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Onward to Global Nuclear Disarmament! Call from Hiroshima!

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  • Sukla Sen
    I/IIl. *Toward the 2010 NPT Review Conference * *Appeal for a Nuclear Weapon-Free World * ***Even now, in the 21st Century, world peace and security are still
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 9, 2008
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      I/IIl.
       
      Toward the 2010 NPT Review Conference

      Appeal for a Nuclear Weapon-Free World

      ***Even now, in the 21st Century, world peace and security are still threatened by 26,000 nuclear weapons.

      ***As the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki show us, nuclear weapons instantly destroy countless lives, torment people in future generations, and ruin civilizations.

      ***The Hibakusha, the A-bomb survivors, continue to warn that humanity cannot coexist with nuclear weapons. Never again should we create more victims of nuclear weapons.

      ***For the survival of the human race and for the future of our children, let us achieve a world free of nuclear weapons through our actions in solidarity.

      ***Towards the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference, the nuclear weapons states are called to honor the "unequivocal undertaking" of May 2000 to eliminate their nuclear weapons.

      ***We call on the nuclear weapons states and all other governments to agree to commence and conclude negotiations of a treaty, a nuclear weapons convention, to ban and eliminate nuclear weapons without delay.

      NAME________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _____

      ADDRESS_____ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _____

      This Appeal is issued on August 6, 2008, by the representatives of the peace movement assembled in Hiroshima from around the world. The signature drive is under way worldwide, and the petitions will be presented to the next NPT Review Conference to be held in Spring 2010 in New York.

      [Signed appeals can be sent to Gensuikyo, 2-4-4 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8464, Japan
      or to AFSC, Peace & Economic Security Program, 2161 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Ma. 02140
      or emailed to: <<intl@...>, >.]
       
      II.

      From: "Joseph Gerson" JGerson@...

       
      Friends,

      Greetings from Nagasaki.

      I had intened to send this out earlier, but technological problems intervened. Should Obama be elected, there is the problem of his "long road" and the difficulty of holding his administration to his abolition commitments, but it is worth noting that the draft Democratic Party platform calls for creation of a nuclear weapons free world.

      Also, a focal point of the World Conference against A- and H- Bomb has been the launching of the Appeal for a Nuclear Weapons Free World, a signature campaign focused on the 2010 NPT Review and designed to garner millions of signatures worldwide to increase pressure on the nuclear powers and other nations to negotiate a nuclear weapons abolition convention/treaty. I will send this out separately.

      With all best wishes,
      Joseph Gerson
      American Friends Service Committee


      Abolition or Extinction: Presidential Candidates, the U.S. People and the World at the Nuclear Crossroads

      Joseph Gerson*

      Hiroshima Day International Dialogue Colloquium

      Hiroshima, Japan -- August 6, 2008

      I want to thank Okamoto Mitsuo and the organizers of this international colloquium for the opportunity to join with you today.. The Japanese movement plays a central role in the struggle for nuclear weapons abolition. I have recently had the pleasure of learning about the International Campaign to Ban D.U. Weapons from Kazashi Nobou. And, I have long admired the work of Rebecca Johnson. So, even as we meet on the anniversary of perhaps the world's greatest military atrocities, it is none the less a pleasure to be with you.

      Sixty-three years ago my government destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing hundreds of thousands of people and poisoning many more, in just nine unimaginable seconds. My nation and at least eight others have refused to learn the deepest lesson of those atrocities: Refusing to learn the most essential lesson that human beings and nuclear weapons cannot coexist.

      Instead, preparations for nuclear annihilation are woven deeply into the fabrics of our societies. and our compatriots live lives midst institutionalized madness. As the current issue of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists reminds us, just as during the Cold War, "The primary duty of the ICBM crew members" remains "to be prepared to launch their missiles toward enemy targets when directed by the president of the United States." Who are the "enemies"? For the U.S., our Nuclear Posture Review tells us they are the billion and a half people living in China, Russia, Iran, North Korea, and Syria. The British, Russian, and Chinese governments similarly target much of the rest of humanity. Here in Japan, not only are you threatened by possibility of an accident aboard the nuclear powered aircraft carrier George Washington which is now recklessly based at the mouth of Tokyo Bay, but for decades your military leaders have insisted that the Peace Constitution permits Japan to possess tactical nuclear weapons - Hiroshima size weapons - and that this is a right the Defense Ministry has simply decided not yet to exercise[1] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn1> .

