Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

14240Re: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

Expand Messages
  • Kuldeep Garg
    Sep 1, 2012
    • 0 Attachment

      Dear Pankaj Ji

      I have some comments on your arguments. I have taken the all of your mails' text together to put them as a single text and inserted my comments in between the text wherever I disagree with you. The all my comments have been given in red color whereas the part that has been taken as reference point is marked with yellow color. Please see the text below.

      Regards

      kuldeep


      Dear All,

       

      1. What is being demanded is not scaling back of teachers' salary, as that is no politically feasible, even if desirable. What is being demanded/ suggested is that out of education spend, a minimum of 5% is spent on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc. On what basis is this being demanded, are their some criteria to decide this?

       

      2. The old argument that Rs. 100 is being spent, instead of desirable amount of Rs. 250, was correct in 1980s, but IS NO MORE correct for elementary education. In fact, if the World, on average, is spending Rs. 250/- average is highly deceiving thing. Moreover, average spending at world level does not set a rule for a nation to spend the same amount. We may have our own priorities. per child on elementary education, India is spending Rs. 300/-. So, spending more, which was probably right in 1980s, and 1990s, is no more the right thing, and only correct thing is to spend this Rs. 300/- proportionally on ALL NEEDED this may create problems in managing the funds properly. And such things happened/are happening in India (see for example a study by Padma Sarangapani on DIETs where they have found that once a rule is set to allocate a certain amount of fund to a particular head, it becomes very difficult to use this money for other purposes where it is needed desperately since the head it meant for does not need this anymore). Instead of this, I would prefer to allocate this money on the basis of actual needs.    things for effective education. Unfortunately, this is against the political empowerment of 'teachers as a class', so it will not happen. The hard reality of political alignment in India pitches children's class please revisit your construction “children class” here. The concept of “class” has different connotation. This concept has been a central theme in Marx’s thinking system and its zist, in words of Prabhat Patnaik, has not been in unique partitioning of society in some fixed globules. On the contrary it refers this partitioning with reference to the sphere of production. I have serious doubts whether children in schools of a country shall be visualized as a “class”.  nterest against the class-interest of teachers, so the powerless children class is bound to suffer. (This is a neo-left-liberal reality? and this is neo-right-liberal reality that in the name of structural adjustments our education system is being gradually killed by reducing the expenditure on teacher preparation and twisting the criteria to identify a person as teacher. In the name of teacher, some semi-prepared people are being hired.) 

      3. Dividing average teacher salary in India by nation's per capita income is not neo-liberal arithmatic. It is simple arithmatic, period as if it has no implications!!! If it has, then it can’t be a simple arithmetic. If it has no implications, then why this exercise?.

       

      4. It is totally elitist, and politically partisan, to suggest there is something 'absolute' minimum that must be spent on education, or paid as teacher salary, irrespective of per capita. Just for clarity, China and Singapore have achieved much better school education for ALL their children with much less spending than India. incomparable things have been mentioned as basic premises of the arguments. Please note that education is essentially a context-tied phenomenon. Instead of referring some external criteria, we must refer our own criteria of better education as a nation. We must debate that what education can be called as good education not only in present India but also in future India being a part of world? Bangladesh has gone ahead of India in ensuring schooling for poor-girls by spending much less than India, even by the standards of poor countries low per capita.  

       

      5. We indeed need to get out of slogeneering mode to analyze what was done by China, Singapore and Bangladesh to take education to ALL their children, including poor and girls, and come to sesnsible solutions and nonpartisan slogans-policies.

       

      6. Demanding to pay certain salary to a section of population, which is 700% of worldwide norm, can not be justified under any interpretation of fundamental rights, first of all it has not been proved yet by you (even in some positivistic sense) that it requires this kind of proportional allocation. Second, it is very problematic to say that higher expenditures “cannot be justified under any interpretation of fundamental rights”. Fundamental rights cannot be looked at with reference to their monetary cost we need to pay for their fulfillment. Why? Because we value them as “fundamental” conditions of human life. We cannot leave our near and dear one to die since it requires a lot of money (and which can be arranged somehow) to sustain her life through some medical treatments. Why? Because we value the life of that person, not the money.

       

      Yes, you can raise some other kind of questions. Like-  How much a teacher shall earn as her salary in India? Is it possible to have some criteria to decide the amount of teachers’ salary? Do teachers deserve high salary? If yes, then what are those attributes which make them so worthy or deserving? If no, then why?

