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FW: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India

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  • Razi Raziuddin
    From: razi24@hotmail.com To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India Date: Wed, 11 Jun
    Message 1 of 15 , Jun 15, 2014


      From: razi24@...
      To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
      Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

      COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
      http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
      Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
      A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
       

      By Mr. Ajmal khan

      04 May, 2012
      Countercurrents.org

      This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.

      The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the major policy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbers by the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, how far these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.

      Higher education and globalisation

      After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.

      Higher educational attainment and Muslims

      To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of social mobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.

      Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.

      Cast group by religious background in higher education

      Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000


       

      Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.

      The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST and OBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.

       

      Socio-religious communities
      Number (in Lakhs)
      Percentage of 20 years plus
      population
      Distribution across the
      SRCs
      Total
      Graduates
      Diploma and certificates
      Graduates
      Diploma and certificates
      Graduates
      Diploma and certificates
      Total
      376.7
      40.5
      6.7
      0.7
      100
      100
      Muslims
      23.9
      2.7
      3.6
      0.4
      6.3
      6.8
      SCs/STs
      30.8
      4.1
      2.4
      0.3
      8.2
      10.2
      All others
      322
      33.7
      8.8
      0.9
      85.5
      83

      Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001

      According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as a homogeneous social group.

      Dalits and higher educational attainment

      Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which is least developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.

      When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during post independence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.

      Concluding remarks

      Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.

       Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.

      Notes

      1. According to the 2001 Census data.

      2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.

      References

      •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .

      •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.

      •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.

      •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.

      •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).

      •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .

      •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .

      •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .


    • Pankaj Jain
      While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed
      Message 2 of 15 , Jun 22, 2014
        While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

        It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

        Pankaj 



        On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


         


        From: razi24@...
        To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
        Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

        COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
        http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
        Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
        A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
         
        By Mr. Ajmal khan
        04 May, 2012
        Countercurrents.org
        This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
        The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbers by the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
        Higher education and globalisation
        After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
        Higher educational attainment and Muslims
        To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of social mobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
        Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
        Cast group by religious background in higher education
        Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

         
        Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
        The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
         
        Socio-religious communities
        Number (in Lakhs)
        Percentage of 20 years plus
        population
        Distribution across the
        SRCs
        Total
        Graduates
        Diploma and certificates
        Graduates
        Diploma and certificates
        Graduates
        Diploma and certificates
        Total
        376.7
        40.5
        6.7
        0.7
        100
        100
        Muslims
        23.9
        2.7
        3.6
        0.4
        6.3
        6.8
        SCs/STs
        30.8
        4.1
        2.4
        0.3
        8.2
        10.2
        All others
        322
        33.7
        8.8
        0.9
        85.5
        83
        Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
        According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
        Dalits and higher educational attainment
        Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which is least developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
        When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
        Concluding remarks
        Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
         Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
        Notes
        1. According to the 2001 Census data.
        2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
        References
        •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
        •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
        •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
        •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
        •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
        •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
        •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
        •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .



      • Pankaj Jain
        While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed
        Message 3 of 15 , Jun 22, 2014
          While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

          It would be good if the concerned experts could analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, and suggest a way forward. Bemoaning the current stte alone is not very helpful.

          Pankaj 

          On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


           


          From: razi24@...
          To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
          Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

          COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
          http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
          Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
          A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
           
          By Mr. Ajmal khan
          04 May, 2012
          Countercurrents.org
          This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
          The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the major policy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbers by the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, how far these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
          Higher education and globalisation
          After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
          Higher educational attainment and Muslims
          To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of social mobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There isa scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
          Performance in the higher education iscalculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
          Cast group by religious background in higher education
          Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

           
          Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
          The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in termsof higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST and OBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
           
          Socio-religious communities
          Number (in Lakhs)
          Percentage of 20 years plus
          population
          Distribution across the
          SRCs
          Total
          Graduates
          Diploma and certificates
          Graduates
          Diploma and certificates
          Graduates
          Diploma and certificates
          Total
          376.7
          40.5
          6.7
          0.7
          100
          100
          Muslims
          23.9
          2.7
          3.6
          0.4
          6.3
          6.8
          SCs/STs
          30.8
          4.1
          2.4
          0.3
          8.2
          10.2
          All others
          322
          33.7
          8.8
          0.9
          85.5
          83
          Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
          According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslimswhich is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as a homogeneous social group.
          Dalits and higher educational attainment
          Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which is least developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
          When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during post independence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give apicture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
          Concluding remarks
          Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
           Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
          Notes
          1. According to the 2001 Census data.
          2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
          References
          •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
          •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
          •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
          •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
          •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
          •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
          •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
          •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .



        • Mohammad Imran
          When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims
          Message 4 of 15 , Jun 24, 2014
             When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


            On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

             

            While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

            It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

            Pankaj 



            On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


             


            From: razi24@...
            To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
            Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

            COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
            http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
            Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
            A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
             
            By Mr. Ajmal khan
            04 May, 2012
            Countercurrents.org
            This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
            The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
            Higher education and globalisation
            After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
            Higher educational attainment and Muslims
            To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
            Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
            Cast group by religious background in higher education
            Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

             
            Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
            The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
             
            Socio-religious communities
            Number (in Lakhs)
            Percentage of 20 years plus
            population
            Distribution across the
            SRCs
            Total
            Graduates
            Diploma and certificates
            Graduates
            Diploma and certificates
            Graduates
            Diploma and certificates
            Total
            376.7
            40.5
            6.7
            0.7
            100
            100
            Muslims
            23.9
            2.7
            3.6
            0.4
            6.3
            6.8
            SCs/STs
            30.8
            4.1
            2.4
            0.3
            8.2
            10.2
            All others
            322
            33.7
            8.8
            0.9
            85.5
            83
            Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
            According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
            Dalits and higher educational attainment
            Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
            When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
            Concluding remarks
            Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
             Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
            Notes
            1. According to the 2001 Census data.
            2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
            References
            •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
            •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
            •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
            •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
            •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
            •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
            •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
            •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .





          • Pankaj Jain
            Dear Imran, I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the lower caste muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While
            Message 5 of 15 , Jun 26, 2014
              Dear Imran,

              I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

              Pankaj


              On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


               
               When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


              On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

               

              While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

              It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

              Pankaj 



              On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


               


              From: razi24@...
              To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
              Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

              COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
              http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
              Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
              A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
               
              By Mr. Ajmal khan
              04 May, 2012
              Countercurrents.org
              This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
              The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
              Higher education and globalisation
              After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
              Higher educational attainment and Muslims
              To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
              Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
              Cast group by religious background in higher education
              Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

               
              Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
              The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
               
              Socio-religious communities
              Number (in Lakhs)
              Percentage of 20 years plus
              population
              Distribution across the
              SRCs
              Total
              Graduates
              Diploma and certificates
              Graduates
              Diploma and certificates
              Graduates
              Diploma and certificates
              Total
              376.7
              40.5
              6.7
              0.7
              100
              100
              Muslims
              23.9
              2.7
              3.6
              0.4
              6.3
              6.8
              SCs/STs
              30.8
              4.1
              2.4
              0.3
              8.2
              10.2
              All others
              322
              33.7
              8.8
              0.9
              85.5
              83
              Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
              According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
              Dalits and higher educational attainment
              Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SCelites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
              When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when thisis 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantlyhigher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
              Concluding remarks
              Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
               Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
              Notes
              1. According to the 2001 Census data.
              2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
              References
              •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
              •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
              •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
              •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
              •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
              •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
              •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
              •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .







            • Sukla Sen
              Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years. It s close to 67 years that India gained independence. Prior to that, since 1857,
              Message 6 of 15 , Jun 26, 2014
                "Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years."

                It's close to 67 years that India gained independence.
                Prior to that, since 1857, India had been ruled by the British Crown.

                Sukla


                On 25 June 2014 09:52, Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                 

                 When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.



                On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                 

                While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                Pankaj 



                On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                 


                From: razi24@...
                To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                 
                By Mr. Ajmal khan
                04 May, 2012
                Countercurrents.org
                This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                Higher education and globalisation
                After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                Cast group by religious background in higher education
                Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                 
                Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting isthe divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                 
                Socio-religious communities
                Number (in Lakhs)
                Percentage of 20 years plus
                population
                Distribution across the
                SRCs
                Total
                Graduates
                Diploma and certificates
                Graduates
                Diploma and certificates
                Graduates
                Diploma and certificates
                Total
                376.7
                40.5
                6.7
                0.7
                100
                100
                Muslims
                23.9
                2.7
                3.6
                0.4
                6.3
                6.8
                SCs/STs
                30.8
                4.1
                2.4
                0.3
                8.2
                10.2
                All others
                322
                33.7
                8.8
                0.9
                85.5
                83
                Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                Dalits and higher educational attainment
                Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic andpolitical mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                Concluding remarks
                Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                 Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                Notes
                1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                References
                •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .








                --
                Peace Is Doable
              • Kaleem Kawaja
                The Indian Muslims era as the ruling class definitely ended in 1857 with the first war of independence when the victorious Britishers turned on the Muslim
                Message 7 of 15 , Jun 26, 2014
                  The Indian Muslims' era as the ruling class definitely ended in 1857 with the first war of independence when the victorious Britishers turned on the Muslim community with furious rage.  The British blamed Muslims for the rebellion, not Hindus, even though equal numbers of Muslims and Hindus took part in the rebellion against the British.  Indeed for about 40 years the British were extra hard on Muslims, terminating their jobs, businesses and preventing them from getting education etc,  forcing many from north India to migrate to the south and west of the country.  Only those Muslims survived who were from the princely states that remained loyal to the British.   A large number of indigenous Muslims who were converts from lower Hindu castes (Dalits, OBCs) had always remained in their lower class occupations just like Hindu Dalits and OBCs.  The ruling class Muslims had never allowed them to become a part of their economically better off co0mmunity.
                   
                  That is also the  reason that a large number of Muslims in Pakistan and Bangladesh continued to be poor after 1947.
                   
                  Kaleem Kawaja  


                  On Wed, Jun 25, 2014 at 12:22 AM, Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                   

                   When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.



