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  • ufolight
    the highlighted area was background and not letters: I wanted to copy this page, because I realize, Light is More than photon and wave properties: Light is the
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 30 9:30 PM
      the highlighted area was background and not letters:

      I wanted to copy this page, because I realize, Light is More than
      photon and wave properties: Light is the essance of life and all
      energy.
      Even anti light, far darker than the absence of light, is of the same
      properties, and great in power use like anti matter.

      See copy below
      ------------------------------------
      Rethinking Our Scientific LegacyMark McCutcheonUniversal
      PublishersUSA • 2002The Final Theory:Rethinking Our Scientific
      LegacyCopyright © 2002 Mark McCutcheonAll rights reserved.Universal
      Publishers/uPUBLISH.comUSA • 2002ISBN: 1-58112-601-
      8www.uPUBLISH.com/books/mccutcheon.htmTo my parents for their
      support, my father for his consideredfeedback throughout and many
      long hours of editing, and friendswho offered their time and comments
      along the
      wayIntroduction.......................................................
      ............................. 1Investigating
      Gravity...............................................................
      ..... 10The Theory of
      Gravity...............................................................
      ....... 11The Trouble with
      Gravity ..............................................................
      .. 14The Origin of Newton's Gravitational
      Force ................................. 27Does the Evidence Support a
      Gravitational Force? ...................... 49Encountering the New
      Principle ................................................. 53A New
      Property of the
      Atom ...........................................................
      58Can it
      Be?...................................................................
      ........................ 60Mysteries and Violations
      Resolved.................................................. 65New
      Revelations and
      Possibilities....................................................
      93Rethinking Our Heavenly
      Observations....................................
      108Orbits ............................................................
      ................................... 109The Gravitational Lens
      Effect ....................................................... 138The
      Nature and Origin of Tidal
      Forces ........................................ 156The Slingshot
      Effect................................................................
      ........ 166Galactic
      Implications..........................................................
      ............ 183The Origin of a Natural Constant
      Revealed................................. 190Rethinking the Atom and
      its Forces.......................................... 196Flaws in
      Current Atomic
      Theory .................................................. 198A New
      Atomic
      Model.................................................................
      ..... 201Chemical
      Bonding...............................................................
      ............
      216Electricity........................................................
      ................................. 223Radio
      Waves.................................................................
      ...................
      242Magnetism .........................................................
      .............................. 249Rethinking
      Energy ...............................................................
      ...... 263Light and Electromagnetic
      Radiation........................................... 264Quantum
      Mechanics – is it all just a Misunderstanding? ........... 290Special
      Relativity – is it all just a
      Mistake? ................................... 314The Big
      Questions ............................................................
      .......... 337What are Subatomic
      Particles? .....................................................
      339What is
      Antimatter? ..........................................................
      ............. 346What is an Atom
      Bomb? ................................................................
      352E=mc2 : What is Energy-Matter
      Conversion?.............................. 355What causes
      Inertia? .............................................................
      ......... 369What are Black
      Holes?................................................................
      ... 379Did It Really Begin with a Big
      Bang?............................................ 385Is Our Universe
      Truly Expanding? ...............................................
      387What is
      Time? ................................................................
      ................. 399Is Time Travel
      Possible? ............................................................
      .... 404The Theory Of Everything – Has it Finally
      Arrived?................... 4111IntroductionWe are all born into this
      universe and live out our lives within its laws
      and principles. From the inescapable law of gravity extending across
      the
      universe to the fundamental principles behind the tiniest atoms, our
      lives
      are immersed in the laws of nature. As intelligent beings it is only
      natural for us to wonder about the world around us, and as children of
      this universe it seems reasonable that we should be able to arrive at
      an
      understanding of it all – that this understanding is very much our
      birthright. In fact, to many it may seem as if we have already
      arrived at
      this understanding, with only a few loose ends remaining. Isaac Newton
      gave us an understanding of gravity as an attracting force in nature,
      and
      from there many others have contributed to our understanding of light,
      electricity, magnetism, atomic structure, etc. This process has
      finally
      brought us to a point where science today contains theories that cover
      every known observation, collectively known as Standard Theory. This
      age of understanding has made it possible to invent radio,
      television, and
      computers, even allowing us to build spacecraft that have visited
      distant
      planets. Although scientists continue to pursue deeper questions, it
      may
      seem that Standard Theory provides us with a fairly comprehensive
      scientific understanding of our universe. But is this really the case?