      By raising such questions and debating on them is the only rational way to decide something about such things.   

      if it takes the fudamental right of a child to receive effective education, which requires spending a minimum of 5% on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc.

       

      Pankaj

       

      School Education is probably the largest and most active political field of action, comparable to the politics of poverty removal or of economic growth or any other.

       

      Let us understand key facts and key actors involved in school education:

       

      1. It covers voiceless and powerless 220 million school age children seems to be very simplistic and/or rather novice statement. On the one hand, you are ignoring that how socio-cultural backgrounds of children play a crucial role in determining the behaviour of teachers or peer group in schools with them. On the other hand, you are unnecessarily visualizing the children as someone who is voiceless and powerless. Please note that even if you put them in the most appropriate conditions with best teachers, they are unlikely to raise their voice and they are unlikely to gain some powers since they don’t know yet what is appropriate for them. This is education which transforms them into an individual who can think what is right or wrong for them.  , (more than entire tribal or entire SC, or entire minority population), who are easy to both ignore and exploit by various categories of powerful adults.

      2. It  covers India's largest organized labour force, consisting of more than  3 million school teachers, whose strength is bigger than of all trade-labour unions combined, which no political party can antagonize. 

       

      3. It involves annual spending of more than Rs. 1 lakh twenty five thousand crores, (2.3% of GDP) every year.

       

      4. Control of School education is seen as critical by all kind of politics, whether it is extreme left like Naxals, Religious fundamentalists like Taliban, secular ideologues like many writers on this forum, or rightist. This has unnecessarily been written to provoke the people. Can you locate your school out of the domain of any political inclination? By the way, for your kind information, it is not possible. In your next lines, it echoes as if you have not any political interests. To do education, you have to be political, otherwise no education is possible. By being political I mean to have a vision for human being, social structures, social institutions, communities and justification for it.   

       

      Such large numbers and political comittments necessarily means that political interest will try to exploit and capture school education policy for their own benefits.

       

      Since analysis or fact based policies I have never came across such policies. Analysis and facts are used to support a vision for which policies are made. If such policies are made, these will lead us nowhere. are tough to promote in popular discourse, education policy has been captured by slogan shouting groups and politically inclined individuals-forums.

       

      I  may sound cynical yes, since what you are seeking for is not actually possible- being nonpolitical is not possible at all. Politics seeks for change, for fulfillment of rights and duties, it has dreams and vision and their justifications. What you are referring is a misunderstanding of secularism and constitutional values., but it is necessary to face facts if one wants to support facts based rational, non-political, analysis.

       

      I, therefore, would urge all of us to re-examine how much of our views are colored by our politics and that applies even to the views in this mail-string.

       

      Pankaj

       

      Sir,

       

      The example you gave is very encouraging, but the real important decions like (i) how many and which teachers to hire (that costs 80-85% of total money spent on children's education in children's name), (ii) should teacher salary budget be not allowed to go beyound 70% of total spending, so that a minimum of 5% is spent on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc., .No doubt that we need to take care of these aspects of schools. However, to say that overall expenditure’s 70 percent shall be allocated as salary of teachers seems to be highly arbitrary and rigid criterion. This is not an issue of home economics where we have ten rupees and we will spend it proportionally. You are considering a nation-state as a home of an individual. This kind of thinking is flawed and highly inappropriate theoretically since neither it accomplishes the commitments of nation state nor it is practically feasible.    (iii) is B.Ed. qualification better compared to M.Sc. for a science-math teacher, in theory it should be better (iv) should children have freedom to change school if they find their current school bad, (iv) what all should be the curriculum coverage, CAN NOT BE LEFT to the assembly of children. I don’t know, but I have one question, for example, do children know what they shall learn in science? If yes, it means they already understands width and breadth of science. Then what we are teaching them? If they don’t know, then who will decide?   

       

      We need to find some way to make the above critical decisions of 'adult decision makers' be informed by the 'interest of children', the moment you decide the interest of children, you become political my dear friend. and not of various politically inclined adult-groups. Otherwise, 95% of school experience will be governed by politics, and only 1-2% will be cosmetically improved through children's autonomous will.