                  On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                   

                  While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                  It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                  Pankaj 



                  On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                   


                  From: razi24@...
                  To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                  Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                  COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                  http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                  Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                  A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                   
                  By Mr. Ajmal khan
                  04 May, 2012
                  Countercurrents.org
                  This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                  The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula,setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                  Higher education and globalisation
                  After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                  Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                  To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                  Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                  Cast group by religious background in higher education
                  Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                   
                  Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                  The data above provide a picture of whatextend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                   
                  Socio-religious communities
                  Number (in Lakhs)
                  Percentage of 20 years plus
                  population
                  Distribution across the
                  SRCs
                  Total
                  Graduates
                  Diploma and certificates
                  Graduates
                  Diploma and certificates
                  Graduates
                  Diploma and certificates
                  Total
                  376.7
                  40.5
                  6.7
                  0.7
                  100
                  100
                  Muslims
                  23.9
                  2.7
                  3.6
                  0.4
                  6.3
                  6.8
                  SCs/STs
                  30.8
                  4.1
                  2.4
                  0.3
                  8.2
                  10.2
                  All others
                  322
                  33.7
                  8.8
                  0.9
                  85.5
                  83
                  Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                  According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                  Dalits and higher educational attainment
                  Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                  When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highlyqualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                  Concluding remarks
                  Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need forthe action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                   Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                  Notes
                  1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                  2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                  References
                  •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                  •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                  •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                  •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                  •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                  •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                  •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                  •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .






                • Walter Fernandes
                  Dear Pankaj I tend to agree with Imran on the issue of exclusion. As a student of history I could see that most Muslim conversions were by the Sufi
                  Message 8 of 15 , Jun 26, 2014
                    Dear Pankaj

                    I tend to agree with Imran on the issue of exclusion. As a student of history I could see that most Muslim conversions were by the Sufi missionaries whose approach was of justice, parallel to the Bhakti movement that was for caste equality These two movements existed more or less at the same time. According to Prof. Sri Ram, probably the best historian of the Mughal age, the Sufi ideology explains why what is today Bangladesh converted to Islam beginning from the 16th century and the biggest number became Muslim a century later, not at the height of the Mughal age. According to estimates 80 per cent of the Muslims in India belong to the dalit groups and their employment remained more or less unchanged. The dominant Muslim groups did not accept them as equal but the Muslims of dalit origin improved their self-image. Prof. Sumit Mitra explains that as the reason why the freedom movement in East Pakistan was different from that of West Pakistan. The latter was led by feudal lords and other upper classes mainly of UP while in Bangladesh it was primarily a peasant movement against zamindars. 90% of the zamindars happened to be Hindu and 90% of the peasants happened to be Muslim (dalit) so a communal colour could be given to it when convenient.That process continued in the 19th century in regions where the dalits experienced the negative impacts of British colonialism. West Punjab became Muslim and East Punjab became Sikh in the 19th century and most conversions of Christian sects in Tamil Nadu and AP were in the same century. all of them were dalit response to caste equality. Similarly beginning from 1891 the British regime encouraged Bengali peasants from East Bengal to migrate to Assam and cultivate land there in order to produce more food. 90% of the immigrants turned out to be Muslims and that has today become the famour "illegal Bangladesh immigration." All of it explains why the level of poverty is higher among Muslims than in other communities. Bye

                    Walter   


                    On 27 June 2014 03:27, Kaleem Kawaja kaleemkawaja@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                     

                    The Indian Muslims' era as the ruling class definitely ended in 1857 with the first war of independence when the victorious Britishers turned on the Muslim community with furious rage.  The British blamed Muslims for the rebellion, not Hindus, even though equal numbers of Muslims and Hindus took part in the rebellion against the British.  Indeed for about 40 years the British were extra hard on Muslims, terminating their jobs, businesses and preventing them from getting education etc,  forcing many from north India to migrate to the south and west of the country.  Only those Muslims survived who were from the princely states that remained loyal to the British.   A large number of indigenous Muslims who were converts from lower Hindu castes (Dalits, OBCs) had always remained in their lower class occupations just like Hindu Dalits and OBCs.  The ruling class Muslims had never allowed them to become a part of their economically better off co0mmunity.
                     
                    That is also the  reason that a large number of Muslims in Pakistan and Bangladesh continued to be poor after 1947.
                     
                    Kaleem Kawaja  


                    On Wed, Jun 25, 2014 at 12:22 AM, Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                     

                     When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.



                    On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                     

                    While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                    It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                    Pankaj 



                    On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                     


                    From: razi24@...
                    To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                    Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                    COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                    http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                    Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                    A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                     
                    By Mr. Ajmal khan
                    04 May, 2012
                    Countercurrents.org
                    This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                    The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula,setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                    Higher education and globalisation
                    After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                    Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                    To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                    Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                    Cast group by religious background in higher education
                    Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                     
                    Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                    The data above provide a picture of whatextend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                     
                    Socio-religious communities
                    Number (in Lakhs)
                    Percentage of 20 years plus
                    population
                    Distribution across the
                    SRCs
                    Total
                    Graduates
                    Diploma and certificates
                    Graduates
                    Diploma and certificates
                    Graduates
                    Diploma and certificates
                    Total
                    376.7
                    40.5
                    6.7
                    0.7
                    100
                    100
                    Muslims
                    23.9
                    2.7
                    3.6
                    0.4
                    6.3
                    6.8
                    SCs/STs
                    30.8
                    4.1
                    2.4
                    0.3
                    8.2
                    10.2
                    All others
                    322
                    33.7
                    8.8
                    0.9
                    85.5
                    83
                    Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                    According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                    Dalits and higher educational attainment
                    Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                    When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highlyqualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                    Concluding remarks
                    Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits,here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need forthe action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                     Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                    Notes
                    1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                    2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                    References
                    •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                    •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                    •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                    •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                    •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                    •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                    •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                    •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .









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                  • Kaleem Kawaja
                    Pankaj Any good history book on the indigenous Muslims of India, as different from the Muslims who migrated from west and central Asia (many immigrated from
                    Message 9 of 15 , Jun 27, 2014
                      Pankaj
                      Any good history book on the indigenous Muslims of India, as different from the Muslims who migrated from west and central Asia  (many immigrated from Afghanistan, Iran, Arabia, central asia, Turkey); during the long Muslim era will tell you that when low caste Hindus converted to Islam, they were given equal status with the upper class Muslims in religious affairs eg gatherings in mosques, shrines, tombs of Muslim saints etc.  But in other social affairs the upper class Muslims (who were mostly immigrants or upper caste Hindus who converted to Islam) did not mingle with the indigenous Muslims who were low caste Hindu converts.
                       
                      A reloigious edict called Kufu was promulgated by the religious leaders (muftis, qazis) that said that Islam ordains that to maintain harmony in society intermarriages should only occur among people of equal means and status.  This was an innovation of the ruling class Muslims because Islam does not say such a thing.  In fact the many Sufi Muslim saints struggled against such practices and often admonished the Muslim rulers about it. 
                       
                      Thus most indigenous converted Muslims were unable to get access to education or employment in the court (govt) and thus unable to move forward in socioeconomic arena. These converted Muslims worked as barbers (surname is Idrisi), butchers (surname is Quraishi), weavers (surname is Ansari), water carriers (bhishti), milkmen (doodhwala).  They could not get education and get other jobs like jobs in courts, army, govt administration etc.  However in the Muslim society they were not considered untouchable (as Hindu Dalits were) and could pray in mosques, shrines with the upper class Muslims.
                       
                      You need to read the history of Muslims in India.  Many Hindu historians have written such books.  If you only read the revisionist historians (books, websites) who are BJP/RSS types then you will get the erroneous impression. 
                       
                      Kaleem Kawaja 


                      On Thu, Jun 26, 2014 at 6:12 AM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                       

                      Dear Imran,

                      I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

                      Pankaj


                      On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                       
                       When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


                      On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                       

                      While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                      It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                      Pankaj 



                      On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                       


                      From: razi24@...
                      To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                      Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                      COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                      http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                      Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                      A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                       
                      By Mr. Ajmal khan
                      04 May, 2012
                      Countercurrents.org
                      This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                      The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indianmarket for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                      Higher education and globalisation
                      After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has beganto change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                      Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                      To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                      Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                      Cast group by religious background in higher education
                      Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                       
                      Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                      The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneouscommunity, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                       
                      Socio-religious communities
                      Number (in Lakhs)
                      Percentage of 20 years plus
                      population
                      Distribution across the
                      SRCs
                      Total
                      Graduates
                      Diploma and certificates
                      Graduates
                      Diploma and certificates
                      Graduates
                      Diploma and certificates
                      Total
                      376.7
                      40.5
                      6.7
                      0.7
                      100
                      100
                      Muslims
                      23.9
                      2.7
                      3.6
                      0.4
                      6.3
                      6.8
                      SCs/STs
                      30.8
                      4.1
                      2.4
                      0.3
                      8.2
                      10.2
                      All others
                      322
                      33.7
                      8.8
                      0.9
                      85.5
                      83
                      Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                      According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                      Dalits and higher educational attainment
                      Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SCelites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                      When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when thisis 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there hasbeen a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantlyhigher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                      Concluding remarks
                      Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                       Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                      Notes
                      1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                      2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                      References
                      •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                      •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                      •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                      •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                      •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                      •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                      •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                      •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .








                    • Mohammad Imran
                      This lack of historical knowledge could have come from RSS publications which blend history and myth for political use. ... This lack of historical knowledge
                      Message 10 of 15 , Jun 27, 2014
                        This lack of historical knowledge could have come from RSS publications which blend history and myth for political use.


                        On Jun 26, 2014, at 8:10 AM, Sukla Sen sukla.sen@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                         

                        "Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years."

                        It's close to 67 years that India gained independence.
                        Prior to that, since 1857, India had been ruled by the British Crown.

                        Sukla


                        On 25 June 2014 09:52, Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia] <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
                         

                         When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.



