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[newsviews] SCR: How we understand ourselves, Freedlander

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    ================================== SCIENCE & CONSCIOUSNESS REVIEW SCI-CON.ORG NEWSLETTER ================================== January 24, 2004 ARTICLES IN THIS
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 24, 2005
      ==================================
      SCIENCE & CONSCIOUSNESS REVIEW
      SCI-CON.ORG NEWSLETTER
      ==================================

      January 24, 2004

      ARTICLES IN THIS ISSUE
      ==================================
      1. SCR Feature - How we understand ourselves, Freedlander
      2. Gallery of Optical Illusions and related phenomena
      3. Tutorial - How to study the mind: An introduction to embodied cognition
      4. The Causal Role of Consciousness
      5. The roots of self-awareness
      6. Emotions: From brain to robot
      7. Temporal lobe activations of ~Sfeeling-of-knowing~T
      8. Self-with-other representations and the organization of the self
      9. Attention and awareness in synchrony
      10. Traveling waves of activity in PVC during binocular rivalry
      11. Core mechanisms in "theory of mind"
      12. Cortical mechanisms of visual self-recognition
      13. Journal - Cognition and Emotion, Vol 19 No 1
      14. Journal - Memory, Vol 13 No 1
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      _________________________________________________________________________

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      1. How We Understand Ourselves
      J. Freelander
      Original to SCR
      ************************
      Self-awareness is the ability to focus one's attention on oneself,
      rather that the world around us. It is thought that this skill is
      fundamental to the development of social intelligence. Social
      intelligence is a broad category, but it is basically the capacity to
      understand what's happening in the world around us, and to relate to it
      in a personally and socially effective way. The emergence of
      consciousness as we know it is thought to be directly related to the
      development of social intelligence and self-awareness

      Read More: http://www.sci-con.org/articles/20050101.html
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      2. Gallery of Optical Illusions and related phenomena
      ************************
      These pages demonstrate visual phenomena, called »optical illusions« or
      »visual illusions«, the latter more appropriate, because most effects
      have their basis in the visual pathway, not in the optics of the eye.
      Anyway, I selected here on relative novelty and interactivity. Whenever
      I find the time, I will expand the explanations, to the degree that
      these phenomena are really understood. Any nice and thoughtful comment
      welcome.

      Read More: http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/index.html
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      ************************
      3. Tutorial - How to study the mind: An introduction to embodied cognition
      Michael L. Anderson
      University of Maryland, College Park, MD
      ************************
      Embodied Cognition (EC) is a comprehensive approach to, and framework
      for, the study of the mind. EC treats cognition as a coordinated set of
      tools evolved by organisms for coping with their environments. Each of
      the key terms in this characterization~Wtool, evolved, organism, coping,
      and environment~Whas a special significance for understanding the mind
      that is discussed in this article.

      Read More: http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00003945/
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      ************************
      4. The Causal Role of Consciousness
      Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.
      ************************
      A Conceptual Addendum to Human Evolutionary Psychology

      By concentrating on the unconscious processes driving evolutionary
      mechanisms, evolutionary psychology has neglected the role of
      consciousness in generating human adaptations. The authors argue that
      there exist several "Darwinian algorithms" that are grounded in a novel
      representational system. Among such adaptations are
      information-retention homicide, the killing of others who are believed
      to possess information about the self that has the potential to
      jeopardize inclusive fitness, and those generating suicide, which may
      necessitate the capacity for self-referential emotions such as shame.
      The authors offer these examples to support their argument that human
      psychology is characterized by a representational system in which
      conscious motives have inserted themselves at the level of the gene and
      have fundamentally changed the nature of hominid evolution.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/5ofxl [PsycARTICLES DIRECT]
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      5. The roots of self-awareness
      Anderson, Dr. Michael L; Perlis, Donald R.
      ************************
      In this paper we provide an account of the structural underpinnings of
      self-awareness. We offer both an abstract, logical account-by way of
      suggestions for how to build a genuinely self-referring artificial
      agent-and a biological account, via a discussion of the role of
      somatoception in supporting and structuring self-awareness more
      generally. Central to the account is a discussion of the necessary
      motivational properties of self-representing mental tokens, in light of
      which we offer a novel definition of self-representation. We also
      discuss the role of such tokens in organizing self-specifying
      information, which leads to a naturalized restatement of the guarantee
      that introspective awareness is immune to error due to
      mis-identification of the subject.