       

      Pankaj

       

       



      On Fri, Aug 31, 2012 at 8:31 AM, Pankaj Jain <pjain2002@...> wrote:
       

      Dear All,
       
      1. What is being demanded is not scaling back of teachers' salary, as that is no politically feasible, even if desirable. What is being demanded/ suggested is that out of education spend, a minimum of 5% is spent on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc.
       
      2. The old argument that Rs. 100 is being spent, instead of desirable amount of Rs. 250, was correct in 1980s, but IS NO MORE correct for elementary education. In fact, if the World, on average, is spending Rs. 250/- per child on elementary education, India is spending Rs. 300/-. So, spending more, which was probably right in 1980s, and 1990s, is no more the right thing, and only correct thing is to spend this Rs. 300/- proportionally on ALL NEEDED things for effective education. Unfortunately, this is against the political empowerment of 'teachers as a class', so it will not happen. The hard reality of political alignment in India pitches children's class interest against the class-interest of teachers, so the powerless children class is bound to suffer. (This is a neo-left-liberal reality? :( sad)
       
      3. Dividing average teacher salary in India by nation's per capita income is not neo-liberal arithmatic. It is simple arithmatic, period.
       
      4. It is totally elitist, and politically partisan, to suggest there is something 'absolute' minimum that must be spent on education, or paid as teacher salary, irrespective of per capita. Just for clarity, China and Singapore have achieved much better school education for ALL their children with much less spending than India. Bangladesh has gone ahead of India in ensuring schooling for poor-girls by spending much less than India, even by the standards of poor countries low per capita.  
       
      5. We indeed need to get out of slogeneering mode to analyze what was done by China, Singapore and Bangladesh to take education to ALL their children, including poor and girls, and come to sesnsible solutions and nonpartisan slogans-policies.
       
      6. Demanding to pay certain salary to a section of population, which is 700% of worldwide norm, can not be justified under any interpretation of fundamental rights, if it takes the fudamental right of a child to receive effective education, which requires spending a minimum of 5% on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc.
       
      Pankaj
       
      From: janaki rajan <rajan.janaki@...>
      To: arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2012 8:43 PM

      Subject: Re: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

       
      Hi,
       
      This is with reference to Pankaj Jain's note beginning with:
       
      'The teachers constitute the largest and most powerful interest group in school system, so their share of education spending is THE LEGITIMATE issue in analyzing the politics of education'.
      I have heard and read this point of view for some time now, and have been meaning to respond-here it is:
      1.       Analyzing share of education spending on all aspects is certainly legitimate, not least the teacher’s share.
      2.       The issue at hand is, what does it cost to run an effective school where children learn? If true recurring requirement*  is, say, Rs. 240, and Rs. 100 is being spent, then ofcourse things will be skewed and is prone to all kinds of explanations. If teacher pay is 80 out of the required 240, then the percentage of teacher pay to total budget is 30% but if only 100 is given when 240 is required, the teacher pay calculation looks like 80%! The 100 given is an arbitrary sum determined by the governments of the day without basis. It pushes and squeezes us to pit one aspect of education (teacher pay) with other aspects (books, teaching learning materials). Artifical pitting and polarization of one element (teachers’ pay) over another element (children’s learning) is not helpful in our quest for better teaching-learning for children. In any case, teacher salaries exist in several slabs, ranging from pitiful SSA pay, to contract wages for tens of years, to pay scales. Reports estimate that 50% of posts are filled by low wage teachers.
      3.       This reminds me of similar pitting that was done between higher education and school education spending in the 90s. Quality school education requires quality research, teacher educators, research based materials, books on education-all of which are in the higher education domain. The two intermesh and both need sufficient funds.
      4.       A certain amount is necessary condition for good schooling. This is irrespective of per capita. That amount, say, x, will have to be spent, and will look as huge percent in a low per capita country like India compared to others. Let’s not try to carve larger portions of diminishing pie. Let’s question adequacy of the size of the pie. As a fundamental right, education has to be the first charge on the exchequer. Rest follows.
      5.       To label those who seek adequate funds for teacher salary (30% or 80% depending on how we look at it) as sloganeering is unproductive. Demanding accountability is certainly productive.
      6.       Teachers and children are inseparable in the learning domain. To resent teacher portion of budget is like resenting parents spending more money on their clothes (more cloth) as adults compared to that for their children who need less. I realize this is clumsy, but can’t think fo any other way to put it!
      Hope this is of some use.      
      * [I am not taking facilities into account here only because they come under nonrecurring budgets-but that can be factored in too and we can arrive at the sum required as say, 300-the logic remains the same]  


      On Thu, Aug 30, 2012 at 7:29 AM, Pankaj Jain <pjain2002@...> wrote:
       
      Sir,
       
      The teachers constitute the largest and most powerful interest group in school system, so their share of education spending is THE LEGITIMATE issue in analyzing the politics of education.
       