                        On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                         

                        While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                        It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                        Pankaj 



                        On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                         


                        From: razi24@...
                        To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                        Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                        COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                        http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                        Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                        A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                         
                        By Mr. Ajmal khan
                        04 May, 2012
                        Countercurrents.org
                        This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                        The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities,Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                        Higher education and globalisation
                        After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on highereducation budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to asmall minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                        Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                        To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                        Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                        Cast group by religious background in higher education
                        Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                         
                        Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                        The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting isthe divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                         
                        Socio-religious communities
                        Number (in Lakhs)
                        Percentage of 20 years plus
                        population
                        Distribution across the
                        SRCs
                        Total
                        Graduates
                        Diploma and certificates
                        Graduates
                        Diploma and certificates
                        Graduates
                        Diploma and certificates
                        Total
                        376.7
                        40.5
                        6.7
                        0.7
                        100
                        100
                        Muslims
                        23.9
                        2.7
                        3.6
                        0.4
                        6.3
                        6.8
                        SCs/STs
                        30.8
                        4.1
                        2.4
                        0.3
                        8.2
                        10.2
                        All others
                        322
                        33.7
                        8.8
                        0.9
                        85.5
                        83
                        Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                        According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                        Dalits and higher educational attainment
                        Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are someremarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SC elites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic andpolitical mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                        When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when this is 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslim males after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantly higher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry basedhigher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                        Concluding remarks
                        Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                         Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                        Notes
                        1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                        2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                        References
                        •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                        •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                        •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                        •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                        •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                        •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                        •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                        •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .









                        --
                        Peace Is Doable


                      • Mohammad Imran
                        Dear Pankaj, The subjugation and deprivation of Indian converts to Islam is as old as Muslim occupation of India. Read hateful description of Indian Muslim
                        Message 11 of 15 , Jun 27, 2014
                          Dear Pankaj,

                          The subjugation and deprivation of Indian converts to Islam is as old as Muslim occupation of India. Read hateful description of Indian Muslim converts from the pen of  Ziauddin Barani, an upper class Muslim who was a noted historian and influential political thinker. HIs book Fatwa i Jahandari was written around 1300. You can read translation of his views in Professor Khaliq Nizamis book on Indian Sultanate in thirteenth century. The article below from Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand quote some of it. Barani was a court historian of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Barani calls Indian converts, dogs and pigs (read below). 

                          Conversion of caste groups to Islam was a slow process over many generations. While people in a caste changed religions they retained all of their social and relational functions which defined their castes and most of their beliefs. That is where their caste identity comes from.

                          Read the articles below.  Lower caste Muslims were a deprived lot politically, educationally, socially and religiously. They were defined as Ghair Kuf (Outsiders) when it came to marriage in religious sense. They were not welcome in any Ashraf meeting, could not enter Ashraf household except to sit on ground at the feet of the house owner, could not eat except what was given to them on separate plates meant for the low caste.  Marriage to an Ashraf woman was totally out of bounds. If an Ashraf man married a lower caste woman then he and his progeny were considered outcastes. These stories were all hashed and rehashed at the time of finding brides or bridegrooms and those not meeting the societal and caste standards were not considered for marriage.

                          There are many other books on "Castes among Muslims" you can read them.

                          I


                          Caste in Indian Muslim Society

                                       Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand,

                                     Head,

                                     Centre for Studies on Indian Muslims,

                                        Hamdard   University ,

                                       New Delhi

                          The Fatawa-i Jahandari shows Barani as a fervent champion of ashraf supremacy and as vehemently opposed to the ajlaf. In appealing to the Sultan to protect the ashraf and keep the ajlaf firmly under their control and submission he repeatedly refers to the Qur'an, from which he seeks to derive legitimacy from his arguments. His is not a rigorous scholarly approach to the Qur'an, however, for he conveniently misinterprets it to support the hegemonic claims of the ashraf, completely ignoring the Qur'an's insistence on social equality. In the process, he develops a doctrine and social vision for the ideal Muslim ruler, which, in their implications for what Barani calls the 'low-born', are hardly different in their severity than the classical Hindu law of caste as contained in the Manusmriti, the Brahminical law code. As Barani's translator, Mohammad Habib, writes, 'Barani's God, as is quite clear from his work, has two aspects-first, he is the tribal deity of the Musalmans; secondly, as between the Musalmans themselves, He is the tribal deity of well-born uslims'.[1] Barani was not a lone voice in his period, however, for he seems to echo a widely shared understanding of ashraf supremacy  held by many of his ashraf contemporaries, including leading 'ulama and Sufis.

                          Barani's disdain for the 'low' born is well illustrated in his advice to the Sultan about education of the ajlaf. While the Qur'an and the traditions attributed to the Prophet repeatedly stress the need for all Muslims, men and women, rich and poor, to acquire knowledge, Barani insists that the Sultan should consider it his religious duty to deny the ajlaf access to knowledge, branding them as 'mean', and 'despicable'. Thus, he advises the Sultan:

                                    Teachers of every kind are to be sternly ordered not
                                    to thrust precious stones down the throats of dogs or
                                    to put collars of gold round the necks of pigs and
                                    bears, that is, to the mean, the ignoble and the
                                    worthless, to shopkeepers and to the low-born they are
                                    to teach nothing more than the rules about prayer,
                                    fasting, religious charity and the haj pilgrimage,
                                    along with some chapters of the Qur'an and some
                                    doctrines of the faith, without which their religion
                                    cannot be correct and valid prayers are not possible.
                                    But they are to be taught nothing else, lest it bring
                                    honour to their mean souls.[2]


                          As Barani sees it, if the ajlaf were allowed access to education, they might challenge ashraf hegemony. Therefore, he sternly warns the Sultan:

                                    They are not to be taught reading and writing, for
                                    plenty of disorders arise owing to the skill of the
                                    low born in knowledge. The disorder into which all
                                    affairs of the religion and the state are thrown is
                                    due to the acts and words of the low born, who have
                                    become skilled. For, on account of their skill, they
                                    become governors (wali), revenue-collectors ('amils),
                                    auditors (mutassarif), officers (farman deh) and
                                    rulers (farman rawa). If teachers are disobedient, and
                                    it is discovered at the time of investigation that
                                    they have imparted knowledge or taught letters or
                                    writing to the low born, inevitably the punishment for
                                    their disobedience will be meted out to them.[3]


                          In order to bolster his assertion that the Sultan should ensure that the ajlaf remain subservient to the ashraf, Barani seeks appropriate religious sanction. Thus, he asserts:

                                    [.] to promote base, mean, low-born and worthless men
                                    to be the helpers and supporters of the government has
                                    not been permitted by any religion, creed, publicly
                                    accepted tradition or state-law.[4]

                          II

                          Caste system among Muslims

                          Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam.[1][2][12][13] Religious scholar Yoginder Sikand elaborates that the caste system among Muslims was not due to the "influence of Hinduism among a previously 'pure', 'uncontaminated' Muslim caste but rather to "the continued impact of Hindu beliefs and customs on the converts who still remained within a largely Hindu cultural universe and retained many of its associated beliefs and practices".[13]

                          Stratification

                          In some parts of South Asia, the Muslims are divided as Ashrafs and Ajlafs.[14] Ashrafs claim a superior status derived from their foreign ancestry.[15]

                          Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) provide religious legitimacy to caste with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classical example of scholarly declaration of the Muslim caste system is the Fatawa-i-Jahandari, written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims.

                          Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth. Barani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf].[16] His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.[16] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" and would carry precedence over Sharia law whenever they were in conflict.[16]

                          In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" being the "custodian of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominity, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf]".[16] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect.[13] Barani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was primarily on the basis of their caste.[16]

                          In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, who were regarded by anti-Caste activists like as the equivalent of untouchables.[17][18] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[17][18][19] The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and are also called Muslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”. They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.[20]

                          Interaction and mobility

                          Main article: Jajmani system

                          Interactions between the oonchi zat (upper caste) and neechi zat (lower caste) are regulated by established patron-client relationships of the jajmani system, the upper castes being referred to as the 'Jajmans', and the lower caste as 'Kamin'. Upon contact with a low-caste Muslim, a Muslim of a higher zat can "purify" by taking a short bath, since there are no elaborate rituals for purification.[21] In Bihar state of India, cases have been reported in which the higher caste Muslims have opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard.[22]

                          Some data indicates that the castes among Muslims have never been as rigid as that among Hindus.[23] The rate of endogamous marriage, for example, is less than two thirds.[23] An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid."[24]

                          Castes in India

                          Some South Asian Muslims have been known to stratify their society according to Quoms.[25] These Muslims practise a ritual-based system of social stratification. The Quoms who deal with human emissions are ranked the lowest. Studies of Bengali Muslims in India indicate that the concepts of purity and impurity exist among them and are applicable in inter-group relationships, as the notions of hygiene and cleanliness in a person are related to the person's social position and not to his/her economic status.[21] Muslim Rajput is another caste distinction among Indian Muslims.

                          Some of the backward or lower-caste Muslim caste include Kunjra, Dhobi and Halalkhor. The upper caste Muslim caste include QureshiShaikh AnsariSyedPathanTurkSheikh and Malik.[22] Genetic data has also supported this stratification.[26]

                          The report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society.



                          On Jun 26, 2014, at 6:12 AM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                           

                          Dear Imran,

                          I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

                          Pankaj


                          On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                           
                           When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


                          On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                           

                          While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                          It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                          Pankaj 