      How much do we truly understand about gravity, for example?Do we know
      the physical reasons why gravity attracts objects together
      instead of repelling them away from one another? Newton gave us a
      compelling description of this observation as an apparent attracting
      force, but provided no explanation for the existence and nature of
      this
      force itself. Does it really make sense that a force holds objects to
      the
      surface of planets, and moons in orbit, all with no known power
      source?
      Do we know if it is possible to create some type of anti-gravity
      device,
      what principles might underlie such a device, or for that matter, even
      what principles underlie gravity itself? And despite Newton's concept
      of
      gravity, Albert Einstein found it necessary to continue searching for
      answers, arriving at a very different description of gravity, while
      scientists continue to search for still other explanations. Why is it
      that
      we have two explanations for the same effect in our science today,
      andTHE FINAL THEORY2continue to search for still others – and do any
      of them truly answer our
      most basic questions about gravity?Do we truly understand light? For
      centuries a debate raged backand forth as to whether light was
      composed of waves or particles. Today
      we have settled on a belief that somehow light is both a wave and a
      particle (the photon) – sometimes behaving as one and sometimes as the
      other, depending on the situation or experiment. Even today this
      remains
      a very mysterious and poorly understood characteristic of light as
      part of
      a theory known as Quantum Mechanics – a theory whose very creators
      and practitioners readily describe as bizarre and mysterious.Do we
      truly understand magnetism? We know that two magnetswill repel each
      other if both of their north poles or south poles face each
      other, but can we truly explain this? If we try to hold these two
      magnets
      together against this repelling force our muscles will tire as we
      continuously expend energy, but the repelling force from within the
      magnet does not. Is it reasonable that an apparently endless force
      from
      within magnets will continuously battle any external power source in
      this manner, eventually exhausting all external power sources without
      an
      equivalent weakening itself? In fact, there is no identifiable power
      source at all within these magnets to support this endless force from
      within. Do we even know what magnetic fields are, or have we simply
      discovered how to create them and learned to model their behavior with
      equations? That is, are we confusing practical know-how and abstract
      models with true knowledge and understanding?A closer look shows that
      solid answers to these and many otherquestions about everyday
      occurrences are not to be found in today's
      Standard Theory. Science has managed to model our observations rather
      well, but many of these models lack a clear physical explanation.
      Newton worked out a model of gravity as an attracting force but
      couldn't
      tell us why it should attract and how matter does this endlessly
      simply by
      existing; in fact, we still lack these answers three hundred years
      later.
      We have equations that model magnetic fields, and theories that
      describe
      their obvious observed behaviors, but we have little clear physical
      explanation for why they behave as they do, leaving mysteries such as
      the apparently endless energy emanating from within a simple permanent
      magnet. In fact, many scientists recognize that we still lack a
      deepIntroduction3understanding of our universe, which is why there
      are ongoing efforts to
      further our knowledge using high-energy particle accelerators and
      powerful space telescopes. The hope is that these investigations will
      lead
      to a key breakthrough in understanding – perhaps through the discovery
      of a currently unknown fundamental subatomic particle or principle, or
      possibly via some new type of energy or cosmological phenomenon
      detected in the heavens. It is expected that if such a key fundamental
      discovery is made, it will have a ripple effect that runs through the
      patchwork of often poorly understood theories in our Standard Theory
      today, ideally transforming them into a single clear theory that
      simplifies
      and truly explains everything. This much-hoped-for theory is known by
      physicists as the Theory of Everything – and is considered the
      ultimate
      goal of much fundamental research in physics today.A key expectation
      of the Theory of Everything is not only that itwill finally explain
      all of physics – gravity, light, magnetism, etc. – with
      a clarity and simplicity that is unknown today, but that it will do
      so via
      one single unifying principle in nature that has so far eluded us.
