would be the quiet guy in the corner who, at the end of
      the meeting, everyone would agree, 'We better listen to that guy
      because he has all the answers."

      After moving on to be a partner at venture-capital firm Arts
      Alliance, where he targeted tech startups (including the digital
      video site Atom Films), Eun joined Time Warner as chief of staff to
      Don Logan, who headed the Media & Communications Group.

      Logan praises Eun's ability to "cut across division lines," a skill
      he says serves Eun well at Google "in terms of having to go out and
      talk to different content companies and different people inside his
      own organization and build bridges between all of those groups."

      REASSURING CONTENT PROVIDERS
      When Eun joined Google, the company was still smarting over charges
      that its indexing of published content, including newspapers and
      books, violated copyright laws. In video-based deals leading up to
      the YouTube agreement (including an August deal with Viacom to
      distribute and share ad revenue on clips from MTV Networks), Eun has
      worked to reassure content providers that Google is committed to
      protecting their copyrights.

      He cites Google's and YouTube's recent deals with Sony-BMG, Universal
      Music Group and CBS as evidence that their partnership will "respect
      the rights of content owners," not trample over them.

      "It isn't about 'either/or' thinking," Eun says. "This is an 'and'
      world."

      For Littlefield, the fact that "the most exciting company on the map
      today" has asked Eun to play so crucial a strategic role "is one more
      indication to me of just how smart they are at Google."

      ============

      ASIAN MEMBERS OF GOOGLE

      Kai-Fu Lee
      Vice President, Engineering, Product, and Public Affairs & President,
      Greater China
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#kaifu


      Kai-Fu joined Google in 2005 to develop the company's operations in
      China. He is responsible for all engineering, product development and
      public affairs activities there.

      From 1998 to 2005, Kai-Fu was at Microsoft as a corporate vice
      president responsible for advanced natural language and user
      interface technologies. He also founded Microsoft Research Asia,
      which has since become one of the best research centers in the world.
      From 1996 to 1998, Kai-Fu was president of Cosmo Software, a
      subsidiary of Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI). There he was responsible
      for several product lines and the company's web strategy. Before
      joining SGI, Lee spent 6 years at Apple Computer, most recently as
      vice president of the company's interactive media group, which
      developed QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, QuickTime VR and PlainTalk speech
      technologies.

      In addition, from 1988 to 1990 Kai-Fu was assistant professor at
      Carnegie Mellon University, where he developed the world's first
      speaker-independent continuous speech-recognition system. This system
      was selected as the "Most Important Innovation of 1988" by
      BusinessWeek. While at Carnegie Mellon, Kai-Fu also developed the
      computer program that plays the game "Othello," which defeated the
      human world champion in 1988.

      Kai-Fu holds a Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie Mellon
      University and a B.S. in Computer Science with highest honors from
      Columbia University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.

      =====

      Sukhinder Singh Cassidy
      Vice President, Asia-Pacific & Latin America Operations
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#sukhinder


      Sukhinder Singh Cassidy is Google's Vice President for Asia-Pacific &
      Latin America Operations. In this role, she is responsible for all of
      Google's sales operations in these regions. Sukhinder also oversees
      the company's local search and channel initiatives globally.

      Prior to joining Google, Sukhinder was Co-founder and Senior Vice
      President of Business Development for Yodlee.com Inc., a leading
      solutions provider to the global financial services industry. From
      1999 to 2003, she was responsible for building Yodlee's client base
      and revenues, signing agreements with companies such as Citigroup, JP
      Morgan Chase, Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Bank of
      America, Wachovia, Yahoo!, Microsoft, and AOL. For her work at Yodlee
      and in the industry, Sukhinder has been profiled in publications
      including Business Week Online, Canada Post, and Innovation Nation, a
      book profiling Canadian business leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2002).

      Prior to joining Yodlee, Sukhinder worked in strategy and business
      development in Silicon Valley for leading e-commerce providers
      Amazon.com, and Junglee Corporation, and in New York and London with
      investment bank Merrill Lynch as well as pay television provider
      British Sky Broadcasting.

      Sukhinder is a graduate of the Ivey School of Business Administration
      at the University of Western Ontario, Canada.


      =====


      Johnny Chou
      Vice President, Sales and Business Development & President, Greater
      China
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#chou


      Johnny joined the Google team in China in October 2005, where he is
      responsible for building Google's sales and channel businesses, and
      expanding the company's strategic partnerships in the region.

      Johnny came to Google from UT Starcom, where he was president of the
      company's China operations for 9 years. Before that, he was director
      for wireless systems and software at Lucent Technologies (formerly
      AT&T) Microelectronics IC group. From 1993 to 1995, as Technical
      Manager of AT&T's Global Wireless product group, he led multiple
      development teams for handset and wireless personal base station
      products. Earlier, he led the team for advanced digital communication
      research at Bell Labs.