      Read More: http://cogprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/archive/00003948/
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      ************************
      6. Emotions: From brain to robot
      Michael A. Arbib; University of Southern California
      Jean-Marc Fellous; Duke University
      ************************
      Some robots have been given emotional expressions in an attempt to
      improve human~Vcomputer interaction. In this article we analyze what it
      would mean for a robot to have emotion, distinguishing emotional
      expression for communication from emotion as a mechanism for the
      organization of behavior. Research on the neurobiology of emotion yields
      a deepening understanding of interacting brain structures and neural
      mechanisms rooted in neuromodulation that underlie emotions in humans
      and other animals. However, the chemical basis of animal function
      differs greatly from the mechanics and computations of current machines.
      We therefore abstract from biology a functional characterization of
      emotion that does not depend on physical substrate or evolutionary
      history, and is broad enough to encompass the possible emotions of robots.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/5rffr [ScienceDirect]
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      ***********************
      7. Temporal lobe activations of ~Sfeeling-of-knowing~T
      Hideyuki Kikyo; Yasushi Miyashita
      University of Tokyo School of Medicine
      ************************
      ~SFeeling-of-Knowing~T (FOK) refers to the sense of what one knows and is
      a component of the human metamemory system. We investigated the neural
      correlates of the FOK induced by face~Vname associations using the
      Recall~VJudgment~VRecognition paradigm. Data were gathered using
      event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We analyzed
      the fMRI data with parametric analyses of six FOK ratings while
      compensating for the effects of unbalanced response latencies among
      trials (~Svariable duration parametric analysis~T). Regions showing a
      significant linear relationships with the FOK ratings (FOK regions) were
      the bilateral ventral, dorsal, and anterior prefrontal regions; the
      medial frontal regions; the medial surface regions; the left parietal
      regions; the bilateral superior temporal and nearby regions; the right
      anterior temporal region; and the bilateral thalami/basal ganglia. Most
      of the active areas in the prefrontal regions were common to those found
      in our previous FOK studies of general knowledge (Kikyo, H., Ohki, K.,
      Miyashita, Y., 2002. Neural correlates for feeling-of-knowing: an fMRI
      parametric analysis. Neuron 36, 177~V186). However, in this study, we
      found robust activations of the temporal regions near to the regions
      that were related to the higher-order information processing of face
      images or semantic information processing of the to-be-recalled person.
      Those results suggest that the information related to the higher-order
      visual features of a face, which was represented in the temporal cortex,
      was activated by the top-down signal from the prefrontal cortex, and
      that this cooperation between the temporal and prefrontal cortices may
      contribute to the FOK.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/4ee3r [ScienceDirect]
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      8. Self-with-other representations and the organization of the self
      Gisela Labouvie-Vief
      Wayne State University
      ************************
      Theories of the development of self and personality processes have
      tended to focus either on structural or on dynamic processes. In this
      essay I outline a theory, Dynamic Integration Theory, which proposes
      that these two aspects can be integrated by expanding on Piaget~Rs
      concept of representation as a relationship between self and object to
      one between a self and an other. Thus as in development, representations
      increase in cognitive complexity, the affective dynamics of self in
      relation to the social world are dynamically reorganized as new
      cognitive and affective systems differentiate and eventually evolve
      higher-order integrations. However, since the capacity for integration
      depends on a context of well-regulated emotional activation, Dynamic
      Integration Theory also defines typical deviations from the ideal of
      integration in the form of over- or under-differentiation. The resulting
      variations in integration have significance for describing optimal
      developmental pathways as well as deviations from those pathways. These
      aspects are exemplified by analyses from an ongoing project on
      cognitive-affective development from adolescence to late life.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/654c6 [ScienceDirect]
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      ************************
      9. Attention and awareness in synchrony
      C. Tallon-Baudry
      CNRS~VLENA, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpétrière, Paris
      ************************
      Interactions between functional areas are often considered to account
      for subtle aspects of cognitive functions, although direct experimental
      evidence is scarce. A recent study by Gross et al. relates the strength
      of synchrony between human parietal, frontal and occipital regions to
      the availability of attentional resources. These results support the
      current view that attention and awareness emerge from dynamic
      interactions in distributed networks.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/3k27p [ScienceDirect]
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      ************************
      10. Traveling waves of activity in PVC during binocular rivalry
      Sang-Hun Lee; Randolph Blake; David J Heeger
      New York University; Vanderbilt University
      ************************
      When the two eyes view large, dissimilar patterns that induce binocular
      rivalry, alternating waves of visibility are experienced as one pattern
      sweeps the other out of conscious awareness. Here we combine
      psychophysics with functional magnetic resonance imaging to show tight
      linkage between dynamics of perceptual waves during rivalry and neural
      events in human primary visual cortex (V1).