      Once
      found, this theory is expected to provide a clarity and understanding
      akin
      to turning on a light to see the contents of a room at a glance, where
      current theory is like a flashlight in the dark, giving only
      disconnected
      glimpses here and there. A less comprehensive form of this theory,
      known as the Unified Field Theory, would explain and unify everything
      except gravity, since it is thought that gravity may have a very
      different
      nature than the other fields and forces once we come to truly
      understand
      them all. Both theories are sought after by physicists around the
      world
      today, with the ultimate goal being the arrival at an understanding
      that
      explains all the forces of nature including gravity – i.e. the all-
      encompassing Theory of Everything.Although this fairly formal
      definition of the Theory ofEverything has only taken shape within the
      last century, it has actually
      been the ultimate goal of science ever since the earliest times; even
      medieval alchemists were, in their own way, searching for this
      ultimate
      understanding of the physical world. Some of Newton's many
      contributions to science were his descriptions of gravity, light, and
      the
      mechanics of moving objects, while Einstein provided quite different
      descriptions of these phenomena, with additional ideas about
      energy,THE FINAL THEORY4mass, space and time. Both of these
      scientists were essentially in pursuit
      of the Theory of Everything, whether or not their efforts were
      formally
      presented as such, as are many scientists who pursue basic research
      in an
      attempt to discover fundamental truths about our universe.So far, our
      efforts have not yielded the Theory of Everything,but rather
      a "theory of everything" known as Standard Theory. Althoughit isn't
      typically represented this way, Standard Theory is indeed a"theory of
      everything" since it attempts to explain every knownobservation and
      phenomenon. It has evolved from many hypotheses
      presented over the centuries, with the most successful ones
      incorporated
      as sub-theories within Standard Theory. Even such radical and
      mysterious theories as Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity are
      not considered part of some other "theory of everything" but part
      ofStandard Theory today. Therefore, Standard Theory is not only
      a"theory of everything," but it is also the only one so far. In order
      for anew theory to truly form the basis of another "theory of
      everything" itwould have to be based on a principle that lies
      entirely outside of known
      physics – and provide a sweeping rewrite of everything in Standard
      Theory based entirely on this new principle. Figure 1-1 shows the
      patchwork of theories within Standard Theory today that have resulted
      from our "flashlight-in-the-dark" approach to science over the past
      fewcenturies, as well as the single illuminating perspective of the
      Theory of
      Everything that is expected once the correct underlying principle is
      discovered.Introduction5Newtonian
      GravityGeneralRelativityQuantumMechanicsAtomicMagnetismSpecialRelativi
      tyStrongNuclearForceWeakNuclearForceElectromagneticRadiationBig
      BangSubatomicParticleFamiliesIntergalacticExpansion
      ForceSinglePrincipleGravityMagnetismElectricityCelestialObservationsAt
      omicStructureSubatomicParticlesElectricChargeStandard TheoryTheory of
      EverythingEtc…ElectricChargeBlack
      HolesSubatomicMagnetismPolarizedRadiationAntimatterModified Newtonian
      GravityElectromagneticRadiationFig. 1-1 Patchwork of Theories Today
      vs. Theory of EverythingThe chapters to follow present just such a
      new principle in physics,
      showing that all matter may well possess this important new property
      that has so far been overlooked or misunderstood, and developing this
      principle into a second "theory of everything" for us to consider.