      These are not abstract dangers. At any given moment, the U.S. has several thousand thermonuclear weapons on ready alert, set to be launched in minutes, with thousands more deployed and stockpiled. There is the long and shocking history of nuclear weapons accidents and miscalculations. And, despite the fact that on at least forty occasions, during crises and wars, the U.S. has threatened and/or prepared to initiate nuclear first attacks, Secretary of Defense (War) Gates can still get away with saying "The Air Force and Navy...[are] 'America's main strategic deterrent' against potential adversaries such as Iran, North Korea and China "- as if these countries posed first strike threats against the United States!.[2] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn2>

      Would that U.S. nuclear weapons were the only source of nuclear danger. In addition to the six other declared nuclear powers, Israel and North Korea - most of whom during wars and crises have threatened to initiate nuclear attacks at least once - there is the danger of still more proliferation. The 2010 NPT Review Conference may be humanity's last opportunity to construct a meaningful barrier against such proliferation and the catastrophic wars that will inevitably follow. The outcome of the Review Conference will, in significant measure, be determined by the outcome of the U.S. presidential election.

      Thankfully, we are approaching the end of the ignominious Bush war presidency and its commitment to imposing what Vice President Cheney termed "the arrangement for the 21st century." You know about failed governments. This has been a failed presidency with disastrous consequences for the U.S. people as well as for the rest of the world. Its "romance of ruthlessness, " its disregard for diplomacy, its failed wars and its failed occupations just begin the list. By derailing the near complete U.S.-North Korean agreement in 2001, it gave Pyongyang six years to build more nuclear weapons. Similarly, by refusing until recently to negotiate with Iran, refusing to this day to offer it a non-aggression pledge, and with its repeated military and nuclear threats, Bush and Cheney have brought us to the brink of a catastrophic, and potentially nuclear, war which some in Washington, D.C. believe is inevitable.[ 3] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn3>

      Here in East Asia, by deploying mis-named "missile defenses" to reinforce U.S. first strike nuclear policies, Bush and Company have given China reason to expand its deterrent nuclear arsenal. Meanwhile, in Europe, with NATO's expansion to Russia's borders and plans to deploy "missile defenses" in the Czech Republic, Poland and possibly Lithuania, Washington is provoking a new Cold War with Russia.

      I'll spare you a report about the mismanagement of the U.S. economy. As you know, Bush's tax policies that serve the super-rich and the reckless deregulation that culminated in the sub-prime mortgage crisis severely weakened the U.S. economy. Millions of people have lost their homes and are losing their jobs. With our near ten trillion dollar national debt, even if Barack Obama is elected president, the world's "sole surviving superpower" is poorly situated to address its people's very real needs.

      If the U.S. election were held today, polls indicate that Obama would win. He has many things going for him including a compelling personal story and extraordinary oratorical skills. Most U.S. people believe that the Republicans have led the country in the wrong direction. A majority opposes the war in Iraq, and the economic crisis has been compounded by the rising costs of food, fuel and other necessities.

      It is, however, too early to rule McCain out. With Obama's recent support for warrantless wiretapping, for the death penalty, and for the right of most U.S. Americans to possess guns, he has alienated important sectors of his more humanist base. The war in Iraq no longer dominates the daily headlines. Obama is still in many ways an unseasoned politician, and - most disturbing - the specter of enduring white racism could be the greatest obstacle that he and we face.[4] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn4> . And, to top it off, as one of McCain's senior advisors put it, a second major terrorist attack on the U.S. prior to November 4 would tilt the election toward McCain. Even with the nation exhausted by Bush and his wars, we may be one terrorist attack away from becoming a police state.

