Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

SCR: Brain-Wise - interview with Churchland, Ramsøy

Expand Messages
  • Thomas Zoëga Ramsøy
    ================================== SCIENCE & CONSCIOUSNESS REVIEW SCI-CON.ORG NEWSLETTER ==================================March 12, 2004ARTICLES IN THIS
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 14, 2004

      March 12, 2004

      1. SCR Original - Brain-Wise: An interview with Patricia Smith Churchland
      2. Featured Research - Mapping the time course of nonconscious and
      perception of fear
      3. Featured Research - Covert and overt voluntary attention: linked or
      4. Featured Research - Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions
      5. Featured Research - Attention alters appearance
      6. 'Mindsight' could explain sixth sense
      7. Book Review - Review of Christof Koch's 'The Quest for Consciousness'
      8. Journal - New Issue of Consciousness and Cognition

      1. Brain-Wise: An interview with Patricia Smith Churchland
      by Thomas Z. Ramsøy
      SCR managing editor Thomas Ramsøy interviews Patricia Churchland,
      author of
      Neurophilosophy and Brain-Wise: Studies in Neurophilosophy.

      Read More: http://www.sci-con.org/articles/20040301.html


      2. Mapping the time course of nonconscious and conscious perception of
      An integration of central and peripheral measures
      Leanne M. Williams, Belinda Liddell, Jennifer Rathjen
      University of Sydney
      Neuroimaging studies using backward masking suggest that conscious and
      nonconscious responses to complex signals of fear (facial expressions)
      via parallel cortical and subcortical circuits. Little is known, however,
      about the temporal differentiation of these responses. It was found that
      fear stimuli evoked faster skin conductance responses rise times than did
      neutral stimuli across all conditions, indicating that emotional content
      influenced responses, regardless of awareness.

      Read More:


      3. Covert and overt voluntary attention: linked or independent?
      Amelia R. Hunt, Alan Kingstone
      University of British Columbia
      Recent evidence indicates that reflexive shifts in spatial attention with
      eye movements (overt orienting) and without eye movements (covert
      can be dissociated [J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform., in press].
      Here, we show that a similar dissociation exists for voluntary shifts in
      overt and covert attention. Our study is consistent with general
      theories of
      attention that assume bottom-up (reflexive) processes and top-down
      (voluntary) processes converge on a common neural architecture.

      Read More:


      4. Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions
      Philip L. Smith, Roger Ratcliff
      University of Melbourne, Ohio State University
      Patterns of neural firing linked to eye movement decisions show that
      behavioral decisions are predicted by the differential firing rates of
      coding selected and nonselected stimulus alternatives. These results
      can be
      interpreted using models developed in mathematical psychology to model
      behavioral decisions. Current models assume that decisions are made by
      accumulating noisy stimulus information until sufficient information for a
      response is obtained. Here, the models, and the techniques used to
      test them
      against response-time distribution and accuracy data, are described. Such
      models provide a quantitative link between the time-course of behavioral
      decisions and the growth of stimulus information in neural firing data.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/2ofyo [via ScienceDirect.com]


      5. Attention alters appearance
      Marisa Carrasco, Sam Ling, Sarah Read
      New York University
      Does attention alter appearance? This critical issue, debated for over a
      century, remains unsettled. From psychophysical evidence that covert
      attention affects early vision-it enhances contrast sensitivity and
      resolution-and from neurophysiological evidence that attention
      increases the
      neuronal contrast sensitivity (contrast gain), one could infer that
      attention changes stimulus appearance. Surprisingly, few studies have
      directly investigated this issue. Here we developed a psychophysical
      to directly assess the phenomenological correlates of attention in humans.
      We show that attention alters appearance; it boosts the apparent stimulus
      contrast. These behavioral results are consistent with neurophysiological
      findings suggesting that attention changes the strength of a stimulus by
      increasing its 'effective contrast' or salience.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/2r6al [via nature.com]


      6. 'Mindsight' could explain sixth sense
      Some people may be aware that a scene they are looking at has
      changed without being able to identify what that change is. This could
      be a
      newly discovered mode of conscious visual perception, according to the
      psychologist who discovered it. He has dubbed the phenomenon "mindsight".