      Thisnew theory begins with a clear physical explanation for gravity
      that
      resolves the many questions and mysteries surrounding it today, such
      as
      why it behaves as an attracting force and how it functions without a
      power source. Planetary orbits, ocean tides, and all other known
      gravitational observations are entirely explained by this new theory
      without relying on our current theories of gravity. New insights and
      possibilities are also suggested by this new theory that are unknown
      today and would not be predicted by our current gravitational
      theories.This same new principle further explains the structure of
      theatom, as well as the nature of the individual electrons, protons,
      and
      neutrons composing atoms, with a physical simplicity and clarity that
      is
      unknown today. This new perspective on atomic structure shows how
      the gravity of objects can be directly related to the electricity and
      magnetism produced by the flow of electrons in wires, since this new
      principle underlies both atoms and electrons. The apparently endless
      energy within magnets mentioned earlier is also explained by this new
      principle, and a clear physical reason is given for why electricity
      andTHE FINAL THEORY6magnetism are so closely related. This principle
      also suggests an
      explanation of electron orbits within atoms that resolves this still
      mysterious aspect of atomic theory in our science today.This same new
      principle is further shown to explain the natureof light, suggesting
      a resolution to the age-old question of whether light
      is a particle or a wave … or indeed something else entirely. Since the
      mysterious wave-particle beliefs about light in Standard Theory
      support
      a sizable portion of the theory of Quantum Mechanics, resolving this
      issue has serious implications for Quantum Theory. In fact, our
      current
      quantum mechanical descriptions of atomic structure, light, and energy
      are shown to be unnecessary once the new unifying principle is
      considered. This should be expected of any alternate "theory
      ofeverything" since, by definition, it would have to be entirely
      separate
      and self-sustaining without relying on any of the patchwork of
      theories
      that compose Standard Theory today – of which Quantum Mechanics is
      one. As might be further expected then, Einstein's Special Relativity
      Theory is also shown to have serious problems, and is also replaced by
      this new principle. This means we can now replace the complexities and
      mysteries of Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity with one simple
      principle that runs throughout our science, dispelling some long-
      standing
      mysterious beliefs such as the speed-of-light limit that we accept as
      true
      today. All of the well-known thought experiments and real-world
      experiments that are used to support these mysterious theories and
      beliefs are re-examined and shown to have serious flaws,
      misunderstandings, or even clear errors upon closer
      examination.Finally, the same simple principle is shown to explain
      the manymysterious phenomena and particles that have emerged from
      high-
      energy particle accelerator experiments in recent decades, such as
      virtual
      particles and antimatter, removing the mystique that surrounds them
      today. This new explanation of subatomic particle experiments also
      suggests a new interpretation for the increasing number of new
      particle
      types that are being discovered in ever more powerful particle
      accelerators. It also provides a new perspective on Einstein's idea
      that
      matter and energy can be converted back and forth (according to his
      famous equation, E=mc2 ). Rather than this mysterious conversion
      ofmatter into energy in the explosion of an atomic bomb, or energy
      intoIntroduction7matter when subatomic particles apparently
      materialize out of pure
      energy in particle accelerators, this new unifying principle provides
      a
      clear, demystifying explanation for both effects. This principle also
      speaks to many of our celestial observations, suggesting simple
      alternate
      explanations for observations leading to today's more mysterious
      theories about Black Holes, the "Big Bang" creation event, and
      theapparently accelerating expansion of our universe.The alternate
      explanations presented throughout this book do notconstitute a string
      of proposed new theories within Standard Theory, but
      belong to a new and entirely alternate theory – an alternate "theory
      ofeverything." This parallel explanation of our universe provides
      answers
      to the many questions and mysteries in our science today with a
      clarity
      that allows even non-scientists to truly comprehend our universe – and
      does so via one simple unifying principle that is consistent with all
      known experiments and observations. It is worth noting that this last
      point is a claim that cannot be made even of Standard Theory today.
      That is, as shown in each of the following chapters, within many of
      our
      everyday experiences lie unanswered questions, unexplained mysteries,
      and even clear violations of our most elementary laws of physics when
      explained with Standard Theory. Therefore, as it stands today, our
      current body of scientific knowledge is not merely lacking some
      answers, but is actually a fatally flawed "theory of everything."
      While itis possible that our ongoing search for answers will be able
      to resolve
      these flaws and turn Standard Theory into the much-sought-after Theory
      of Everything, it is equally possible that the answers can only be
      found
      in an entirely new "theory of everything." It is suggested that the
      newtheory presented in the following chapters does not merely provide
      an
      entirely alternate way of viewing our universe, but that it is the
      only one
      to meet the criteria of the Theory of Everything for which science has
      been searching for centuries. However, this will be up to the
      scientific
      community, as well as each individual reader, to decide for
      themselves.
