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Arsenic articles - December 2007

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  • Laurel Schaider
    Please Note: The entire October 2007 edition of the Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 26, 2008
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      Please Note:

      The entire October 2007 edition of the Journal of
      Environmental Science and Health Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances &
      Environmental Engineering (Volume 42, Issue 12) is devoted to articles on groundwater arsenic contamination in Southeast Asia.

      The link for this volume is:

      http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=g783095908~db=all

      Some of the articles in this edition are included below.

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      List of Topics:

      1. Health Effects and Exposure
      2. Distribution/ Extent of Affected Areas
      3. Geochemistry
      4. Water Treatment and Alternative Supplies
      5. Social Aspects

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      1. HEALTH EFFECTS AND EXPOSURE

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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567205

      Critical pathway analysis to determine key uncertainties in
      net impacts on disease burden in Bangladesh of arsenic mitigation involving the substitution of arsenic bearing for groundwater drinking water supplies, 2007, GCD Adamson, DA Polya, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1909-1917.

      Abstract:

      It has been increasingly recognised that calculation of the
      disease burden due to populations, such as in Bangladesh, extensively using hazardous arsenic bearing well waters, must explicitly account for the trade-off between diarrhoeal disease incidence and that of arsenic-related diseases. This is because it is likely that moves to alternative drinking water sources, be they surface waters or even more distant groundwaters, without further mitigation would result in a concurrent increase in diarrhoeal disease. In this paper, we update the model of Lokuge of the effects of such arsenic mitigation on disease burden in Bangladesh, using updated population data and
      background disease estimates. We run a critical pathway analysis on the model using Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) for diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease from different epidemiological studies recently reviewed by Navas-Acien. Our analysis agrees with that of Lokuge that mitigation simply involving the substitution of a range of surface waters for well water sources with As > 50 mu g/L would have a net positive impact on disease burden, as determined by deaths and Disability Life Adjusted Years (DALYs). In contrast,
      however, there is considerable ambiguity in the analogous results for
      mitigation for all the population exposed to well water with As > 10 mu g/L. Depending upon the data source chosen for diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease SMRs, such mitigation is modelled to have either a positive or a negative net impact on overall disease burden. The modelled negative impacts are entirely commensurate with the rationale for seeking groundwater as an alternative to surface waters as a drinking water supply, and highlight the practical requirement for multiple mitigation strategies, including those directed at ensuring the microbiological safety and continued protection of any
      alternative water supplies. Our study highlights the need for (i) adequate epidemiological studies involving multiple exposure categories, ideally resulting in an accurate dose-response relationship for arsenic uptake and the non-malignant high incidence conditions diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease for individuals with the socioeconomic and nutritional status of the
      Bangladeshi populations, and (ii) refined estimates of the diarrhoel disease burden arising from usage of surface waters.

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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701564251

      Arsenic contamination of Ronphibun residents associated with
      uses of arsenic-contaminated shallow-well water other than drinking, 2007, S Oshikawa, A Geater, V Chongsuvivatwong, D Chakraborti, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1753-1761.

      Abstract:
      High levels of urinary arsenic have been reported among
      residents of an area of southern Thailand where many households have shallow
      wells heavily contaminated with arsenic. However, the finding that very few of
      the residents in this area have used contaminated shallow-well water for
      drinking or cooking in the last 10 years prompted this investigation. The aim
      was to identify the uses of shallow-well water by adult residents that were
      related to a positive association between shallow-well water and urinary
      arsenic levels. Information on shallow-well water use for all personal and
      domestic purposes was obtained and arsenic levels of household shallow-well
      water and urine (after refraining from seafood for 2 days) were measured.
      Urinary and shallow-well water arsenic levels were strongly positively
      associated among residents who regularly used shallow-well water for bathing
      (including washing face, hair, hands and feet) but not among residents
      regularly using arsenic-safe water for bathing or regularly using shallow-well
      water for other purposes, such as brushing teeth, domestic cleaning or washing
      food and utensils. The findings suggest that appreciable transdermal absorption
      of arsenic is possible and that successful abatement of human contamination
      with arsenic may require the provision of arsenic-safe water, not only for
      consumption but also for personal hygiene purposes.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701566819


      Association between total ingested arsenic and toenail
      arsenic concentrations, 2007, M Kile, EA Houseman, CV Breton, Q Quamruzzaman, M
      Rahman, G Mahiuddin, DC Christiani, J Environ Sci Health, Part A,
      42(12),1827-1834.