      Ronald Rensink, based at the University of British Columbia in
      Canada, showed 40 people a series of photographic images flickering on a
      computer screen. Each image was shown for around a quarter of a second and
      followed by a brief blank grey screen. Sometimes the image would
      remain the
      same throughout the trial; in other trials, after a time the initial image
      would be alternated with a subtly different one.

      In trials where the researchers manipulated the image, around a third of
      the people tested reported feeling that the image had changed before
      they could identify what the change was. In control trials, the same
      were confident that no change had occurred. The response to a change in
      image and control trials was reliably different.

      Read More: http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994638


      7. Science gets serious about consciousness
      Review of Christof Koch's 'The Quest for Consciousness'
      By Bernard J. Baars
      Like the weather, everybody talks about consciousness but nobody seems
      to do
      anything about it. We have seen a great upsurge in books on the topic,
      of them dubious, while some are actively misleading. Indeed, some of the
      most popular books seem designed to keep alive the endless arguments that
      have not changed basically for centuries. Those books seem designed to
      off the brilliance of their authors. But they do not improve our
      understanding. Human consciousness is too important to be left to the

      Christof Koch's new book is a refreshing exception. His "Quest for
      Consciousness" summarizes the brain basis of our own experience about as
      well as can be done today. The style is breezy and enjoyable. The
      facts are
      honest facts. Needless to say, it leaves many questions unanswered,
      but that
      reflects the state of our ignorance today. While scientific journals now
      cite consciousness in thousands of articles per year, what we know with
      certainty can still be said in a few hundred pages.

      In a way this is a diary of an intellectual journey. It reflects Koch's
      years of working with Francis H. C. Crick, who provides the Foreword. The
      opinions expressed here are shared by them, as Koch makes very clear.
      It is
      worth remembering that even a scientific celebrity like Crick had to
      take a
      dangerous professional gamble by tackling the brain basis of
      consciousness a
      decade ago.

      Bernard J. Baars is a Senior Fellow at The Neurosciences Institute and a
      content editor for Science & Consciousness Review.

      Full text


      8. New Consciousness and Cognition
      Volume 13, Issue 1
      Table of Contents for this issue:

      The sense of agency: A philosophical and empirical review of the "Who"
      by F. de Vignemont and P. Fourneret

      Context effects in recognition memory: The role of familiarity and
      by Wendy A. McKenzie and Guy Tiberghien

      Theory of Mind in schizophrenia: First person vs third person perspective
      by O. Gambini, V. Barbieri and S. Scarone

      Exploring "fringe" consciousness: The subjective experience of perceptual
      fluency and its objective bases
      by Rolf Reber, Pascal Wurtz and Thomas D. Zimmermann

      Visual consciousness: Dissociating the neural correlates of perceptual
      transitions from sustained perception with fMRI
      by Johan Eriksson, Anne Larsson , Katrine Riklund Åhlström and Lars Nyberg

      Subliminal perception and its cognates: Theory, indeterminacy, and time
      by Matthew Hugh Erdelyi

      Availability, accessibility, and subliminal perception
      by John F. Kihlstrom

      Inaptitude of the signal detection theory, useful vexation from the
      microgenetic view, and inevitability of neurobiological signatures in
      understanding perceptual (un)awareness
      by Talis Bachmann

      The dissociation paradigm and its discontents: How can unconscious
      perception or memory be inferred?
      by Michael Snodgrass

      Unconscious perception: Assumptions and interpretive difficulties
      by Eyal M. Reingold

      Wittgenstein running: Neural mechanisms of collective intentionality and
      by Cristina Becchio and Cesare Bertone

      Commentary on "Sleep and dream suppression following a lateral medullary
      infarct: A first person account"
      by Mark W. Mahowald

      Unconscious priming by color and form: Different processes and levels
      by Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Haluk Ogmen and Jian Chen

      Are nonconscious processes sufficient to produce false memories?
      by David A. Gallo and John G. Seamon

      Evaluating the evidence for nonconscious processes in producing false
      by Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers and René Zeelenberg

      The neurology of ambiguity
      by Semir Zeki

      Cross-modal self-recognition: The role of visual, auditory, and olfactory
      by Steven M. Platek , Jaime W. Thomson and Gordon G. Gallup, Jr.

      Read More: http://tinyurl.com/2xb8t [via ScienceDirect.com]

      Science and Consciousness Review <http://www.sci-con.org>
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.