      We now begin the journey toward discovery and understanding of this
      new principle with an exploration of gravity.THE FINAL THEORY8First …
      A Note on FormatAlthough this book is intended for both scientists
      and non-scientists
      alike, it does represent a sweeping re-think of our complete body of
      scientific knowledge today. Therefore, in order to help organize the
      discussions, as well as to quickly identify key points and their
      significance, summary boxes or icons will accompany key sections or
      phrases as follows:Highlights a key point in a discussion.• Lists key
      points in the discussion to follow.•Introduces a new idea for
      consideration.Reminder of a current law of physics in Standard
      Theory.Indicates a physical law violation in a current scientific
      belief.Indicates an unexplained mystery in a current scientific
      belief.Indicates a logic or math error in a current scientific
      belief.Introduction9Presents a thought experiment or real-world
      experiment.Indicates that math follows, but is optional reading which
      isexplained in either the preceding or following section.- 1 -
      InvestigatingGravityInvestigating Gravity11The Theory of
      GravityGravity as One of Four Basic Forces in NatureGravity is one of
      the most fundamental and familiar forces of nature. As
      such, before discussing gravity in particular, it is important to
      clarify
      what the forces of nature are considered to be and how they relate
      both
      to Standard Theory and to our ultimate quest for understanding.
      Although Standard Theory is a composite of many sub-theories, some of
      which were listed earlier in Figure 1-1, most scientists believe the
      search
      for the Theory of Everything is a quest to understand and unify what
      are
      currently considered to be the four separate fundamental forces of
      nature:• Gravity – the familiar attraction between all matter, first
      describedby Isaac Newton.• Electromagnetism – the closely related
      phenomena of electricityand magnetism, as well as electromagnetic
      radiation such as radio
      waves and light.• Strong Nuclear Force – a powerful, short-range
      force thought to beholding atomic nuclei together. Atomic nuclei have
      many positively
      charged protons in close proximity, which should strongly repel each
      other and cause the nucleus to fly apart according to the theory of
      Electric Charge. Therefore, the concept of an attracting Strong
      Nuclear Force between protons in the nucleus was introduced to
      explain how the nucleus is held together in apparent violation of
      Electric Charge Theory.• Weak Nuclear Force – another nuclear force,
      considered to be muchweaker than the Strong Nuclear Force. Phenomena
      such as the
      random decay of populations of subatomic particles (i.e.
      radioactivity) were difficult to explain until the concept of this
      additional nuclear force was introduced.THE FINAL THEORY12It is
      currently believed that these are the four fundamental forces in
      nature, and that, in essence, they are merely different
      manifestations of
      one single underlying force or principle that has so far eluded
      science.
      To discover this underlying force or principle would be to arrive at
      the
      Theory of Everything since, at a glance, it would show the single
      underlying cause for every observation, belief, and theory in science
      today. Such a unified understanding is expected to transform the
      patchwork of separate abstract theories in Standard Theory into a much
      simpler, coherent whole that shows a true physical explanation for
      everything, sparking a scientific revolution.The new theory discussed
      throughout these chapters suggeststhat while this vision is the
      proper intuition, there are several reasons
      why success has eluded us so far. First, since we obviously lack the
      deeper understanding that we are seeking, we cannot be certain we have
      properly identified the fundamental forces of nature. If, for
      example, our
      theory of Electric Charge is an imperfect model of the true underlying
      principle behind many of our observations, then our current model of
      proton behavior as positively charged particles that always repel each
      other may not be an accurate description of the nucleus of an atom.
      Instead, it may be perfectly natural for protons to cluster together
      when
      in the nucleus of an atom, according to an undiscovered principle in
      nature that may have been misunderstood and represented as
      a "positiveelectric charge" upon protons. That is, in many situations
      protons may
      behave as if they literally possess our concept of a "positive
      charge," butthis behavior could also arise from a very different
      principle – one that
      causes them to naturally cluster together when in an atomic nucleus.
      In
      that case, the concept of a "Strong Nuclear Force" keeping the
      nucleusfrom flying apart would be a completely unnecessary
      fabrication, and
      our attempts to find a unifying theory would be based in part on a
      force
      that doesn't even exist. Our current goal of unifying these four
      forces
      may be based on such flawed assumptions from the start.Secondly, much
      of our current and largely mathematicalapproach to finding a unifying
      theory may be straying from the original
      spirit and purpose of the quest. The goal of a new and deep physical
      understanding of our universe may be in danger of merely becoming an
      exercise in mathematical manipulation of our current equations.
      SinceInvestigating Gravity13arrival at this deep physical
      understanding is expected to yield a
      common mathematical framework for all the forces of nature, it is
      often
      assumed that if we simply pursue this mathematical end result
      directly –
      using our current models – we will achieve this deeper understanding.