      School policy exists to provide education to children, not to provide employment and benefits to teachers alone. Since education requires many things, it is legitimate to demand that a minimum of 5% is spent on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc.
       
      Some additional facts before we get into sloganeering:
       
      1. India now spends MORE THAN MOST COUNTRIES in the world, as a share of total national income, on 'elementary education', and on 'teacher salary'. 
      2. India gives its teacher a salary almost 700% of World's average in terms of per-capita income.
      3. India's defence budget is significantly less than its education budget, and is much smaller than of China and Pakistan, in terms of % of national income. 
      4. The reason why the share of education budget in TN might have declined is not a reduction in the size of education budget but rise in other legitimate expenditures such on women and children's health, social infrastructure, mid-day meal, public infrastructure etc. 
      5. I am not saying that problems and waste does not exist in other sectors, but to hide the politics of children's exploitation by our school system, under the pretext of problems in other sectors, or by the politics of teacher empowerment, is not correct.  
       
      Pankaj Jain
       

      From: rajagopalan ss <ssrajagopalan@...>
      To: "arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Thursday, August 30, 2012 5:47 AM
      Subject: RE: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

       
      Don't link teachers' salary with budget. The Education Budget shd take account of all essential expenditures, including salaries. While Tamilnadu was allotting 30-35% of the budget for education in 1950's, now it has  come down to 14.6% Why do we spend so much on defence and police and still not able to maintain security? Lack of political will. Purchase of arms is beneficial-to whom?
      All these can't be easily brushed aside in such forum. Children are the most important characters in the School System. THey are genuinely concerned that their needs are not understood by curriculum-makers.
      ssr

      To: arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com
      From: pjain2002@...
      Date: Tue, 28 Aug 2012 19:30:58 -0700
      Subject: Re: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

       

      Sir,
       
      The example you gave is very encouraging, but the real important decions like (i) how many and which teachers to hire (that costs 80-85% of total money spent on children's education in children's name), (ii) should teacher salary budget be not allowed to go beyound 70% of total spending, so that a minimum of 5% is spent on school maintenance, 5% on children's books, 5% on children's transport, 5% of administration-management, 5% educational tours for learning outside the classes, 5% on better furniture and better school facilities used by children etc., (iii) is B.Ed. qualification better compared to M.Sc. for a science-math teacher, (iv) should children have freedom to change school if they find their current school bad, (iv) what all should be the curriculum coverage, CAN NOT BE LEFT to the assembly of children. 
       
      We need to find some way to make the above critical decisions of 'adult decision makers' be informed by the 'interest of children', and not of various politically inclined adult-groups. Otherwise, 95% of school experience will be governed by politics, and only 1-2% will be cosmetically improved through children's autonomous will.
       
      Pankaj 

       
      From: rajagopalan ss <ssrajagopalan@...>
      To: "arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com" <arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Tuesday, August 28, 2012 1:57 PM
      Subject: RE: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

       
      Who are the most important characters in the Education System? They are children for without them schools become meaningless. But have they any voice in decision-making, curriculum management, disciplinary rules etc. Once I told a student that he had violated the School Rules. He retorted" Who made the rules?" For a moment I was angry, but immediately I felt he was right. what right we have to frame rules for them? I asked him if he would frame the rules. Oh, yes was the reply. For the next 20 days all the class pupil leaders sat together, discussed every rule in existence and came up with their own rules. First they named the rules " My way of Life". There was not a single negative in any rule nor mention of punishment. The rule that students should not come late was modified as" I will come to school on time every day, fully prepared for that day's lessons" One rule showed how considerate students were. Rule 17 said " When I travel in a bus and see a lady or child or an old man standing, I will offer my seat to them and go standing" It touched me much. They went  farther beyond the school premises. Students are capable of positive action, provided they are permitted to.
      ssr

      To: arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com
      CC: kdssptewa@...
      From: pjain2002@...
      Date: Mon, 27 Aug 2012 21:01:15 -0700
      Subject: [Arkitect India] Politics of Education

       

      School Education is probably the largest and most active political field of action, comparable to the politics of poverty removal or of economic growth or any other.
       