      Abstract:


      The association between arsenic exposure from drinking water
      and toenail arsenic concentrations appears to be non-linear at low exposure
      levels. To investigate whether this observation is a result exposure
      misclassification, a dietary exposure assessment was conducted in a cohort of
      47 women concurrently enrolled in a prospective longitudinal biomonitoring
      study in Pabna, Bangladesh. Arsenic intake was evaluated using a duplicate diet
      study design which collected food and water samples for a total of 6 days.
      Total inorganic arsenic was measured in 24-hour composite food samples (N =
      282) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with a dynamic
      reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS). Average annual tubewell arsenic concentrations and
      toenail arsenic concentrations were computed for each participant using
      biomonitoring data from the prospective study. Separate multivariate regression
      models evaluated the association between drinking water, total dietary intake,
      and total dietary dose with toenail arsenic, a biomarker of internal dose. In
      these models, dietary intakes were adjusted using the residual method to
      provide estimate that was independent of water arsenic concentrations. Median
      daily arsenic intake from food and drinking water was 48.3 b.mu g/day and 4.2
      b.mu g/day. Taking into consideration participant's body weight, the median
      daily arsenic dose was 1.0 b.mu g/kg-day from food and 0.1 b.mu g/kg-day from
      drinking water although drinking water exposure was highly skewed and was the
      dominant exposure route for the upper 25th percentile of the distribution. The
      regression model that used total daily arsenic intake from food (b.beta = 0.46;
      95%CI: 0.18-0.73) and drinking water (95%CI: 0.26-0.38) explained the most variability
      in toenail arsenic concentrations (R2a = 0.71). The effect estimates for food
      and drinking water are similar suggesting that both sources have a similar
      contribution to internal dose.




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      2. DISTRIBUTION/ EXTENT OF AFFECTED AREAS


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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567155


      Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: National screening data
      and case studies in three upazilas, 2007, RB Johnston, MH Sarker, J Environ Sci
      Health, Part A, 42(12), 1889-1896.




      Abstract:


      Since 2000, nearly 5 million wells in Bangladesh have been
      tested for arsenic. Results of this survey are presented, and it is estimated
      that approximately 20% of tube wells nationwide contain arsenic above the
      drinking water limit of 50 parts per billion, with approximately 20 million
      people at risk of consuming water above this limit. Three case studies in
      arsenic mitigation are presented, which indicate that substantial progress has
      been made in raising awareness about arsenic. Substantial differences were
      found in tubewell surveys made in 2001 and 2005, with 17% of tubewells painted
      green in 2001 showing arsenic above 50 ppb in 2005, and 12% of tubewells
      painted red in 2001 showing 50 ppb arsenic or less in 2005. In 38% of
      households having red tubewells, household water was found to contain 50 ppb
      arsenic or less, indicating substantial behaviour change. In two upazilas where
      safe alternatives (primarily safe shallow tubewells and newly installed deep
      tubewells) are available, 52% and 75% of people at risk were found to have
      arsenic-safe water in the household, indicating that they have changed their
      drinking water sources. In a third upazila where safe alternatives are scarce,
      less than 10% of people at risk were found to have safe water in the home. The
      greatest challenges remain in areas where contamination is high but
      installation of new safe water points is constrained for technical reasons
      (e.g. unsuitability of the deep aquifer).




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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701564194


      Current knowledge on the distribution of arsenic in
      groundwater in five states of India, 2007, R Nickson, C Sengupta, P Mitra, SN
      Dave, AK Banerjee, A Bhattacharya, S Basu, N Kakoti, NS Moorthy, M Wasuja, M
      Kumar, DS Mishra, A Ghosh, DP Vaish, AK Srivastava, RM Tripathi, SN Singh, R
      Prasad, S Bhattacharya, P Deverill, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12),
      1707-1718.