                          On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                           


                          From: razi24@...
                          To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                          Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                          COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                          http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                          Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                          A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                           
                          By Mr. Ajmal khan
                          04 May, 2012
                          Countercurrents.org
                          This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                          The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                          Higher education and globalisation
                          After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                          Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                          To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                          Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                          Cast group by religious background in higher education
                          Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                           
                          Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                          The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                           
                          Socio-religious communities
                          Number (in Lakhs)
                          Percentage of 20 years plus
                          population
                          Distribution across the
                          SRCs
                          Total
                          Graduates
                          Diploma and certificates
                          Graduates
                          Diploma and certificates
                          Graduates
                          Diploma and certificates
                          Total
                          376.7
                          40.5
                          6.7
                          0.7
                          100
                          100
                          Muslims
                          23.9
                          2.7
                          3.6
                          0.4
                          6.3
                          6.8
                          SCs/STs
                          30.8
                          4.1
                          2.4
                          0.3
                          8.2
                          10.2
                          All others
                          322
                          33.7
                          8.8
                          0.9
                          85.5
                          83
                          Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                          According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold any diploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                          Dalits and higher educational attainment
                          Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SCelites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                          When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which isfar below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when thisis 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other educational enrolment in the future, the growth rate of the higher educational attainment among the SC is also much higher than Muslims, even if Muslims as group are above in the higher educational enrolment rate that scheduled cast, which points to the need of the urgent attention of both state and community to work on the higher educational development of the Muslims. A comparison between Muslims and SCs/STs in terms of Graduate Attainment Ratio also reveals interesting results. Initially, Muslims had a marginally higher Graduation Attainment Rate (GAR) than SCs/STs. In the initial phases of planning, the SCs/STs had performed more slowly and this had led to a slight widening of the gap between them and the Muslims. In the 1970s, however, the GARs for SCs/STs grew at a faster rate than for Muslims. This led to convergence in the GAR of Muslims and SCs/STs. In fact, among urban males, the convergence process had begun in the 1950s itself, and had resulted in SCs/STs over taking Muslimmales after the 1970s; it also resulted in the current significantlyhigher levels (Sachar-2006) which openly reveal the reflections of the reservation policy in the enrolment of the higher educational institutions and colleges adopted by the government of India. Here it is also important to look at which are the sectors that have made socalled boom during the post liberalisation period which will give a picture of the need of higher education, especially the industry based higher education. IT and allies sectors, Telecom, private health care, Education, Communication and technology, Infrastructure etc.. which are privately managed has shown the growth, these all sectors need highly qualified professionals as their work force where the higher educated urban upper and middle class work.
                          Concluding remarks
                          Higher educational sector in India has changed in the shadow of the liberalisation policy after the 1991, the post globalised world need only industry based market oriented higher educated manpower, the traditionally disadvantaged groups like,Scheduled casts, secluded tries, other backward classes and Muslims are far behind the advanced groups not only attaining the higher education, but the traditional deprivation and lack of education, skill and knowledge in the globalised context which make them dually marginalised. The government policy of reservations in education and employment spheres has played a remarkable role for Dalits and Adivasis. Even thou there were criticisms on implementation side, the reservation facilities have given certain economic means of livelihood to over 1.5 million Dalits, for instance. Besides, over 50,000 Dalits could enter the field of government authority so far which Muslims couldn't avail. Implementation of the protective discrimination policy and emergence of a effectively taking benefits from new world order. Which enabled Dalits, here Dalits are not counted as a homogeneous community but the section of Dalits which has utilised the reservation policy and reached in the higher education, this section has made the social mobility which will vary from state to state, district to district, community to community, cast to cast across the country among this disadvantaged groups. Muslims occupy prominent position in terms of educational attainment, especially higher educational attainment, the growth of this communityis also slow in comparison with the SCs and STs which recently again reiterated by the India human development report-2011 after the Sachar Commission report . In this article what is attempted to see is, how far Muslims in India as a homogeneous community is behind the all other communities in higher educational attainment, and how Scheduled Cast in India has made progress in the higher educational attainment higher than Muslims in the context of globalisation and their social mobility through the higher educational mobility in the post-globalised India with the help of protective discrimination policy and same time the marginalisation of the Indian Muslim from the whole process of globalisation and exclusionary and discriminatory process of higher educational development of India in the era of globalisation and alienated experience of globalisation by the Indian Muslims which is more or less as a homogeneous community which also points the need for the action by the state and from with in the community, then the deprivation of being a Muslim scheduled cast, scheduled tribes and other backward class even with in the general umbrella of Muslims.
                           Ajmal khan has done undergraduates from University of Calicut in English language and literature and Masters in Social work From Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai and currently based in Mumbai.
                          Notes
                          1. According to the 2001 Census data.
                          2. There studies from the states of Maharastra and other states claiming this.
                          References
                          •  Smith- Pramela shurmer,(2000) India Globalisation and change , University of Portsmouth .
                          •  P. Radhkrishnan Global - Globalization and Exclusion :The Indian Context , Asia journal of east Asia Foundation.
                          •  Higher education in India- issues related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and finance , University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                          •  Saraswati Raju - Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education University Grands commission, new Delhi- November 2008.
                          •  Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India ,Prime Minister? High Level Committee Cabinet Secretariat Government of India , 2006 ( Sachar Commission Report).
                          •  Sukhadeo Thorat , Higher Education in India Emerging Issues Related to Access, Inclusiveness and Quality , University Grant Commission New Delhi .
                          •  Jagan Karade , Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in India , Ca mbridge Scholars Publishing Angerton Gardens , Newcastle , NE5 2JA , UK .
                          •  Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh , Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education , Education Research Foundation, New Delhi .









                        • Pankaj Jain
                          Dear Imran, I am not a a scholar of history or society to be able to make investment of time/ capability to study in details, but it is clear that if equality
                          Message 12 of 15 , Jun 27, 2014
                            Dear Imran,

                            I am not a a scholar of history or society to be able to make investment of time/ capability to study in details, but it is clear that if 'equality of all' feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all other aspects, be it civil laws, economics or culture, Muslim society is just one more among many variations that human kind has evolved, and not particularly/ uniquely appealing. Also, if 'equality of all' was not practiced, as you seem to imply, large scale conversion that took place could not have sustained only under the pressure/ fear of ruling elite (who were Ashraf?). Just because, a thing is written in books by some writers, it does not become a fact, so on the balance, I am not sure your contention is supported by the totality of facts/ events. To quote a sentence from your above reference, "An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid.". 

                            Pankaj  


                            On Saturday, June 28, 2014 2:21 AM, Mohammad Imran <dalibagh@...> wrote:


                            Dear Pankaj,

                            The subjugation and deprivation of Indian converts to Islam is as old as Muslim occupation of India. Read hateful description of Indian Muslim converts from the pen of  Ziauddin Barani, an upper class Muslim who was a noted historian and influential political thinker. HIs book Fatwa i Jahandari was written around 1300. You can read translation of his views in Professor Khaliq Nizamis book on Indian Sultanate in thirteenth century. The article below from Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand quote some of it. Barani was a court historian of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Barani calls Indian converts, dogs and pigs (read below). 

                            Conversion of caste groups to Islam was a slow process over many generations. While people in a caste changed religions they retained all of their social and relational functions which defined their castes and most of their beliefs. That is where their caste identity comes from.

                            Read the articles below.  Lower caste Muslims were a deprived lot politically, educationally, socially and religiously. They were defined as Ghair Kuf (Outsiders) when it came to marriage in religious sense. They were not welcome in any Ashraf meeting, could not enter Ashraf household except to sit on ground at the feet of the house owner, could not eat except what was given to them on separate plates meant for the low caste.  Marriage to an Ashraf woman was totally out of bounds. If an Ashraf man married a lower caste woman then he and his progeny were considered outcastes. These stories were all hashed and rehashed at the time of finding brides or bridegrooms and those not meeting the societal and caste standards were not considered for marriage.

                            There are many other books on "Castes among Muslims" you can read them.

                            I

                            Caste in Indian Muslim Society

                                         Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand,
                                       Head,
                                       Centre for Studies on Indian Muslims,
                                          Hamdard   University ,
                                         New Delhi
                            The Fatawa-i Jahandari shows Barani as a fervent champion of ashraf supremacy and as vehemently opposed to the ajlaf. In appealing to the Sultan to protect the ashraf and keep the ajlaf firmly under their control and submission he repeatedly refers to the Qur'an, from which he seeks to derive legitimacy from his arguments. His is not a rigorous scholarly approach to the Qur'an, however, for he conveniently misinterprets it to support the hegemonic claims of the ashraf, completely ignoring the Qur'an's insistence on social equality. In the process, he develops a doctrine and social vision for the ideal Muslim ruler, which, in their implications for what Barani calls the 'low-born', are hardly different in their severity than the classical Hindu law of caste as contained in the Manusmriti, the Brahminical law code. As Barani's translator, Mohammad Habib, writes, 'Barani's God, as is quite clear from his work, has two aspects-first, he is the tribal deity of the Musalmans; secondly, as between the Musalmans themselves, He is the tribal deity of well-born uslims'.[1] Barani was not a lone voice in his period, however, for he seems to echo a widely shared understanding of ashraf supremacy  held by many of his ashraf contemporaries, including leading 'ulama and Sufis.

                            Barani's disdain for the 'low' born is well illustrated in his advice to the Sultan about education of the ajlaf. While the Qur'an and the traditions attributed to the Prophet repeatedly stress the need for all Muslims, men and women, rich and poor, to acquire knowledge, Barani insists that the Sultan should consider it his religious duty to deny the ajlaf access to knowledge, branding them as 'mean', and 'despicable'. Thus, he advises the Sultan:

                                      Teachers of every kind are to be sternly ordered not
                                      to thrust precious stones down the throats of dogs or
                                      to put collars of gold round the necks of pigs and
                                      bears, that is, to the mean, the ignoble and the
                                      worthless, to shopkeepers and to the low-born they are
                                      to teach nothing more than the rules about prayer,
                                      fasting, religious charity and the haj pilgrimage,
                                      along with some chapters of the Qur'an and some
                                      doctrines of the faith, without which their religion
                                      cannot be correct and valid prayers are not possible.
                                      But they are to be taught nothing else, lest it bring
                                      honour to their mean souls.[2]


                            As Barani sees it, if the ajlaf were allowed access to education, they might challenge ashraf hegemony. Therefore, he sternly warns the Sultan:

                                      They are not to be taught reading and writing, for
                                      plenty of disorders arise owing to the skill of the
                                      low born in knowledge. The disorder into which all
                                      affairs of the religion and the state are thrown is
                                      due to the acts and words of the low born, who have
                                      become skilled. For, on account of their skill, they
                                      become governors (wali), revenue-collectors ('amils),
                                      auditors (mutassarif), officers (farman deh) and
                                      rulers (farman rawa). If teachers are disobedient, and
                                      it is discovered at the time of investigation that
                                      they have imparted knowledge or taught letters or
                                      writing to the low born, inevitably the punishment for
                                      their disobedience will be meted out to them.[3]


                            In order to bolster his assertion that the Sultan should ensure that the ajlaf remain subservient to the ashraf, Barani seeks appropriate religious sanction. Thus, he asserts:

                                      [.] to promote base, mean, low-born and worthless men
                                      to be the helpers and supporters of the government has
                                      not been permitted by any religion, creed, publicly
                                      accepted tradition or state-law.[4]

                            II

                            Caste system among Muslims

                            Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam.[1][2][12][13] Religious scholar Yoginder Sikand elaborates that the caste system among Muslims was not due to the "influence of Hinduism among a previously 'pure', 'uncontaminated' Muslim caste but rather to "the continued impact of Hindu beliefs and customs on the converts who still remained within a largely Hindu cultural universe and retained many of its associated beliefs and practices".[13]