      Born in Ningbo, China, Johnny holds an M.S. in Engineering from
      Princeton University, a M.B.A. from Rutgers University, and a B.S. in
      Electrical Engineering from City College of New York. He also studied
      computer science in Fudan University in Shanghai.


      ========


      Salar Kamangar
      Vice President, Product Management
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#salar


      Salar oversees Google's advertising and monetization products,
      including the AdWords program. He joined Google in 1999. During his
      first year, he created the company's first business plan and was
      responsible for its legal and finance functions. From there, Salar
      became a founding member of Google's product team, where he worked on
      consumer projects including the acquisition of DejaNews and the
      subsequent launch of Google Groups. In 2001, Salar led a small
      engineering team to define and launch the AdWords product in order to
      monetize the company's growing search traffic. Later, AdWords served
      as the foundation for Google's syndication on partner sites,
      including AOL, and today serves as the engine that drives Google's
      advertising revenue.

      Salar earned his B.S. in Biological Sciences with Honors from
      Stanford University.

      =========

      Norio Murakami
      Vice President &General Manager, Google Japan
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#norio


      Norio Murakami joined Google Japan in April 2003. In his role as Vice
      President & General Manager, he is responsible for all aspects of
      Google's business in Japan.

      Before joining Google, Norio was President of Docent Japan, where he
      established the Japanese subsidiary in November 2001. He built a
      solid foundation of leadership for Docent in Japan – and in the e-
      learning industry generally – through many partnerships including
      those with Accenture, NEC, and Works Applications.

      From 1997 to 1999, Norio was President & CEO of Northern Telecom
      Japan. In this capacity, he successfully merged and integrated the
      company with Bay Networks Japan, whose parent company had been
      acquired by Northern Telecom, and was later re-named Nortel Networks
      Japan. With the transformation of the business from circuit switching
      to IP, Norio increased the company's revenue and profitability to a
      historic high in 2000. Through mid-2001, he served as President & CEO
      of Nortel Networks Japan.

      Norio started his career as an engineer for minicomputer systems at
      Hitachi Electronics K.K. In addition to his service at Northern
      Telecom, he has held a number of management roles such as the CEO-
      Japan & VP-Corporate for Informix, and as a member of the Board of
      Directors for Marketing at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Japan.
      This affiliation also included a five-year assignment at DEC
      headquarters in Massachusetts.

      Norio graduated from Kyoto University with a B.S. in Engineering.


      =========


      David Lawee
      Vice President, Marketing
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#lawee


      As vice president, Marketing, David Lawee has global responsibility
      for all Google marketing activities. His worldwide mandate
      encompasses product marketing, field marketing, customer analytics,
      creative and advertising, as well as directing all of Google's
      regional marketing groups in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia-
      Pacific and Latin America.

      Initially hired to expand Corporate Development at Google, David
      brings significant entrepreneurial and general management experience
      to his role. David co-founded Xfire, a leading online gaming
      community, where he led product development, marketing and
      international business development. Within 2 years of launch, Xfire
      became the fastest growing Internet gaming site with over 5 million
      registered users. Xfire was sold to Viacom in early 2006.
      .
      David's prior experience includes co-founding 3 other startups
      including Mosaic Venture Partners, a leading Toronto-based venture
      capital firm. He also worked as a management consultant at McKinsey &
      Company where he served a wide variety of multi-national clients.
      David holds degrees in Law and Philosophy from McGill University and
      the University of Western Ontario respectively, as well as an MBA
      from University of Chicago.


      =======


      Omid Kordestani
      Senior Vice President, Global Sales & Business Development
      http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html#sergey


      Omid Kordestani is the Senior Vice President of Global Sales and
      Business Development. He is directly responsible for Google's
      worldwide revenue generation efforts as well as the day-to-day
      operations of the company's sales organization. He joined in May 1999
      as Google's "business founder," leading the development and
      implementation of the company's initial business model. Since then he
      has brought Google to profitability in record time, generating more
      than $6 billion in revenue in 2005.

      Omid has more than 20 years of high technology consumer and
      enterprise experience, holding key positions at several startups,
      including Internet pioneer Netscape Communications. As vice president
      of Business Development and Sales, he grew Netscape's online revenue
      from an annual run-rate of $88 million to more than $200 million in
      18 months.

      Prior to Netscape, he held positions in marketing, product
      management, and business development at The 3DO Company, Go
      Corporation, and Hewlett-Packard.

      Omid received an MBA from the Stanford Graduate School of Business in
      1991 and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from
      San Jose State University in 1984.
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