      Abstract:


      Testing of groundwater used for drinking for arsenic has
      been undertaken more widely by state governments in several states of India in
      recent years with the support of UNICEF. Available data for five states are
      collated in this paper and this provides the most up-to-date picture of areas
      known to be affected by arsenic in groundwater in the Indian portion of the
      Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. In West Bengal, water from 132,262 government
      installed handpumps in 8 districts has been tested and overall 25.5% of samples
      were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 b.mu gL-1 and
      57.9% at concentrations greater than 10 b.mu gL-1. On the banks of the
      Brahmaputra in Assam, to date, samples from 5,729 government handpump sources
      in 22 districts have been tested for arsenic. Overall, samples from 6.3% of
      sources were found to contain arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 b.mu
      gL-1 and 26.1% at concentrations greater than 10 b.mu gL-1. In Bihar, on the
      River Ganges upstream of West Bengal, 66,623 sources from 11 districts have
      been tested and water samples from 10.8% of sources were found to contain
      arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 b.mu gL-1 and 28.9% at concentrations
      greater than 10 b.mu gL-1. Upstream of Bihar in Uttar Pradesh, home of the Taj
      Mahal, to date water samples from 20,126 government-installed handpump sources
      have been tested. As a result 2.4% of the samples tested were found to contain
      arsenic at concentrations greater than 50 b.mu gL-1 and 21.5% at concentrations
      greater than 10 b.mu gL-1. Finally in one district of Jharkhand, lying on the
      Ganges alluvial plain between Bihar and West Bengal, 9,007 sources have been
      tested and water samples from 3.7% of sources were found to contain arsenic at
      concentrations greater than 50 b.mu gL-1 and 7.5% at concentrations greater
      than 10 b.mu gL-1. State governments have adopted different sampling strategies
      and these are described in this paper. Testing is ongoing in several states and
      the complete picture is yet to emerge in some areas.





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      3. GEOCHEMISTRY


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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701566678


      Fate of arsenite and arsenate in flooded and not flooded soils
      of southwest Bangladesh irrigated with arsenic contaminated water, 2007, M
      Martin, A Violante, E Barberis, 2007, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12),
      1775-1783.




      Abstract:


      In Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, tons of arsenic are
      added every year to wide extensions of agricultural soils after irrigation with
      arsenic polluted groundwater, and the fate of the added arsenic in these
      water-soil environments is not yet clear. This work was aimed to investigate
      the accumulation and potential release of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate
      [As(V)] in two adjacent soils of Bangladesh, irrigated with arsenic
      contaminated groundwater and cultivated under flooded or not flooded
      conditions. Both soils showed a scarce As accumulation, in spite of a good
      adsorption capacity, higher for As(III) than for As(V). The poorly ordered Fe
      oxides dominated As adsorption in the topsoil of the flooded soil, whereas the
      crystalline forms were more important in the well aerated soil. A high
      percentage of the native arsenic was exchangeable with phosphate and the
      freshly added arsenate or arsenite were even much more mobile. In our
      experimental conditions, the high As mobility was not dependent on the surface
      coverage, and, in the flooded soil, 60-70% of the freshly added arsenite or arsenate
      were desorbed with an infinite sink method, while in the not flooded soil
      arsenate was less desorbed than arsenite. Depending on their characteristics,
      some soils, in particular when cultivated under flooded conditions, can
      represent only a temporary sink for the added As, that can be easily released
      to waters and possibly enter the food chain from the water-soil system.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701566744


      Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different
      geologic domains in India - a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial
      geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy, 2007, SK Acharyya, BA Shah, J
      Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1795-1805.