                            Stratification

                            In some parts of South Asia, the Muslims are divided as Ashrafs and Ajlafs.[14] Ashrafs claim a superior status derived from their foreign ancestry.[15]
                            Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) provide religious legitimacy to caste with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classical example of scholarly declaration of the Muslim caste system is the Fatawa-i-Jahandari, written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims.
                            Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth. Barani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf].[16] His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.[16] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" and would carry precedence over Sharia law whenever they were in conflict.[16]
                            In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" being the "custodian of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominity, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf]".[16] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect.[13] Barani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was primarily on the basis of their caste.[16]
                            In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, who were regarded by anti-Caste activists like as the equivalent of untouchables.[17][18] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[17][18][19] The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and are also called Muslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”. They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.[20]

                            Interaction and mobility

                            Main article: Jajmani system
                            Interactions between the oonchi zat (upper caste) and neechi zat (lower caste) are regulated by established patron-client relationships of the jajmani system, the upper castes being referred to as the 'Jajmans', and the lower caste as 'Kamin'. Upon contact with a low-caste Muslim, a Muslim of a higher zat can "purify" by taking a short bath, since there are no elaborate rituals for purification.[21] In Bihar state of India, cases have been reported in which the higher caste Muslims have opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard.[22]
                            Some data indicates that the castes among Muslims have never been as rigid as that among Hindus.[23] The rate of endogamous marriage, for example, is less than two thirds.[23] An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid."[24]

                            Castes in India

                            Some South Asian Muslims have been known to stratify their society according to Quoms.[25] These Muslims practise a ritual-based system of social stratification. The Quoms who deal with human emissions are ranked the lowest. Studies of Bengali Muslims in India indicate that the concepts of purity and impurity exist among them and are applicable in inter-group relationships, as the notions of hygiene and cleanliness in a person are related to the person's social position and not to his/her economic status.[21] Muslim Rajput is another caste distinction among Indian Muslims.
                            Some of the backward or lower-caste Muslim caste include Kunjra, Dhobi and Halalkhor. The upper caste Muslim caste include QureshiShaikh AnsariSyedPathanTurkSheikh and Malik.[22] Genetic data has also supported this stratification.[26]
                            The report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society.


                            On Jun 26, 2014, at 6:12 AM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                             

                            Dear Imran,

                            I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

                            Pankaj


                            On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                             
                             When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


                            On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                             

                            While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                            It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                            Pankaj 



                            On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                             


                            From: razi24@...
                            To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                            Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                            COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                            http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                            Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                            A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                             
                            By Mr. Ajmal khan
                            04 May, 2012
                            Countercurrents.org
                            This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                            The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education,especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                            Higher education and globalisation
                            After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educational institutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector wasexclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                            Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                            To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                            Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                            Cast group by religious background in higher education
                            Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                             
                            Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                            The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians and Shiks, both are categorised as equal minority community same as Muslims. This data from 1999-2000 which make this relevant that the changes have happen in India post globalisation era both the market driven economy and market oriented higher education where Muslims as homogeneous group could not participate or take benefits as their any counter parts in India.
                             
                            Socio-religious communities
                            Number (in Lakhs)
                            Percentage of 20 years plus
                            population
                            Distribution across the
                            SRCs
                            Total
                            Graduates
                            Diploma and certificates
                            Graduates
                            Diploma and certificates
                            Graduates
                            Diploma and certificates
                            Total
                            376.7
                            40.5
                            6.7
                            0.7
                            100
                            100
                            Muslims
                            23.9
                            2.7
                            3.6
                            0.4
                            6.3
                            6.8
                            SCs/STs
                            30.8
                            4.1
                            2.4
                            0.3
                            8.2
                            10.2
                            All others
                            322
                            33.7
                            8.8
                            0.9
                            85.5
                            83
                            Source: Sahcar commission Report, according to the census 2001
                            According to 2001 census data seven percentage of the population aged twenty years and above are hold anydiploma, This proportion is less than 4 per cent among the Muslims, apart form this, the proportion of the population that having technical education at the age of eighteen and above are lowest among the Muslims which is merely one per cent, which shows the terrible backwardness of the Indian Muslims in higher education. This is also highlighted by the Sachar Commission appointed by Government of India, so it is clearly evident that Indian Muslims are higher educationally backward than any other socio- religious community, now l shall examine their backwardness in comparison with the Scheduled Cast in India taking them as ahomogeneous social group.
                            Dalits and higher educational attainment
                            Historically Dalits or the scheduled castes are one of the most marginalised group in India in all walks of life, that still persist in many sectors even today. but there are some remarkable mobility that Daliths In India have made as a homogeneous community, and some specific mobility in terms of community specific and regional specific. Still the literacy level for the seduced cast remain as the lest developed groups in India . In all indicators, the historical intervention of the reservation have had made changes, the SCelites to utilise these and come up and attain the socio-economic and political mobility. The story of Scheduled cats in India is unlike the Muslims, There were mobilised efforts among the scheduled caste for the approval and social recognition, this has expressed through the Dalit mobilisation in several forms which has also helped Dalits for the social mobility in some states and districts will also vary from region. Despite all these SCs remain as the single homogeneous group which isleast developed in social and economic terms with scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
                            When one consider Dalits as a homogeneous community and assess their higher educational attainment during postindependence to the post liberalisation period, the event that to be mentioned is the historic reservation policy and the subsequent changes among the scheduled cast in India, even if which has helped more elite or middle class among them, the literacy rate of Scheduled Castes for all India was 54.69 per cent according to the 2001 census data which is far below the national average but according to the Human Development report of India 2011, the growth of SC literacy rate is is 8.7 when thisis 5.3 among the Muslims according to the same report, so there has been a increase in the growth of the SC literacy rate as compared to Muslims which will also reflect in the all other edu

                            (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
                          • sankrant
                            Equality for all is a fiction which is true neither in theory nor practice. It was a feature discovered and imputed by 20th century liberalism on Islam.
                            Message 13 of 15 , Jul 1, 2014
                              "Equality for all" is a fiction which is true neither in theory nor practice. It was a feature discovered and imputed by 20th century liberalism on Islam.
                            • Mohammad Imran
                              but it is clear that if equality of all feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all
                              Message 14 of 15 , Jul 1, 2014
                                but it is clear that if 'equality of all' feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all other aspects, be it civil laws, economics or culture, Muslim society is just one more among many variations that human kind has evolved, and not particularly/ uniquely appealing. (Pankaj)

                                Pankaj: Your above statement is correct. When Muslim kings acquired trappings of the people they conquered they lost appeal of Islam to their subjects. 

                                My knowledge on spread of Islam in India and elsewhere in the world is summarized below. You are welcome to your ideas,

                                Spread of Islam in India: Islam was spread by Sufis. Sufis were different than the kings and the ulema. The kings ruled and the ulema stuck to strict interpretation of Quran whereas the sufis tried to combine interpretation of God from all sources incorporating them into Islamic ideas.  Sufis lived among general populace unlike hermits who shunned public. Sufis traditionally took vows of poverty. Sufism developed religious practices focusing on strict self-control that enable both psychological and mystical insights as well as a loss of self, with the ultimate goal of mystical union with God.(http://www.patheos.com/Library/Sufism.html)

                                Sufis were accepted as spiritual leaders with their religious knowledge, their simplicity of living and their openness to all from the lowest to the highest. They lived simply and poor. When Baba Fareed Shakarganj (Patan, now Pakistan ) was small and his family did not have food to eat his mother would tell him he was guest of Allah and ask him to say his prayers and go to bed.

                                Sufis disdained power. Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi) did not visit the kings who occupied the throne while he was alive, even when they asked him to come and see them. 

                                Following is a list of universal ideas of saints of Chisti order given by Nizamuddin Auliya from wikipedia.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nizamuddin_Auliya):

                                Besides believing in the traditional Sufi ideas of embracing God within this life (as opposed to the idea that such partial merger withGod is possible only after death), by destroying the ego and cleansing the soul, and that this is possible through considerable efforts involving Sufi practices, Nizamuddin also expanded and practised the unique features introduced by past saints of the Chisti Sufi order in India. These included:

                                • Emphasis on renunciation and having complete trust in God.
                                • The unity of mankind and shunning distinctions based on social, economic, religious status.
                                • Helping the needy, feeding the hungry and being sympathetic to the oppressed.
                                • Strong disapproval of mixing with the Sultans, the princes and the nobles.
                                • Exhortation in making close contact with the poor and the downtrodden
                                • Adopting an uncompromising attitude towards all forms of political and social oppression.
                                • A bold stance in favour of Sema, which some considered unislamic. Perhaps this was with the view that this was in consonance with the role of music in some modes of Hindu worship, could serve as a basis of contact with local people and would facilitate mutual adjustments between the two communities.[8] In fact Qawwali, a form of devotional music, was originally created by one his most cherished disciples: Amir Khusro.
                                Sufis practiced equality, fraternity and brotherhood of mankind without discrimination of race, religion, caste and rich or poor. They were acknowledged spiritual leaders. They were approachable by all from the lowest doms and bahngis to the powerful and the kings. They remained independent and they did not bow to any power on earth. They did not care about the power of the kings. The poor came to get spiritual blessings from them and attracted by their beliefs and behavior and spirituality they slowly converted to Islam. The conversions were slow processes over many generations. While low caste Hindus converted to Islam they mixed their belief systems with new beliefs and retained all of their social structures.


                                On Jun 27, 2014, at 8:55 PM, Pankaj Jain wrote:

                                Dear Imran,

                                I am not a a scholar of history or society to be able to make investment of time/ capability to study in details, but it is clear that if 'equality of all' feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all other aspects, be it civil laws, economics or culture, Muslim society is just one more among many variations that human kind has evolved, and not particularly/ uniquely appealing. Also, if 'equality of all' was not practiced, as you seem to imply, large scale conversion that took place could not have sustained only under the pressure/ fear of ruling elite (who were Ashraf?). Just because, a thing is written in books by some writers, it does not become a fact, so on the balance, I am not sure your contention is supported by the totality of facts/ events. To quote a sentence from your above reference, "An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid.". 