      However, this approach may be unsound since it assumes we have
      correctly identified the fundamental forces of nature and simply need
      to
      rearrange our mathematical models. Yet, if this turns out to be an
      incorrect assumption, then such an approach would only achieve a
      largely meaningless mathematical link between flawed models of the
      physical world. This approach also risks trivializing our search for
      deeper physical understanding into an attempt to achieve a mere
      mathematical goal, bringing no deeper meaning. We may expect
      mathematically unified models to emerge once we achieve a deep
      physical understanding of our universe, but this does not necessarily
      mean this deep physical understanding will emerge by mathematically
      unifying our current models. It is possible that this approach may
      provide some useful insights, but it may also result in little more
      than
      contrived mathematical relationships between essentially the same
      equations modeling the same limited physical understanding we have
      today.For the reasons mentioned above, the discussions of this
      new"theory of everything" in the coming chapters do not strictly
      follow theformat of a mathematical unification of the "four
      fundamental forces" innature. In fact, there is very little math and
      only loose references to these
      forces amidst a broad and rich discussion of science in clear physical
      and common-sense terms. The discussions do, however, begin with the
      first of these forces – gravity – showing the numerous problems with
      our
      current gravitational beliefs, and leading to an introduction of the
      new
      unifying principle behind a new theory of gravity that resolves these
      problems. Once this new principle is established, it does indeed
      ripple
      through the rest of Standard Theory in the chapters that follow, not
      only
      redefining our concept of the "four fundamental forces," but
      redefiningthe complete patchwork of theories in science today in
      clear physical
      terms.THE FINAL THEORY14The Trouble with GravityNewton's Theory of
      Gravity is undoubtedly one of the most universally
      recognized and accepted theories in all of science. It has become so
      deeply ingrained in our thinking and our science over the centuries
      that
      this theory has largely become synonymous with the very phenomenon
      of gravity itself. It is almost inconceivable today to separate our
      everyday experience of gravity from Newton's proposal of an attracting
      force emanating from all matter; yet, as shown in the following
      discussions, Newton's theory actually contains many unexplained
      mysteries and scientifically impossible claims. Such problems should
      prevent any new theory from becoming widely accepted as fact, leaving
      it only with the status of a proposal or hypothesis; however, the
      compelling nature of Newton's proposal combined with the lack of a
      more viable theory has meant that it has largely escaped such
      scrutiny.• Newton's theory of gravity does not explain why
      objectsattract one another; it simply models this observation.• There
      is no known power source supporting the gravitationalfield that
      Newton claims to be emanating from our planet andfrom all objects.•
      Despite the ongoing energy expended by Earth's gravity tohold objects
      down and the moon in orbit, this energy neverdiminishes in strength
      or drains a power source – in violationof one of our most fundamental
      laws of physics: the Law ofConservation of Energy.• These mysteries
      and violations are overlooked today becauseof a flawed explanation
      that arises from the improper use of anequation known as the Work
      Function.• Every effect explained by Newton's theory of gravity today
      isaccurately modeled by non-gravitational equations that existedeven
      before Newton.• Newton's gravitational force is actually an entirely
      redundantand superfluous concept providing no additional
      usefulnessand having no proven existence in nature or scientific
      support.Investigating Gravity15Newton's Error – Violations of the
      Laws of PhysicsGravity is one of the most familiar and important
      phenomena in nature.
      Although it has always been known that something obviously causes
      objects to fall, it wasn't until Isaac Newton (1642-1727) that we had
      a
      clear model of this something as an attracting force emanating from
      all
      matter in a manner that is precisely describable via an equation.
      Newton
      also claimed that this very same attracting force was responsible for
      the
      orbits observed in the heavens, making our universe as comprehensible
      and predictable as a clockwork mechanism for the first time in
      history.