      There is a widespread belief in the U.S. elite, best articulated by former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski and echoed by both Barack Obama and John McCain, that the U.S. has a "second" and last chance to restore itself as the world's respected dominant power. Even as McCain seeks support from the Republican Party's extreme right-wing base, both he and Obama are turning away from the unilateralist excesses of the Bush era and toward the more multilaterist structures and dynamics of Empire utilized throughout the Cold War and in the first decade of the Post Cold War era. As Obama puts it, "Instead of pushing the entire burden of our foreign policy on to....our military, I want to use all elements of American power...Instead of alienating ourselves from the world, I want America - once again - to lead."[5] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn5>

      An Obama victory would be symbolically important - especially in terms of race relations. It would also have significant impacts on domestic issues, reversing the right-wing tide on the Supreme Court that is subverting the democratic essence of our government. However in terms of foreign and military policies, his "senior advisors" are all veterans of Bill Clinton's administration, and this tells us what we should expect.[6] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn6>

      Obama has outlined five "essential goals": Ending the war in Iraq, "finishing the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban"; securing all nuclear weapons and materials from terrorists and rogue states; achieving true energy security; and rebuilding our alliances... .."[7] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn7>

      Like George W. Bush and John Kerry, Obama views terrorism, including non-state nuclear terrorism, as the most immediate threat to U.S. security. The sharpest distinction he has drawn between himself and McCain is his argument that "the central front in the war on terror is not Iraq" but the need to take "the fight to al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan."[8] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn8> Afghanistan, he insists is "the war that we must win," Toward that end, "[w]e need more troops, more helicopters, more satellites, more Predator drones in the Afghan border region." [9] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn9> As the historian Howard Zinn has written, the belief that reliance on war and war lords can resolve deeply rooted and complex political conflicts is murderous "madness."[10] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn10> Winning the withdrawal of NATO and U.S. forces from Afghanistan has become a major focus of the European peace movement, and fortunately the U.S. movement is beginning to catch on.

      The good news is that Obama can think, a refreshing change after eight years of Bush! A year ago the commander of the U.S. Strategic Command, General James Cartwright, testified that with the accuracy and destructive capabilities of U.S. high-tech weapons - including space weapons - nuclear weapons now meet few if any "military need[s.]"[11] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn11> The best way to understand the Kissinger, Nunn, Shultz, Perry call for nuclear disarmament and, ultimately, abolition, lies in two perceptions now held by a growing number of U.S. elite figures. First is the belief that Full Spectrum Dominance (the Pentagon's ability to dominate any nation, at any time, at any level of power, anywhere in the world,) can be enforced by the high-tech weapons that General Cartwright referred to. Second is the growing recognition that the nuclear double standard is the primary force driving nuclear weapons proliferation, and that this jeopardizes not only the U.S. Empire, but the lives of U.S. people. Responding to these elite voices and to pressure from grassroots peace activists when he campaigned to win the Democrats' nomination, Obama has made commitments to disarmament and abolition to which we must now hold him accountable.

      Obama's first nuclear priority is nonproliferation, not the nuclear dangers posed by the United States - a country that has repeatedly threatened first nuclear attacks. His web page tells us, "the best way to keep America safe is...to keep nuclear weapons away from terrorists." [12] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn12> Thus he pledges to prevail in Afghanistan and Pakistan, to "seek a global ban on the production of fissile material for weapons", and to "secure existing stockpiles of nuclear material."[13] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn13> While stressing the importance of engaging Iran diplomatically, he insists that "No tool of statecraft" which would include nuclear threats, "should be taken off the table"

      To reinforce his commitment to nonproliferation, Obama supports ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, opposes development of new nuclear weapons, and tells us that "it's time to send a clear message: America seeks a world with no nuclear weapons....instead of threatening to kick them out of the G-8, we need to work with Russia to take U.S. and Russian ballistic missiles off hair-trigger alert; to dramatically reduce the stockpiles of our nuclear weapons and material; to seek a global ban on the production of fissile material for weapons; and to expand the U.S.-Russian ban on intermediate range missiles.... "[14] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn14> He also questions deployment of provocative "missile defenses" - at least until they can be proven effective.

      We shouldn't get our hopes up too high. Obama's web page promises not nuclear weapons abolition, but "several steps down the long road toward eliminating nuclear weapons." Hewing closely to the still dominant Cold War discourse, he pledges to "retain a strong [nuclear] deterrent", and he has yet to embrace a no-first use policy. [15] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn15>

      Then there is McCain, who has campaigned to the lyrics "Bomb Bomb Iran" and who said "It's naïve to say that we will never use nuclear weapons." Consistent with Bush madness and the influence of the nuclear weapons laboratories, McCain has indicated a willingness to support development of new nuclear weapons, and it seems most unlikely that he will abandon the first use doctrine.[16] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn16>