                                Pankaj  


                                On Saturday, June 28, 2014 2:21 AM, Mohammad Imran <dalibagh@...> wrote:


                                Dear Pankaj,

                                The subjugation and deprivation of Indian converts to Islam is as old as Muslim occupation of India. Read hateful description of Indian Muslim converts from the pen of  Ziauddin Barani, an upper class Muslim who was a noted historian and influential political thinker. HIs book Fatwa i Jahandari was written around 1300. You can read translation of his views in Professor Khaliq Nizamis book on Indian Sultanate in thirteenth century. Thearticle below from Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand quote some of it. Barani was a court historian of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Barani calls Indian converts, dogs and pigs (read below). 

                                Conversion of caste groups to Islam was a slow process over many generations. While people in a caste changed religions they retained all of their social and relational functions which defined their castes and most of their beliefs. That is where their caste identity comes from.

                                Read the articles below.  Lower caste Muslims were a deprived lot politically, educationally, socially and religiously. They were defined as Ghair Kuf (Outsiders) when it came to marriage in religious sense. They were not welcome in any Ashraf meeting, could not enter Ashraf household except to sit on ground at the feet of the house owner, could not eat except what was given to them on separate plates meant for the low caste.  Marriage to an Ashraf woman was totally out of bounds. If an Ashraf man married a lower caste woman then he and his progeny were considered outcastes. These stories were all hashed and rehashed at the time of finding brides or bridegrooms and those not meeting the societal and caste standards were not considered for marriage.

                                There are many other books on "Castes among Muslims" you can read them.

                                I

                                Caste in Indian Muslim Society

                                             Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand,
                                           Head,
                                           Centre for Studies on Indian Muslims,
                                              Hamdard   University ,
                                             New Delhi
                                The Fatawa-i Jahandari shows Barani as a fervent champion of ashraf supremacy and as vehemently opposed to the ajlaf. In appealing to the Sultan to protect the ashraf and keep the ajlaf firmly under their control and submission he repeatedly refers to the Qur'an, from which he seeks to derive legitimacy from his arguments. His is not a rigorous scholarly approach to the Qur'an, however, for he conveniently misinterprets it to support the hegemonic claims of the ashraf, completely ignoring the Qur'an's insistence on social equality. In the process, he develops a doctrine and social vision for the ideal Muslim ruler, which, in their implications for what Barani calls the 'low-born', are hardly different in their severity than the classical Hindu law of caste as contained in the Manusmriti, the Brahminical law code. As Barani's translator, Mohammad Habib, writes, 'Barani's God, as is quite clear from his work, has two aspects-first, he is the tribal deity of the Musalmans; secondly, as between the Musalmans themselves, He is the tribal deity of well-born uslims'.[1] Barani was not a lone voice in his period, however, for he seems to echo a widely shared understanding of ashraf supremacy  held by many of his ashraf contemporaries, including leading 'ulama and Sufis.

                                Barani's disdain for the 'low' born is well illustrated in his advice to the Sultan about education of the ajlaf. While the Qur'an and the traditions attributed to the Prophet repeatedly stress the need for all Muslims, men and women, rich and poor, to acquire knowledge, Barani insists that the Sultan should consider it his religious duty to deny the ajlaf access to knowledge, branding them as 'mean', and 'despicable'. Thus, he advises the Sultan:

                                          Teachers of every kind are to be sternly ordered not
                                          to thrust precious stones down the throats of dogs or
                                          to put collars of gold round the necks of pigs and
                                          bears, that is, to the mean, the ignoble and the
                                          worthless, to shopkeepers and to the low-born they are
                                          to teach nothing more than the rules about prayer,
                                          fasting, religious charity and the haj pilgrimage,
                                          along with some chapters of the Qur'an and some
                                          doctrines of the faith, without which their religion
                                          cannot be correct and valid prayers are not possible.
                                          But they are to be taught nothing else, lest it bring
                                          honour to their mean souls.[2]


                                As Barani sees it, if the ajlaf were allowed access to education, they might challenge ashraf hegemony. Therefore, he sternly warns the Sultan:

                                          They are not to be taught reading and writing, for
                                          plenty of disorders arise owing to the skill of the
                                          low born in knowledge. The disorder into which all
                                          affairs of the religion and the state are thrown is
                                          due to the acts and words of the low born, who have
                                          become skilled. For, on account of their skill, they
                                          become governors (wali), revenue-collectors ('amils),
                                          auditors (mutassarif), officers (farman deh) and
                                          rulers (farman rawa). If teachers are disobedient, and
                                          it is discovered at the time of investigation that
                                          they have imparted knowledge or taught letters or
                                          writing to the low born, inevitably the punishment for
                                          their disobedience will be meted out to them.[3]


                                In order to bolster his assertion that the Sultan should ensure that the ajlaf remain subservient to the ashraf, Barani seeks appropriate religious sanction. Thus, he asserts:

                                          [.] to promote base, mean, low-born and worthless men
                                          to be the helpers and supporters of the government has
                                          not been permitted by any religion, creed, publicly
                                          accepted tradition or state-law.[4]

                                II

                                Caste system among Muslims

                                Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam.[1][2][12][13] Religious scholar Yoginder Sikand elaborates that the caste system among Muslims was not due to the "influence of Hinduism among a previously 'pure', 'uncontaminated' Muslim caste but rather to "the continued impact of Hindu beliefs and customs on the converts who still remained within a largely Hindu cultural universe and retained many of its associated beliefs and practices".[13]

                                Stratification

                                In some parts of South Asia, the Muslims are divided as Ashrafs and Ajlafs.[14] Ashrafs claim a superior status derived from their foreign ancestry.[15]
                                Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) provide religious legitimacy to caste with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classical example of scholarly declaration of the Muslim caste system is the Fatawa-i-Jahandari, written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims.
                                Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth. Barani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf].[16] His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.[16] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" and would carry precedence over Sharia law whenever they were in conflict.[16]
                                In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" being the "custodian of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominity, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf]".[16] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect.[13] Barani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was primarily on the basis of their caste.[16]
                                In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, who were regarded by anti-Caste activists like as the equivalent of untouchables.[17][18] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[17][18][19] The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and are also called Muslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”. They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.[20]

                                Interaction and mobility

                                Main article: Jajmani system
                                Interactions between the oonchi zat (upper caste) and neechi zat (lower caste) are regulated by established patron-client relationships of the jajmani system, the upper castes being referred to as the 'Jajmans', and the lower caste as 'Kamin'. Upon contact with a low-caste Muslim, a Muslim of a higher zat can "purify" by taking a short bath, since there are no elaborate rituals for purification.[21] In Bihar state of India, cases have been reported in which the higher caste Muslims have opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard.[22]
                                Some data indicates that the castes among Muslims have never been as rigid as that among Hindus.[23] The rate of endogamous marriage, for example, is less than two thirds.[23] An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid."[24]

                                Castes in India

                                Some South Asian Muslims have been known to stratify their society according to Quoms.[25] These Muslims practise a ritual-based system of social stratification. The Quoms who deal with human emissions are ranked the lowest. Studies of Bengali Muslims in India indicate that the concepts of purity and impurity exist among them and are applicable in inter-group relationships, as the notions of hygiene and cleanliness in a person are related to the person's social position and not to his/her economic status.[21] Muslim Rajput is another caste distinction among Indian Muslims.
                                Some of the backward or lower-caste Muslim caste include Kunjra, Dhobi and Halalkhor. The upper caste Muslim caste include QureshiShaikh AnsariSyedPathanTurkSheikh and Malik.[22] Genetic data has also supported this stratification.[26]
                                The report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society.


                                On Jun 26, 2014, at 6:12 AM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                                 

                                Dear Imran,

                                I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

                                Pankaj


                                On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                                 
                                 When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


                                On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                                 

                                While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                                It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                                Pankaj 



                                On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                                 


                                From: razi24@...
                                To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                                Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                                Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                                COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                                http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                                Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                                A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                                 
                                By Mr. Ajmal khan
                                04 May, 2012
                                Countercurrents.org
                                This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits with the historical interventions that are taken place in the pre globalisation era. The growth process of attaining higher education by the community was slower than any other socio-religious community. It also try to see and understand the double burden and deprivation imposed by the Globalisation on the Indian Muslims because of lack of overall educational development among the community and alienation form the whole process.
                                The definition of the world globalisation would be depended on who is defining and what is the purpose. when it is used in economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour. Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. it began towards the end of the nineteenth century but it was slow downed in between and raised again rapidly during the first quarter of the twentieth century. Globalisation is a flow which is very strong, if one is capable enough to stand, it will sustain if one is not it will be washed out, Now what is the capability or capacity, this capacity is of economic, social, political and cultural, when we take Indian society historically, who is capable to stand against the flow, the upper cast urban Indian elite, this is the section of India that has made tremendous gain from theeconomic process called liberalisation, the indigenous communities, Dalits, Tribals and Muslims were the worsely affected groups by this process in the India and else where, this vary regional to specific community. India started the process of economic globalisation in the early of 1978 by taking small steps and during the 1991, the majorpolicy changes were adopted and India opened up for liberalisation and privatisation. Liberal economic and trade policy, opening up of Indian market for the foreign trade and investment, huge privatisation of public sector, and highlighted rapid economic growth were the main characteristics of this process. In the shadow of this, there were claims by the government of India that per capita income have increased considerable and huge decrease in the number of people who live under the poverty line. But this was later understood as the play with numbersby the Planning Commission of India. This huge process have impacted directly and indirectly the millions living in India, this was reflected in the all sectors, agriculture, industry, health education and even culture and lot more in the day today life of every Indian. The processof has brought shining economic growth with two digits of GDP, but which created the more structural inequalities in the Indian society where all ready huge inequality have existed and still persisting. Education, especially higher education is one of the sector that has under gone tremendous changes in the last two decades. Private universities, market based and new generation courses, decreasing public spending, public private partnership, internationalisation of education and curricula, setting up the campuses of foreign universities, huge private investment in education sector especially in higher education make characteristics of the changes that have happend in the higher educational sector, howfar these has impacted a section of society that doest have access to higher education historically would unfold educational and economic inequality with in the Indian society.
                                Higher education and globalisation
                                After the independence there was tremendous increase in terms of the number of higher educationalinstitutions in India , teachers and students. there after also there was big increase in the number of universities, teacher and students, but how far this jumps where distributed among all the communities and groups in India has to be examined to understand how unequal was the development that take place in the arena of higher education. The national higher education policy adopted in 1986 has emphasized on three basic elements, Access, equal access (or equity), Quality and Excellence. But the process of development in this sector was exclusionary for the sections like scheduled tribes, scheduled casts, other backward classes and minorities especially Muslims, which was persistent process for a long period after the independence, that still continues today. India spends a scandalously small proportion of its education budget on schools and remarkably large portion to on higher education budget. The poor provision of of free schooling means that a disproportionate number of undeserved places at a highly subsidised universitys are won by those who have received a private education (Smith-2003). This spending on higher education have had fluctuations over a period of time but it was never less that what has spend for the school education. After the 1991, the higher education sector has began to change like anything, emergences of the private university's, new self financing institutions and courses, folds of increase in the tuition fee, emergence of self financing institutions, setting up of educational regulatory authorities in the state and centre, market and industry oriented courses and curricula. its has privatised and became as an Industry which provide income, the boom of private higher educational institutions has shaped the destiny of the higher education where market decide everything. emergence of the new courses, private universitys make the recent characteristics in this arena, this has "revolutionised" the higher education by restricting the access to a small minority they can 'buy' higher education which is obviously the urban upper cast Indian elite and other economically and socially affluent classes.
                                Higher educational attainment and Muslims
                                To attain higher education one has to go through the a long process which start from the primary school enrolment, with in this process only a minority reach to the higher education and rest of the majority get eliminated, Indeed it is accepted that, the higher education is one of the important means of socialmobility and human development. The development of a community is depended upon the educational attainment that a community make, which start from the literacy level to higher educational attainment. There is a scarcity of studies of the higher educational attainment separately for Muslims but Sachar Commission has made an assertion which is more or less the reality. Muslims in India perform very weak in all the human development indexes compared to their other counter parts, they rank considerably lower than national averages and in higher education indices they are even below the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes. 59 per cent of Muslims are literate when 65 per cent is the national average , and just above the scheduled casts and scheduled tribes. But there is a trend of declining the literacy growth of the Indian Muslims after the 2004,- and same time the growth rate of the literacy rate among the Muslims are 5.3 when this is 8.7 per cent for the scheduled cast, when it come to elementary, secondary enrolments the story is not diffident. higher educational attainment of the Muslims in very less as the all other educational indicators.
                                Performance in the higher education is calculated through the Enrolment Ratio which is calculated from Gross Enrolment ratio (GER), Net enrolment ratio (NER) and Enrolment of Eligible ratio (EER) and the Graduate Enrolment Ratio (GER), the data below provided by University Grants Commission on the gross enrolment ratio for different socio-religious and cast groups across the country.
                                Cast group by religious background in higher education
                                Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER%) in age group of 18-23 years as on 2000