      Abstract:


      Arsenic contamination in groundwater is pervasive within
      lowland organic-rich Bengal Delta and narrow entrenched channels in the Middle
      Ganga floodplains. Local areas of Damodar fan-delta and isolated areas within
      the Dongargarh Proterozoic rift-zone in central India are also contaminated. In
      this rift-zone, arsenic is enriched in felsic magmatic rocks and weathered
      rocks and soils from local areas are enriched further in arsenic and iron. Late
      Quaternary stratigraphy, geomorphology and sedimentation have influenced
      groundwater arsenic contamination in alluvium that aggraded during the Holocene
      sea-level rise. No specific source of arsenic could be identified, although
      Himalaya is the main provenance for the Ganga floodplain and the Bengal Delta.
      Gondwana coal seams and other Peninsular Indian rocks might be sources for
      arsenic in the Damodar fan-delta. As-bearing pyrite or any As-mineral is nearly
      absent in the aquifer sediments. Arsenic mainly occurs adsorbed on
      hydrated-iron-oxide (HFO), which coat sediment grains and minerals. Arsenic and
      iron are released to groundwater by bio-mediated reductive dissolution of HFO
      with corresponding oxidation of organic matter.





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      4. WATER TREATMENT AND ALTERNATIVE SUPPLIES


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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567213


      Evaluation of deep groundwater development for arsenic
      mitigation in western Bangladesh, 2007, N Shibasaki, PF Lei, A Kamata, J Environ
      Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1919-1932.




      Abstract:


      Groundwater contamination by arsenic frequently occurs in
      western Bangladesh. Integrated hydrogeological studies were carried out by the
      Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in the Jessore, Jhenaidah and
      Chuadanga districts to assess the possibility of supplying safe drinking water
      from deep aquifers. The subsurface geology of up to 300 m in depth was
      classified into 5 formations (viz. A to E formations in descending order).
      Thick clay facies are found in C formation in the Jessore district, however,
      clay facies are absent in the Jhenaidah and Chuadanga districts. The clay layer
      separates deep aquifers from shallow aquifers, and controls vertical
      groundwater flow. The results of core sample analysis showed that high arsenic
      contents of more than 30 ppm were found not only from shallow clay but also
      even from deep clay below 200 m. However, the arsenic concentrations in
      groundwater were generally below 0.05 mg/L in the deep aquifers. The simulation
      study using a vertical 2-D groundwater model indicates that deep groundwater
      will not be contaminated by arsenic in shallow groundwater when the piezometric
      heads of the deep aquifers are higher than the shallow aquifers. However, the
      simulation results indicate that overexploitation of the deep aquifers will
      cause arsenic contamination in deep aquifers due to the downward movement of
      contaminated shallow groundwater when no sorption takes place in the sediments.
      These results suggest that groundwater management and control of groundwater
      pumpage in deep aquifers are crucial for sustainable supply of arsenic safe
      deep groundwater in western Bangladesh.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567148


      Design for sustainable development - Household drinking
      water filter for arsenic and pathogen treatment in Nepal, 2007, TKK Ngai, RR
      Shrestha, B Dangol, M Maharjan, SE Murcott, J Environ Sci Health, Part A,
      42(12), 1879-1888.




      Abstract:


      In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of shallow
      tubewells in Nepal Terai region enabled substantial improvement in access to
      water, but recent national water quality testing showed that 3% of these
      sources contain arsenic above the Nepali interim guideline of 50 b.mu g/L, and
      up to 60% contain unsafe microbial contamination. To combat this crisis, MIT,
      ENPHO and CAWST together researched, developed and implemented a household
      water treatment technology by applying an iterative, learning development
      framework. A pilot study comparing 3 technologies against technical, social,
      and economic criteria showed that the KanchanTM Arsenic Filter (KAF) is the
      most promising technology for Nepal. A two-year technical and social evaluation
      of over 1000 KAFs deployed in rural villages of Nepal determined that the KAF
      typically removes 85-90% arsenic, 90-95% iron, 80-95% turbidity, and 85-99%
      total coliforms. Then 83% of the households continued to use the filter after 1
      year, mainly motivated by the clean appearance, improved taste, and reduced
      odour of the filtered water, as compared to the original water source. Although
      over 5,000 filters have been implemented in Nepal by January 2007, further
      research rooted in sustainable development is necessary to understand the
      technology diffusion and scale-up process, in order to expand access to safe
      water in the country and beyond.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567197


      A Randomised intervention trial to assess two arsenic
      mitigation options in Bangladesh, 2007, AH Milton, W Smith, K Dear, J Ng, M
      Sim, G Ranmuthugala, K Lokuge, B Caldwell, A Rahman, H Rahman, A Shraim, D
      Huang, SM Shahidullah, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1897-1908.