      This was such a monumental achievement in Newton's day that it set the
      stage for other models of forces described by equations in similar
      fashion ever since.Although today we commonly speak of such forces,
      it is oftenoverlooked that modern science still has little or no
      solid physical
      explanation for many of them. The legacy of theories and equations
      that
      compose our body of scientific knowledge today works rather well,
      making it easy to forget that these are largely abstract models – not
      solid
      physical explanations. Newton was the first in a long line of
      scientists to
      produce explanatory models for various classes of phenomena, which
      can be very compelling and useful but cannot be fully explained in
      physically meaningful and scientifically viable ways even today.In
      fact, there was a strong undercurrent of resistance toNewton's
      gravitational force concept when it was introduced, since it
      seemed to represent an almost magical force at a time when solid
      rational thought was finally beginning to prevail over the mysticism
      and
      superstition of ages past. Today, largely as a result of the
      scientific
      acceptance of Newtonian gravity, we have grown accustomed to the idea
      of unexplained forces reaching across empty space to affect objects
      at a
      distance in some equally unexplained manner. We have even grown
      accustomed to the fact that many of these forces (gravity, magnetism,
      electric charge, etc.) have no known power source. However, in
      Newton's time such concepts were only known in stories of myth and
      magic. To philosophers such as René Descartes (1596-1650), it had been
      a long journey for society to shake off the mysticism of the past and
      finally enter a welcome era of solid rational thought and debate.THE
      FINAL THEORY16In fact, Descartes himself had an earlier and widely
      acceptedphysical theory of orbits that claimed the planets were
      dragged along by
      an invisible material, known as the ether, which presumably swirled
      around the sun. Although this theory had its own problems, in this
      era of
      rationality many considered Newton's idea of a completely unexplained
      force acting across empty space to be an unwelcome return to the
      magical thinking of the past. Newton realized this fundamental problem
      with his theory of a gravitational force, and never claimed to be
      able to
      explain it. However, the compelling and rational nature of his
      accompanying mathematical model soon solidified the force of gravity
      as a physical reality and a scientific fact that continued to grow in
      acceptance for centuries, being the predominant theory even today.It
      is important to note, however, that although it is
      generallyrecognized that Newton's gravitational force lacks a proper
      physical
      explanation, the much larger issue – that it violates the laws of
      physics –
      has gone almost entirely unnoticed. This point will be clearly
      illustrated,
      beginning with a reminder of one of the most fundamental and
      unbreakable laws of physics – The Law of Conservation Of Energy.The
      Law of Conservation Of EnergyEnergy can neither be created nor
      destroyed, but merelychanges from one form to another.This is one of
      the most fundamental and unbreakable laws of physics,
      serving as a test for the scientific validity of any proposed theory
      or
      invention. If a proposed theory or device either uses or produces
      energy
      it must draw on an existing power source to do so, merely transforming
      energy from one form to another in the process. For example, the
      stored
      chemical energy in gasoline changes to kinetic energy as it is "used
      up"to accelerate a vehicle. In accordance with the Law of
      Conservation Of
      Energy, the chemical energy in the gasoline does not actually vanish,
      but
      is converted into another form of energy – the kinetic energy of the
      vehicle's motion. Similarly, the kinetic energy of the vehicle did not
      simply appear out of nowhere, but was converted from an
      existingInvestigating Gravity17chemical energy source – the gasoline.
      Although we commonly refer to
      power sources being drained, what we actually mean by this is that the
      energy from a given power source is converted into another form of
      energy elsewhere. This is the law that tells us perpetual motion
      machines
      are impossible since they are considered to be devices capable of
      producing or expending energy continually without draining a power
      source. There is no such thing as "energy for free" in our science.