                                 
                                Source: Gender Differentials in Access to Higher Education- UGC.
                                The data above provide a picture of what extend Indian Muslims are behind the their other counter parts in terms of higher educational gross enrolment ratio, here what is interesting is the divide of Muslims in higher educational enrolment rate is less than half of the Hindu enrolment ratio, this is for total Muslims when it come to the ST/SC/OBC Muslims this is really worse, for the Christians it is 13.84 which is much above than even Hindus same time Sikhs have a ratio of 8.29 which is also higher than that of Muslims, this picture emerges when one consider all the religious groups as a homogeneous community, now take the categories with in the religion like SC, ST andOBC of all the religious groups, among the Hindu, Christian and Sikh. The ST and SC Hindu ratio is 5.40 and 3.83, for Christian ST and SC the ratio is 6.17 and 6.76 subsequently when it come to the Sikhs also the ratio is well above the Muslim ST and SCs. so it is clear that the higher educational attainment of the categories with in the Muslim community is far below to the same categories of the all other religious groups. Now lets look at the condition of Muslim OBCs which constitute about more than forty per cent of the Indian Muslims, the tables give clear evidences that the Muslim OBCs are far behind all the other religious groups even if it is for the Christians a

                                (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
                              • Pankaj Jain
                                Dear Imraan/ Walters, It will be good that all of us have humility to recognize that we are on slippery ground because we are inferring on the basis of little
                                Message 15 of 15 , Jul 2, 2014
                                  Dear Imraan/ Walters,

                                  It will be good that all of us have humility to recognize that we are on slippery ground because we are inferring on the basis of little hard evidence about a part of past reality, where it is so easy to combine one's predetermined views with partial analysis/ data. I hope we shall remain doubtful about the correctness of our own view and open to the plausibility of another view.

                                  Coming to suggest another side of your argument, if it was true, one should find that so called Pasmanda Muslim should feel greater affinity/ solidarity with SC Hindu's or with Bhakti movement  than with Ashraf Muslims. Have you got some evidence of it also?

                                  Pankaj



                                  On Wednesday, July 2, 2014 2:02 AM, Mohammad Imran <dalibagh@...> wrote:


                                  but it is clear that if 'equality of all' feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all other aspects, be it civil laws, economics or culture, Muslim society is just one more among many variations that human kind has evolved, and not particularly/ uniquely appealing. (Pankaj)

                                  Pankaj: Your above statement is correct. When Muslim kings acquired trappings of the people they conquered they lost appeal of Islam to their subjects. 

                                  My knowledge on spread of Islam in India and elsewhere in the world is summarized below. You are welcome to your ideas,

                                  Spread of Islam in India: Islam was spread by Sufis. Sufis were different than the kings and the ulema. The kings ruled and the ulema stuck to strict interpretation of Quran whereas the sufis tried to combine interpretation of God from all sources incorporating them into Islamic ideas.  Sufis lived among general populace unlike hermits who shunned public. Sufis traditionally took vows of poverty. Sufism developed religious practices focusing on strict self-control that enable both psychological and mystical insights as well as a loss of self, with the ultimate goal of mystical union with God.(http://www.patheos.com/Library/Sufism.html)

                                  Sufis were accepted as spiritual leaders with their religious knowledge, their simplicity of living and their openness to all from the lowest to the highest. They lived simply and poor. When Baba Fareed Shakarganj (Patan, now Pakistan ) was small and his family did not have food to eat his mother would tell him he was guest of Allah and ask him to say his prayers and go to bed.

                                  Sufis disdained power. Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi) did not visit the kings who occupied the throne while he was alive, even when they asked him to come and see them. 

                                  Following is a list of universal ideas of saints of Chisti order given by Nizamuddin Auliya from wikipedia.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nizamuddin_Auliya):
                                  Besides believing in the traditional Sufi ideas of embracing God within this life (as opposed to the idea that such partial merger with God is possible only after death), by destroying the ego and cleansing the soul, and that this is possible through considerable efforts involving Sufi practices, Nizamuddin also expanded and practised the unique features introduced by past saints of the Chisti Sufi order in India. These included:
                                  • Emphasis on renunciation and having complete trust in God.
                                  • The unity of mankind and shunning distinctions based on social, economic, religious status.
                                  • Helping the needy, feeding the hungry and being sympathetic to the oppressed.
                                  • Strong disapproval of mixing with the Sultans, the princes and the nobles.
                                  • Exhortation in making close contact with the poor and the downtrodden
                                  • Adopting an uncompromising attitude towards all forms of political and social oppression.
                                  • A bold stance in favour of Sema, which some considered unislamic. Perhaps this was with the view that this was in consonance with the role of music in some modes of Hindu worship, could serve as a basis of contact with local people and would facilitate mutual adjustments between the two communities.[8] In fact Qawwali, a form of devotional music, was originally created by one his most cherished disciples: Amir Khusro.
                                  Sufis practiced equality, fraternity and brotherhood of mankind without discrimination of race, religion, caste and rich or poor. They were acknowledged spiritual leaders. They were approachable by all from the lowest doms and bahngis to the powerful and the kings. They remained independent and they did not bow to any power on earth. They did not care about the power of the kings. The poor came to get spiritual blessings from them and attracted by their beliefs and behavior and spirituality they slowly converted to Islam. The conversions were slow processes over many generations. While low caste Hindus converted to Islam they mixed their belief systems with new beliefs and retained all of their social structures.


                                  On Jun 27, 2014, at 8:55 PM, Pankaj Jain wrote:

                                  Dear Imran,

                                  I am not a a scholar of history or society to be able to make investment of time/ capability to study in details, but it is clear that if 'equality of all' feature of Islam is removed, its appeal/ acceptance/ admiration to many, like me, would disappear, because in all other aspects, be it civil laws, economics or culture, Muslim society is just one more among many variations that human kind has evolved, and not particularly/ uniquely appealing. Also, if 'equality of all' was not practiced, as you seem to imply, large scale conversion that took place could not have sustained only under the pressure/ fear of ruling elite (who were Ashraf?). Just because, a thing is written in books by some writers, it does not become a fact, so on the balance, I am not sure your contention is supported by the totality of facts/ events. To quote a sentence from your above reference, "An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid.". 

                                  Pankaj  


                                  On Saturday, June 28, 2014 2:21 AM, Mohammad Imran <dalibagh@...> wrote:


                                  Dear Pankaj,

                                  The subjugation and deprivation of Indian converts to Islam is as old as Muslim occupation of India. Read hateful description of Indian Muslim converts from the pen of  Ziauddin Barani, an upper class Muslim who was a noted historian and influential political thinker. HIs book Fatwa i Jahandari was written around 1300. You can read translation of his views in Professor Khaliq Nizamis book on Indian Sultanate in thirteenth century. The article below from Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand quote some of it. Barani was a court historian of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Barani calls Indian converts, dogs and pigs (read below). 

                                  Conversion of caste groups to Islam was a slow process over many generations. While people in a caste changed religions they retained all of their social and relational functions which defined their castes and most of their beliefs. That is where their caste identity comes from.

                                  Read the articles below.  Lower caste Muslims were a deprived lot politically, educationally, socially and religiously. They were defined as Ghair Kuf (Outsiders) when it came to marriage in religious sense. They were not welcome in any Ashraf meeting, could not enter Ashraf household except to sit on ground at the feet of the house owner, could not eat except what was given to them on separate plates meant for the low caste.  Marriage to an Ashraf woman was totally out of bounds. If an Ashraf man married a lower caste woman then he and his progeny were considered outcastes. These stories were all hashed and rehashed at the time of finding brides or bridegrooms and those not meeting the societal and caste standards were not considered for marriage.

                                  There are many other books on "Castes among Muslims" you can read them.