      Abstract:


      Arsenic groundwater contamination in Bangladesh warrants
      immediate remediation. This randomised controlled intervention trial was
      conducted to determine the effectiveness of two possible interventions: dug
      wells and three-pitcher filters. A total of 640 individuals participated with
      218 randomised to the dug well group, 216 to the three-pitcher group and 206 to
      a control group. Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 6 and 12 months
      after the intervention. Self reported compliance with dug wells remained below
      20% during the entire 12 months of the study. The compliance with the
      three-pitcher filters decreased after 6 months and became similar to the
      compliance of the dug well group after 12 months. A substantial decrease in
      urinary arsenic metabolites occurred only among those who were compliant with
      dug wells and three-pitcher filter systems after 1 month of intervention as
      opposed to control participants. However, a persistent reduction in urinary
      arsenic concentrations was observed only among the dug well users after 12
      months of intervention. Our results show that a functional dug well could be
      offered as a long-term alternative to tube wells, but use of this option is
      likely to be low, unless appropriate behavioural change measures are taken. Our
      study also demonstrates that arsenic removal technologies such as three-pitcher
      filters are an effective option as a short-term measure. The three-pitcher
      filters that are not adequately maintained are not an effective option for a
      year. These arsenic removal technologies may be even harmful in the long term
      if the resultant water quality is not properly monitored.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567122


      A simple and effective arsenic filter based on composite
      iron matrix: Development and deployment studies for groundwater of Bangladesh,
      2007, A Hussam, AKM Munir, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1869-1878.




      Abstract:


      Drinking groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring
      arsenic is a worldwide public health issue. This work describes the research,
      development and distribution of a filter used by thousands of people in
      Bangladesh to obtain arsenic-free safe water. The filter removes arsenic
      species primarily by surface complexation reactions: = FeOH + H2AsO4- rarr =
      FeHAsO4- + H2O (K = 1024) and = FeOH + HAsO42- rarr = FeAsO42 - + H2O (K =
      1029) on a specially manufactured composite iron matrix (CIM). The filter water
      meets WHO and Bangladesh standards, has no breakthrough, works without any chemical
      treatment (pre- or post-), without regeneration, and without producing toxic
      wastes. It costs about $40/5 years and produce 20-30 L/hour for daily drinking
      and cooking need of 1-2 families. The spent material is completely non
      toxic-solid self contained iron-arsenate cement that does not leach in
      rainwater. Approved by the Bangladesh Government, about 30,000 SONO filters
      were deployed all over Bangladesh and continue to provide more than a billion
      liters of safe drinking water. This innovative filter was also recognized by
      the National Academy of Engineering - Grainger Challenge Prize for
      sustainability with the highest award for its affordability, reliability, ease
      of maintenance, social acceptability, and environmental friendliness, which met
      or exceeded the local government's guidelines for arsenic removal.





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      5. SOCIAL ASPECTS


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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567247




      Sociocultural aspects of arsenicosis in Bangladesh:
      Community perspective, 2007, SA Ahmad, MHS Sayed, MH Khan, MN Karim, MA Haque,
      MSA Bhuiyan, MS Rahman, MH Faruquee, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1945-1958.