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/64yex [Nature.com]
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      ************************
      11. Core mechanisms in "theory of mind"
      Alan M. Leslie; Ori Friedman; Tim P. Germanc
      Rutgers University; UCSB
      ************************
      Our ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of other people does
      not initially develop as a theory but as a mechanism. The ~Qtheory of
      mind~R mechanism (ToMM) is part of the core architecture of the human
      brain, and is specialized for learning about mental states. Impaired
      development of this mechanism can have drastic effects on social
      learning, seen most strikingly in the autistic spectrum disorders. ToMM
      kick-starts belief~Vdesire attribution but effective reasoning about
      belief contents depends on a process of selection by inhibition. This
      selection process (SP) develops slowly through the preschool period and
      well beyond. By modeling the ToMM-SP as mechanisms of selective
      attention, we have uncovered new empirical phenomena. We propose that
      early ~Qtheory of mind~R is a modular~Vheuristic process of domain-specific
      learning.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/72yfw [ScienceDirect]
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      ************************
      12. Cortical mechanisms of visual self-recognition
      Motoaki Sugiuraa et al.
      Tohoku University
      ************************
      Several lines of evidence have suggested that visual self-recognition is
      supported by a special brain mechanism; however, its functional anatomy
      is of great controversy. We performed an event-related functional
      magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify brain regions
      selectively involved in recognition of one's own face. We presented
      pictures of each subject's own face (SELF) and a prelearned face of an
      unfamiliar person (CONT), as well as two personally familiar faces with
      high and low familiarity (HIGH and LOW, respectively) to test
      selectivity of activation to the SELF face. Compared with the CONT face,
      activation selective to the SELF face was observed in the right
      occipito-temporo-parietal junction and frontal operculum, as well as in
      the left fusiform gyrus. On the contrary, the temporoparietal junction
      in both the hemispheres and the left anterior temporal cortex, which
      were activated during recognition of HIGH and/or LOW faces, were not
      activated during recognition of the SELF face. The results confirmed the
      partial distinction of the brain mechanism involved in recognition of
      personally familiar faces and that in recognition of one's own face. The
      right occipito-temporo-parietal junction and frontal operculum appear to
      compose a network processing motion~Vaction contingency, a role of which
      in visual self-recognition has been suggested in previous behavioral
      studies. Activation of the left fusiform gyrus selective to one's own
      face was consistent with the results of two previous functional imaging
      studies and a neuropsychological report, possibly suggesting its
      relationship with lexical processing.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/4m5t2 [ScienceDirect]
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      ************************
      13. Journal - Cognition and Emotion
      Volume 19, Number 1
      January 2005
      ************************
      Articles in this issue:

      * Variations on a human universal: Individual differences in positivity
      offset and negativity bias
      Tiffany A. Ito, John T. Cacioppo

      * An experience sampling and cross-cultural investigation of the
      relation between pleasant and unpleasant affect
      Christie Napa Scollon, Ed Diener, Shigehiro Oishi, Robert Biswas-Diener

      * Nine- and twelve-month-old infants relate emotions to people's actions
      Joanne Barna, Maria Legerstee

      * Explorations in employee envy: Feeling envious and feeling envied
      Robert P. Vecchio

      * When the bogus pipeline interferes with self-deceptive strategies:
      Effects on state anxiety in repressors
      Nazanin Derakshan, Michael W. Eysenck

      * The scent of literature
      Gerald C. Cupchik, Krista Phillips

      * Sensitivity to the cognitive and affective qualities of odours
      Gerald C. Cupchik, Krista Phillips, Henhuy Truong

      * Can men do better if they try harder: Sex and motivational effects on
      emotional awareness
      Joseph Ciarrochi, Keiren Hynes, Nadia Crittenden

      * The influence of affective state on the performance of a block design
      task in 6- and 7-year-old children
      Nancy Rader, Erin Hughes

      * Left hemispheric preference and alexithymia: A neuropsychological
      investigation
      B. Bermond, J. W. Bleys, E. J. Stoffels

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/6b3kh [MetaPress.com]
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      ************************
      14. Journal - Memory
      Volume 13, Number 1
      January 2005
      ************************
      Articles in this issue:

      * False memory across languages: Implicit associative response vs fuzzy
      trace views
      Roberto Cabeza, Roger E. Lennartson

      * Remembering a nuclear accident in Japan: Did it trigger flashbulb
      memories?
      Hajime Otani, Takashi Kusumi, Koichi Kato, Ken Matsuda, Rosalie P. Kern,
      Robert Widner Jr, Nobuo Ohta

      * Own-age biases in verbal person memory
      Torun Lindholm

      * When nothing is "off the record": Exploring the theoretical
      implications of the continuous recording of cognitive process in memory
      Mark Lansdale

      * The earliest memory in individuals raised in either traditional and
      reformed kibbutz or outside the kibbutz
      Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, William Hirst

      * Towards a bio-psycho-social model of autobiographical memory
      Harald Welze, Hans J. Markowitsch

      * The effects of cue modality on the quality of personal memories retrieved
      Lorna Goddard, Linda Pring, Nick Felmingham

      * The effects of conformity on recognition judgements
      Matthew B. Reysen

      * Memory for temporal context: Effects of ageing, encoding instructions,
      and retrieval strategies
      Christine Bastin, Martial Van der Linden

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/3zfj2 [MetaPress.com]
      _________________________________________________________________________
      _________________________________________________________________________
      Science and Consciousness Review <http://www.sci-con.org>

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