                                  I

                                  Caste in Indian Muslim Society

                                               Professor Yoginder Singh Sikand,
                                             Head,
                                             Centre for Studies on Indian Muslims,
                                                Hamdard   University ,
                                               New Delhi
                                  The Fatawa-i Jahandari shows Barani as a fervent champion of ashraf supremacy and as vehemently opposed to the ajlaf. In appealing to the Sultan to protect the ashraf and keep the ajlaf firmly under their control and submission he repeatedly refers to the Qur'an, from which he seeks to derive legitimacy from his arguments. His is not a rigorous scholarly approach to the Qur'an, however, for he conveniently misinterprets it to support the hegemonic claims of the ashraf, completely ignoring the Qur'an's insistence on social equality. In the process, he develops a doctrine and social vision for the ideal Muslim ruler, which, in their implications for what Barani calls the 'low-born', are hardly different in their severity than the classical Hindu law of caste as contained in the Manusmriti, the Brahminical law code. As Barani's translator, Mohammad Habib, writes, 'Barani's God, as is quite clear from his work, has two aspects-first, he is the tribal deity of the Musalmans; secondly, as between the Musalmans themselves, He is the tribal deity of well-born uslims'.[1] Barani was not a lone voice in his period, however, for he seems to echo a widely shared understanding of ashraf supremacy  held by many of his ashraf contemporaries, including leading 'ulama and Sufis.

                                  Barani's disdain for the 'low' born is well illustrated in his advice to the Sultan about education of the ajlaf. While the Qur'an and the traditions attributed to the Prophet repeatedly stress the need for all Muslims, men and women, rich and poor, to acquire knowledge, Barani insists that the Sultan should consider it his religious duty to deny the ajlaf access to knowledge, branding them as 'mean', and 'despicable'. Thus, he advises the Sultan:

                                            Teachers of every kind are to be sternly ordered not
                                            to thrust precious stones down the throats of dogs or
                                            to put collars of gold round the necks of pigs and
                                            bears, that is, to the mean, the ignoble and the
                                            worthless, to shopkeepers and to the low-born they are
                                            to teach nothing more than the rules about prayer,
                                            fasting, religious charity and the haj pilgrimage,
                                            along with some chapters of the Qur'an and some
                                            doctrines of the faith, without which their religion
                                            cannot be correct and valid prayers are not possible.
                                            But they are to be taught nothing else, lest it bring
                                            honour to their mean souls.[2]


                                  As Barani sees it, if the ajlaf were allowed access to education, they might challenge ashraf hegemony. Therefore, he sternly warns the Sultan:

                                            They are not to be taught reading and writing, for
                                            plenty of disorders arise owing to the skill of the
                                            low born in knowledge. The disorder into which all
                                            affairs of the religion and the state are thrown is
                                            due to the acts and words of the low born, who have
                                            become skilled. For, on account of their skill, they
                                            become governors (wali), revenue-collectors ('amils),
                                            auditors (mutassarif), officers (farman deh) and
                                            rulers (farman rawa). If teachers are disobedient, and
                                            it is discovered at the time of investigation that
                                            they have imparted knowledge or taught letters or
                                            writing to the low born, inevitably the punishment for
                                            their disobedience will be meted out to them.[3]


                                  In order to bolster his assertion that the Sultan should ensure that the ajlaf remain subservient to the ashraf, Barani seeks appropriate religious sanction. Thus, he asserts:

                                            [.] to promote base, mean, low-born and worthless men
                                            to be the helpers and supporters of the government has
                                            not been permitted by any religion, creed, publicly
                                            accepted tradition or state-law.[4]

                                  II

                                  Caste system among Muslims

                                  Sources indicate that the castes among Muslims developed as the result of close contact with Hindu culture and Hindu converts to Islam.[1][2][12][13] Religious scholar Yoginder Sikand elaborates that the caste system among Muslims was not due to the "influence of Hinduism among a previously 'pure', 'uncontaminated' Muslim caste but rather to "the continued impact of Hindu beliefs and customs on the converts who still remained within a largely Hindu cultural universe and retained many of its associated beliefs and practices".[13]

                                  Stratification

                                  In some parts of South Asia, the Muslims are divided as Ashrafs and Ajlafs.[14] Ashrafs claim a superior status derived from their foreign ancestry.[15]
                                  Sections of the ulema (scholars of Islamic jurisprudence) provide religious legitimacy to caste with the help of the concept of kafa'a. A classical example of scholarly declaration of the Muslim caste system is the Fatawa-i-Jahandari, written by the fourteenth century Turkish scholar, Ziauddin Barani, a member of the court of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. Barani was known for his intensely casteist views, and regarded the Ashraf Muslims as racially superior to the Ajlaf Muslims. He divided the Muslims into grades and sub-grades. In his scheme, all high positions and privileges were to be a monopoly of the high born Turks, not the Indian Muslims.
                                  Even in his interpretation of the Koranic verse "Indeed, the pious amongst you are most honored by Allah", he considered piety to be associated with noble birth. Barani was specific in his recommendation that the "sons of Mohamed" [i.e. Ashrafs] "be given a higher social status than the low-born [i.e. Ajlaf].[16] His most significant contribution in the fatwa was his analysis of the castes with respect to Islam.[16] His assertion was that castes would be mandated through state laws or "Zawabi" and would carry precedence over Sharia law whenever they were in conflict.[16]
                                  In the Fatwa-i-Jahandari (advice XXI), he wrote about the "qualities of the high-born" as being "virtuous" and the "low-born" being the "custodian of vices". Every act which is "contaminated with meanness and based on ignominity, comes elegantly [from the Ajlaf]".[16] Barani had a clear disdain for the Ajlaf and strongly recommended that they be denied education, lest they usurp the Ashraf masters. He sought appropriate religious sanction to that effect.[13] Barani also developed an elaborate system of promotion and demotion of Imperial officers ("Wazirs") that was primarily on the basis of their caste.[16]
                                  In addition to the Ashraf/Ajlaf divide, there is also the Arzal caste among Muslims, who were regarded by anti-Caste activists like as the equivalent of untouchables.[17][18] The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc.[17][18][19] The Arzal group was recorded in the 1901 census in India and are also called Muslims “with whom no other Muhammadan would associate, and who are forbidden to enter the mosque or to use the public burial ground”. They are relegated to "menial" professions such as scavenging and carrying night soil.[20]

                                  Interaction and mobility

                                  Main article: Jajmani system
                                  Interactions between the oonchi zat (upper caste) and neechi zat (lower caste) are regulated by established patron-client relationships of the jajmani system, the upper castes being referred to as the 'Jajmans', and the lower caste as 'Kamin'. Upon contact with a low-caste Muslim, a Muslim of a higher zat can "purify" by taking a short bath, since there are no elaborate rituals for purification.[21] In Bihar state of India, cases have been reported in which the higher caste Muslims have opposed the burials of lower caste Muslims in the same graveyard.[22]
                                  Some data indicates that the castes among Muslims have never been as rigid as that among Hindus.[23] The rate of endogamous marriage, for example, is less than two thirds.[23] An old saying also goes "Last year I was a Julaha (weaver); this year a Shaikh; and next year if the harvest be good, I shall be a Sayyid."[24]

                                  Castes in India

                                  Some South Asian Muslims have been known to stratify their society according to Quoms.[25] These Muslims practise a ritual-based system of social stratification. The Quoms who deal with human emissions are ranked the lowest. Studies of Bengali Muslims in India indicate that the concepts of purity and impurity exist among them and are applicable in inter-group relationships, as the notions of hygiene and cleanliness in a person are related to the person's social position and not to his/her economic status.[21] Muslim Rajput is another caste distinction among Indian Muslims.
                                  Some of the backward or lower-caste Muslim caste include Kunjra, Dhobi and Halalkhor. The upper caste Muslim caste include QureshiShaikh AnsariSyedPathanTurkSheikh and Malik.[22] Genetic data has also supported this stratification.[26]
                                  The report commissioned by the government of India and released in 2006, documents the continued stratification in Muslim society.


                                  On Jun 26, 2014, at 6:12 AM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                                   

                                  Dear Imran,

                                  I am not sure if you are right in your belief that Muslim elite excluded the 'lower caste' muslim the same way as Hindu elite castes did. While poor do not get to mingle with or inter-marry rich any where, be it Hindu or Muslim or christian India, or for that matter west, the exclusion of SC/STs by high caste Hindu's was even worse than of slaves by white masters in the USA. It may be politically convenient to project the deprivation of poor Muslims as of SC/STs in the past, it is not historically correct.  Please reconsider your analysis.

                                  Pankaj


                                  On Thursday, June 26, 2014 11:03 AM, "Mohammad Imran dalibagh@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                                   
                                   When lower caste Hindus converted to Islam they retained the same caste and did the same type of work which they did before conversion. Upper caste Muslims called the Shuraffa used services of lower caste Muslims but they did not mix with them or socialize with them or intermarry with them. These Muslims were socially ostracized and politically oppressed. This type of question can come only from one source - RSS publications.


                                  On Jun 22, 2014, at 10:39 PM, Pankaj Jain pjain2002@... [arkitectindia] wrote:

                                   

                                  While the socio-economic outcomes for Muslims are undoubtedly poor, its causes are not clear. Unlike SC/STs, who were indeed socially and politically oppressed for thousands of years, Muslims, till 50 years back, were the ruling class for almost 500 years.  

                                  It would be good to analyze the various contributory factors to the current state of under-development, to find a way forward.

                                  Pankaj 



                                  On Monday, June 23, 2014 8:01 AM, "Razi Raziuddin razi24@... [arkitectindia]" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com> wrote:


                                   


                                  From: razi24@...
                                  To: thegoodindians@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India
                                  Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2014 15:38:12 +0000

                                  COUNTER CURRENTS.ORG
                                  http://www.countercurrents.org/akhan040512.htm
                                  Higher Education And Social Mobility Among Muslims And Dalits In India ,
                                  A Comparative Perspective In The Globalised Times
                                   
                                  By Mr. Ajmal khan
                                  04 May, 2012
                                  Countercurrents.org
                                  This paper is an attempt to see how globalisation has impacted the higher education of Muslims and Dalits in India in a comparative and historic perspective. Based on the different secondary data sets, it tries to show how Dalit community across India has utilised the process of globalisation and achieved educational and social mobility mobility higher than Muslims, Muslims as a homogeneous group didn't take part in the educational development, especially in the higher educational arena where the Scheduled Casts has acquired the benefits w

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