      Abstract:


      This was a cross-sectional study under taken to explore the
      socioeconomic perspective of the arsenicosis problem, carried out in arsenic
      contaminated Upazillas where at least 100 arsenicosis patients had been
      identified. Two of the Upazillas with significant arsenic mitigation intervention
      and three of the Upazillas with limited interventions were selected for the
      study. Seven hundred fifty respondents were included in the study from 25
      villages of the 5 Upazillas. Arsenicosis became a serious problem for the
      affected communities. Majority (71.31%) of respondents obtained their drinking
      water from tubewells, almost one third (29%) of the respondents still knowingly
      using arsenic contaminated water. Primary reason identified for this practice
      was distance of safe water source. Majority (58.6%) of the respondents said to
      face economic and 17.9% said to face social problem of varied range. Patients
      of lower income group were particularly more likely to face economic problems (P
      < .001) as well as social problem (P < .01). About half (50.7%) of
      the arsenicosis patients faced difficulty whilst receiving treatment,
      particularly female patients were more likely to face problem than male (P
      < .05). Several concerns also were surfaced regarding the heath care service
      provider particularly to the women patients, some of which are: long waiting
      time for receiving treatment (15%), discrimination in service delivery (10.7%)
      and inadequate separate facility for female patients (14.3%). Moreover the
      issues of financial burden raised by the respondents seem to have emerged as
      significant in terms of health care access. Access to Health service was
      particularly difficult for poor patients, as they often had to face problems
      associated with accessing service like, non availability of medicines in the hospitals
      (50.7%), traveling long distance (26.7%), purchasing medicine in most cases
      (32.4%) etc. Their dissatisfaction was compounded by negligent behavior of
      health care staff and nature of treatment provided. Furthermore length of time
      needed for reversal of symptoms led to loosing faith on efficacy of treatment,
      which cascades to negligence of patient's part in seeking health care. Women
      are less likely to get treatment for arsenicosis than men (P < .01).
      As there appear to be specific difficulties for women particularly for poor
      women in accessing health care, social and cultural values make it difficult
      for them to attend to their own health needs and to travel to service
      providers. Study findings suggest that a significant proportion (79.9%) of
      arsenicosis patient was found to access alternative health care. This includes;
      Homeopath, village doctors, Kabiraj and local pharmacists. Respondents in high
      intervention Upazillas were significantly more likely to get treatment (P
      < .05), to face fewer problems and to be satisfied with the facility (P
      < .001). Provision of safe water options, periodic screening of water source
      for arsenic, availability of trained doctor, regular availability of medicine,
      doorstep treatment, follow up on severe patients were the suggestions came from
      community for improvement.





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      http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520701567221


      Use of GIS in local level participatory planning for arsenic
      mitigation: A case study from Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh, 2007, MD Jakariya and
      P Bhattacharya, J Environ Sci Health, Part A, 42(12), 1933-1944.




      Abstract:


      A Participatory Geographical Information System (PGIS) has
      been developed recently to design and adapt Geographic Information System (GIS)
      that draws on the diversity of experiences associated with "participatory
      development" and involves communities in the production of GIS data and
      spatial decision-making tools. Participatory approach in the development of GIS
      helps to develop local knowledge processes. This knowledge process creates a
      channel of coordination between local people and the experts. The paper deals
      with the possibility of using spatial maps in consultation with local
      communities to develop an effective and sustainable distribution planning to
      maximize as well as ensure safe water coverage for the arsenic (As) exposed
      population in Matlab Upazila in southeastern Bangladesh. Participatory Rural
      Appraisal (PRA) methods along with GIS were used to obtain relevant information
      from the field. Participants from different focus-groups were asked to
      determine their "own priorities" for spatial planning of alternative
      As-safe drinking water options. The study reveals that about 70% of the
      alternative safe water options were distributed after consultation with people.
      These distributed options were found to be superimposed within the existing
      safe water buffer zones which otherwise could have been avoided and thus
      increased the safe water coverage if the spatial maps were also consulted
      before selection of final installation sites. The study based on the community
      perspectives on demand-based safe water options thus reveals the suitability of
      using PGIS techniques for rational distribution of safe water options. The
      process of participatory mapping within focus-groups further makes a platform
      to enhance information about community needs of suitable safe water options in
      the study area.
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