      Let us understand key facts and key actors involved in school education:
       
      1. It covers voiceless and powerless 220 million school age children, (more than entire tribal or entire SC, or entire minority population), who are easy to both ignore and exploit by various categories of powerful adults.
      2. It  covers India's largest organized labour force, consisting of more than  3 million school teachers, whose strength is bigger than of all trade-labour unions combined, which no political party can antagonize. 
       
      3. It involves annual spending of more than Rs. 1 lakh twenty five thousand crores, (2.3% of GDP) every year.
       
      4. Control of School education is seen as critical by all kind of politics, whether it is extreme left like Naxals, Religious fundamentalists like Taliban, secular ideologues like many writers on this forum, or rightist.
       
      Such large numbers and political comittments necessarily means that political interest will try to exploit and capture school education policy for their own benefits.
       
      Since analysis or fact based policies are tough to promote in popular discourse, education policy has been captured by slogan shouting groups and politically inclined individuals-forums.
       
      I  may sound cynical, but it is necessary to face facts if one wants to support facts based rational, non-political, analysis.
       
      I, therefore, would urge all of us to re-examine how much of our views are colored by our politics and that applies even to the views in this mail-string.
       
      Pankaj
       
      From: Satish Jha <satish.jha@...>
      To: arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com
      Cc: kdssptewa@...
      Sent: Monday, August 27, 2012 12:37 PM
      Subject: Re: [Arkitect India] EDUCATION FACTS FOR KNOW THE ALL PEOPLES GROUPS.

       
      Dear Shabnam,

      Thank you for pointing out the challenges that India's rote education system heaps on a scary majority of all those who go to school.

      We are designed by the education to think in the past, imitate, follow and when someone aspires to lead, unfailingly begins following the path of remaining generations behind the rest of the world.

      They usually talk of opening PCOs after cell phones become viable. They talked about electronic typewriters after computers became available. They began talking about tablets that are useless after One Laptop per Child Laptops became available- the gap between the two being no less than  a human being and a robotic replica thereof..

      That has kept us where we are: 65 years of freedom to watch one-fifth of humanity with NO Nobel prize in science, if we were to consider that an accomplishment.

      65 years of sports with fewer medals as a nation than a single olympian like Phelps.

      The story is replicable everywhere, in every field. Save entrepreneurs who have begun dreaming to global scale, if not their creativity, methods or models and imitationally and not thinking ahead, not looking into the future, without a vision for the country or global leadership, save as a desire or a wishful thinking.

      The only salvation for India is to help everyone begin to learn learning, not rote education; begin learning for critical thinking and problem solving rather the for certificates and degrees alone with a vision of tomorrow rather than taking the next step without any roadmap.



      On Sun, Aug 26, 2012 at 11:56 PM, <shabnamhashmi@...> wrote:
       
      It is badly written with a lot of mistakes. If you want to tell the world that education standards are very good at least ensure that your communication is well written.

      There is a need to debate what is this education ? Is it producing good citizens, thinkers, humane peace loving citizens? Is the education ensuring that there are no prejudices, hatred , hierarchy in minds of the educated. Is the education giving the courage to stand against what is wrong and is it teaching questioning?
      Sent on my BlackBerry® from Vodafone
      From: Koraput district scst primary Teachers empoyees welfare associ <kdssptewa@...>
      Date: Sun, 26 Aug 2012 21:01:21 +0800 (SGT)
      To: agamiorissa@yahoogroups.com<agamiorissa@yahoogroups.com>; arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com<arkitectindia@yahoogroups.com>; chhattishgarh-net@yahoogroups.com<chhattishgarh-net@yahoogroups.com>; chennai@yahoogroups.com<chennai@yahoogroups.com>; educationrights@yahoogroups.com<educationrights@yahoogroups.com>; focusorissa@yahoogroups.com<focusorissa@yahoogroups.com>; ihro@yahoogroups.com<ihro@yahoogroups.com>; indiafirst@yahoogroups.com<indiafirst@yahoogroups.com>; indiathinkernet@yahoogroups.com<indiathinkernet@yahoogroups.com>; inviteplus@yahoogroups.com<inviteplus@yahoogroups.com>; issuesonline_worldwide@yahoogroups.com<issuesonline_worldwide@yahoogroups.com>; janshakti@yahoogroups.com<janshakti@yahoogroups.com>; mahajanapada@yahoogroups.com<mahajanapada@yahoogroups.com>; osanet@yahoogroups.com<osanet@yahoogroups.com>; samukhya@yahoogroups.com<samukhya@yahoogroups.com>
      Subject: [Arkitect India] EDUCATION FACTS FOR KNOW THE ALL PEOPLES GROUPS.