      However, with Kissinger as one of his senior advisors, McCain has apparently understood the need to speak - at least vaguely - about nuclear weapons abolition and to indicate openness to reducing the size of the U.S. arsenal in order to mitigate the dangers of nuclear weapons proliferation. His commitments are both modest and vague. Recalling Reagan's fleeting dalliance with abolition, McCain has said that "our dream is to see the day when nuclear weapons will be banished from the face of the Earth." This, he says, is "a distant and difficult goal" toward which the U.S. "must proceed... prudently and pragmatically, and with a focused concern for our security and the security of allies who depend on us." He has indicated his willingness to "enter into a new arms control agreement with Russia." In vague terms, he tells us that "the time has come to take further measures to reduce dramatically the number of nuclear weapons in the world's arsenals...reduc[ ing] our nuclear forces to the lowest level we judge necessary."[ 17] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn17> Whatever that means.

      A few words must be said about the Armitage-Nye Report,[18] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn18> which will serve as the blueprint for U.S. Asia-Pacific policies regardless of who is elected U.S. president. It argues that China can and must be integrated into the U.S. dominated global capitalist system, and that to do so, it must be engaged and contained -- militarily and economically. The central element of this containment doctrine is continued post Cold War expansion of the U.S.-Japan military alliance - including the trashing of Article 9 - augmented by a U.S.-Japan free trade agreement. At enormous cost to this and future Japanese generations, and with potentially catastrophic consequences, Japan is to continue in its role as what Zbigniew Brzezinski once termed a "vassal state."[19] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftn19> As always, there are alternatives to militarism, in this case using the Six Party Talks to negotiate a Northeast Asian Nuclear Weapons Free Zone and to create a longer-term structure for common security across the region.

      What can I tell you about the U.S. peace movement? At the moment it can be seen as having two wings. The more liberal wing has invested its hopes in Barack Obama, with some national organizations and many community based activists working to end the disastrous reign of Republican rule. Others, including the American Friends Service Committee, are focused on preventing a catastrophic war against Iran, finally winning the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Iraq, building a movement that can oppose the widening war in Afghanistan and Pakistan, working for the withdrawal of U.S. foreign military bases, and preparing the way for the fundamentally important 2010 NPT Review Conference.

      I am sorry to report that outlawing landmines, cluster bombs and depleted uranium weapons are not now high on our movement's agenda, even as we understand the importance of getting rid of these awful and illegal weapons. A few specialists are devoted to working on these issues, but most of us are stretched too thin to do more than to engage in occasional limited actions

      We do have some recent victories to build on. Unlike years past, as I have explained, presidential candidates now find it necessary to pledge their commitment to nuclear weapons abolition and to articulate roadmaps that include at least some concrete steps on the path to a nuclear free world. Beyond the political rhetoric, for the second consecutive, year a combination of elite and popular pressures blocked the Bush campaign to develop the next generation of genocidal nuclear weapons. Last month Congress denied funding for the misnamed "Reliable Replacement Warhead," completely killing that project.

      Even before the NPT Review Conference, defining struggles will have to be engaged that will serve as building blocks toward 2010. We will need to challenge and congressionally mandated Nuclear Posture Review which is scheduled to be released shortly after the election. We will have to work at many levels when the next U.S. president moves from campaign promises to making his nuclear policy commitments. And, if the Nuclear Suppliers Group approves the U.S.-Indian nuclear deal, there will be more work to do with Congress.

      In the near term, August 6 & 9 commemorations are being organized by community-based activists across the U.S. These keep the memory alive, engage wider communities through the media, and serve as a vehicle for movement building. Preparing for 2010 will be an element in many of these commemorations. Next week, AFSC, Peace Action, the Nuclear Age Peace foundation, and M.I.T. will hold a "Think Outside the Bomb" conference to educate and inspire the next generation of nuclear weapons abolitionists. And I am honored to report that we have arranged for two Hiroshima Hibakusha to address the national Peace & Justice Studies Association which should attract nearly 1,000 college and university professors from across the United States. This will provide a unique opportunity to educate and to build organization toward the NPT Review.

      On the other side of the U.S. election , the Disarmament Working Group of United for Peace and Justice - the largest peace coalition in the U.S. - will turn its attention toward the NPT Review. And, as AFSC and other organizations - with your help - organize conferences on peace movement priorities and press our new government to fulfill its abolition promises, we will be building a movement to help humanity save itself from itself.

      Domo Arrigato.

      * Joseph Gerson is Director of Programs and Director of the Peace and Economic Security Program of the American Friends Service Committee in New England.

      E-mail: JGerson@afsc. org, Web: www.afsc.org/ pes, phone: 617-661-6130.

      ____________ _________ _________ __

      [1] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref1> Author's notes, interview with Mr. Takamizawa, Japan Defense Agency, March 12, 1996 - emphasis in the original. See also "Use of Nuclear Weapons by Japan Would be Constitutional" , Cabinet Legislative Bureau Director General", Japan press Service, June 22, 1998; Japan Hints at Reversal of Bar on Nuclear Arms: Boston Globe, July 9, 1993.

      [2] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref2> See, among ://www.ucsusa. org/global_ security/ nuclear_weapons; and Joseph Gerson. Empire and the Bomb: How the US Uses Nuclear Weapons to Dominate the World; Jaya Tiwari and Cleve J. Gray, " U. S. NUCLEAR WEAPONS ACCIDENTS", http://www.cdi. org/Issues/ NukeAccidents/ Accidents. htm <http://www.cdi. org/Issues/ NukeAccidents/ Accidents. htm> ; Thom Shanker. "Gates warns costly arms projects must prove value", Boston Globe May 14, 2008.

      [3] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref3> Angela Kelly, Massachusetts Peace Action, reporting on her meeting with Frank Lowenstein, Senator John Kerry's senior foreign policy advisor recently returned from Israel, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

      [4] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref4> Adam Nagourney and Megan Thee. "Poll Finds Obama Candidacy Isn't Closing Divide on Race", New York Times, July 16, 2008. The New York Times/CBS poll found that while 83% of African-Americans view Obama favorably, only 31% of whites share their opinion at this time.

      [5] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref5> Barack Obama. "A New Strategy for a New World", July 15, Washington, D.C. http://my.barackoba ma.com/page/ community/ post/amandascott /gGxkFr

      [6] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref6> Obama's "Senior Working Group on National Security: includes Madeleine Albright, former Secretary of State; Senator David Boren, former chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence; Warren Christopher, former Secretary of State; Greg Crain, former Director of the State Department Office of Policy Planning; Richard Danzig, former Secretary of the Navy; Lee Hamilton, former Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee; Eric Holder, former Deputy Attorney General; Tony Lake, former National Security Advisor; Sam Nunn, former Chairman of the Senate Armed Service Committee' William Perry, former Secretary of Defense; Susan Rice, former Assistant Secretary of State; Tim Roemer, 9/11 Commissioner; and JimS teinberg, former Deputy National security Advisor. - Source, Institute for Public Accuracy, June 18, 2008 e-mail posting

      [7] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref7> Barack Obama. Op. Cit.

      [8] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref8> Barack Obama's Plan. www.barackobama. com/issues/ foreignpolicy

      [9] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref9> "A New Strategy..." Op Cit..

      [10] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref10> Howard Zinn. "Memo to Obama, McCain: No one wins in a war", Boston Globe, July 17, 2008

      [11] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref11> Jeffrey Lewis. "Minimum deterrence", The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists July/August 2008.

      [12] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref12> Barack Obama's Plan, Op. cit.

      [13] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref13> "A New Strategy..." Op. Cit.

      [14] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref14> Ibid.

      [15] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref15> Barack Obama's Plan. Op. Cit. Emphasis added.

      [16] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref16> David Krieger. "Comparing the Positions of Senators Obama and McCain on Nuclear Weapons Policy." Essay distributed via e-mail, July 10, 2008.

      [17] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref17> John McCain. Remarks on Nuclear Security May 27, 2008, http://www.washingt onpost.com/ wp-dyn/content/ article/2008/ 05/27/AR20080527 01367.html

      [18] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref18> Richard Armitage and Joseph Nye. "The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Getting Asia Right for 2020, Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2007, http://www.csis. org/component/ option,com_ csis_pubs/ task,view/ id,3729/type, 1/

      [19] <https://owa. afsc.org/ exchange/ JGerson/Drafts/ FW:%20[abolition-caucus] %20Massive% 20Neocon% 20Naval%20Armada %20Heads% 20For%20Iran. EML/1_text. htm#_ftnref19> Brzezinski, Zbigniew. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives, New York: Basic Books, 1998.

       

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