       
      Education is the principal instrument of developing human capabilities. In India it is in the concurrent list. It is the main part of the government to provide education to its citizens. By which it will help to shape the destiny of the nation.
      But in recent times there is a sea change in the tools, technology and mode of education. In the post-independence era, the mode & method of education has continually evolved in Orissa and India. In the modern times to cater the needs of specific groups the need for differentiation in education method has also changed in Orissa. After independence Orissa is improving & competing with other states of India to become a prosperous state in the field of education.

      The literacy percentage of Orissa is improving highly. Now it has a number of Universities, General colleges, Medical, Engineering , Management, Ayurvedic, Homeopathic, Law, Dance & Music Colleges, B.E.D training Centers, C.T. and Hindi training Centers. Due to the high standard of education in Orissa Students from all over India are coming to Orissa for higher studies. With the increase of public-private participation, now the students of Orissa enjoying most modern facilities in education. With the change of time educational institutions like Xavier Institute of Business Management, Institute of Physics, Utkal Univrsity, National Institute of Technology-Rourkela, Biju Pattnaik University of Technology, IIMC-Dhenkanal, Kalinga Institute of Technology, S C B Medical College, Cuttack, V S S Medical College & Hospital, Burla  and so on dazzles Orissa’s name nationally and internationally in the filed of education.
      Orissa has always made concerted efforts to provide quality education to all. Prospects of a brighter future is evidently in the offing in view of certain major initiatives of the Government of Orissa, the Government of India and private parties.

      Fact of Orissa Education

      • The average literacy rate in Orissa is 63.08% during 2001, as against all India average of 64.8%.

      • Male literacy rate is 75.95% and female literacy rate is 50.51% during 2001.
      • 44,416 Primary Schools with 52.54 lakh enrolment and 97 lakh teachers in the State as on 2003-2004. There is one Primary School  for every 3.5 Sq.Km area.
      • Mid day Meal Programme has been operational since 1995. In 2003-04, 46.32 lakh children in 51,931 schools were brought under this scheme.
      • 14.233 Upper Primary Schools as on 2003-04. There is one Upper Primary School for each 10.94 km area in the State.
      • Overall dropout rate at the primary stage was 33.6%, the dropout rate for girls was 35.4% and for boys 31.9% during 2003-04.
      • Dropout rate at upper primary stage has decreased from 59% in 2002-03 & 57.5% in 2003-04. 56.5% boys dropped out inupper primary stage in 2003-04 while 58.6% girls dropped out in the same year.
      • Secondary stage of education from Classes VIII to X is under the academic control of the Board of Secondary Education. During 2003-04, 7,011 high schools were functioning in the State which 3,556 were Government High Schools and 657 were aided schools. During 2003-04, there was one High School for every 22.2 sq. km.
      • The dropout rate in high school has decreased from 69.5% in 2001-02 to 64.4% in 2003-04. 62.5% boys dropped out while 66.7% girls dropped out of high school in 2003-2004.
      • 1,112 General Colleges to provide facilities for higher secondary education in the State including 48 Government Colleges. The Council of Higher Secondary Education regulates higher secondary education, conducts examination and co-ordinate University Education.
      • During 2003-2004, 1,679 General Colleges were functioning, out of which 96 were Government and 601 were aided colleges.
      • There are 4 Government Training Colleges, six Colleges of Teachers Education and three Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, in the State.
      • The State has nine Universities.
      • Computer Education has been included as on optional subject in the secondary level by the Board of Secondary Education



      --
      Satish Jha 
      T: 301 841 7422
      F: 301 560 4909 
      ________________
       













    • Show all 27 messages in this topic