      Freeenergy devices violate our most elementary laws of physics.Also
      noteworthy, once it was realized that energy (denoted bythe symbol E)
      and matter (denoted by m for mass) can change form backand forth,
      modeled by Einstein's famous equation E=mc2, the Law ofConservation
      Of Energy included matter as one of the energy forms. The
      explosion of an atomic bomb, for example, does not actually create the
      enormous amount of energy in its explosion, but is considered to
      release
      it by converting its original core of matter into energy. Therefore,
      in all
      things the Law of Conservation Of Energy must be upheld.Newton's
      Gravitational Force Violates the Law ofConservation Of EnergyThere is
      nothing in Newton's gravitational theory stating that the force
      of gravity weakens as it expends energy. The mass of the moon exceeds
      one percent of the Earth's mass and would fly past the Earth and off
      into
      space if not forcefully constrained by gravity to circle the Earth,
      according to Newton's theory. Yet this tremendous continual effort
      expended by Earth's gravitational field is not considered to diminish
      the
      strength of this field at all – millennium after millennium.Returning
      to the vehicle analogy, when a car increases its speedit is said to
      accelerate, which is only possible by drawing on a power
      source, converting its energy into the car's increased speed or
      kinetic
      energy. Turning the vehicle in a circle is another form of speed
      change
      or acceleration, involving a constant, forced change from its natural
      straight-line direction of travel. This continuously forced circular
      direction change is known as centripetal acceleration, and also
      requires
      energy to maintain this constant diversion from the natural straight-
      lineTHE FINAL THEORY18path of objects. Likewise, the natural forward
      momentum of the moon
      would carry it away from our planet and off into space in a straight
      line
      if gravity were not forcefully pulling it into a circular orbit
      moment by
      moment. Yet this tremendous energy expenditure is not balanced by a
      conversion of energy from any known power source. This is a creation
      of energy from nothing – energy for free – rather than a conversion of
      energy from one form (a power source) to another (circular centripetal
      acceleration). This situation is a clear violation the Law of
      Conservation
      Of Energy.Gravity also forcefully holds down all objects on the
      surface ofour planet, which would drift off into space otherwise. In
      fact, the pull of
      gravity holds our very planet together, creating tremendous crushing
      forces within the center of the Earth. This has been going on for well
      over 4 billion years, yet no known power source is being drawn upon to
      support this tremendous ongoing energy expenditure.
      This mystery is further deepened when we consider that not onlyis
      there no drainage of energy from a power source to support the effort
      expended by the gravitational force, but in fact there is no power
      source
      at all. A gravitational force is considered to emanate from within
      each
      atom of matter, adding up to the tremendous overall gravity of the
      Earth,
      yet we still have no explanation for its endless power source despite
      having created detailed atomic theories – and even having split the
      atom.
      This is a textbook case of an impossible free energy device.This
      discussion naturally raises the question of why such afundamental
      violation of our laws of physics doesn't generate intense
      scientific concern, curiosity, and investigation. Why is Newtonian
      gravitational theory simply accepted and its mysteries left
      uninvestigated? This question brings a curious mixture of responses.
      One answer is that science has responded to these concerns by
      accepting
      a very different explanation of gravity proposed by Albert Einstein
      (1879-1955) known as General Relativity Theory, which will be
      explored further in later discussions. However, Einstein's theory
      offers
      no solutions to these problems either. In fact, these violations are
      not
      generally acknowledged as the reasons for accepting Einstein's
      alternate
      theory of gravity, nor are these violations even generally
      acknowledged
      at all today.Investigating Gravity19Perhaps more curious is the fact
      that even though GeneralRelativity Theory is generally accepted in
      academic circles as the proper
      description of gravity, it is not widely taught or used by engineers
      and
      physicists – usually being reserved for optional or advanced study,
      and
      mostly for rare and exotic applications. Most university science and
      engineering graduates know little or nothing about Einstein's theory
      of
      gravity despite the fact that it is presumably the true explanation
      of this
      phenomenon, and it is not generally used in our space programs.
      Newton's concept of gravity is by far the main gravitational theory
      used
      in space missions today, despite the fact that there was apparently
      good
      reason to accept Einstein's quite different theory of gravity into our
      science. All of this further deepens the mystery surrounding
      gravitational
      theory today, so let's take a closer look at these issues starting
      with the
      currently unrecognized law violations in Newtonian theory.The serious
      law violations and mysteries found in Newtonian
      gravitational theory have just been clearly pointed out in reference
      to
      one of our most fundamental laws of physics, yet science does not
      generally recognize these violations. How can this be? Why might those
      who are the most highly educated in physics be the least likely to
      acknowledge these mysteries and violations? The answer is that when
      Newton's theory of gravity is taught, it is usually accompanied by
      further instruction on how to resolve these mysteries and violations
      by
      referring to an equation called the Work Function. Although it will be
      shown shortly that this is a fatally flawed explanation attempt that
      gives
      a false sense of closure on these issues, this fact is overlooked by
      our
      educational institutions today since there is no other explanation for
      Newtonian gravity. Therefore, all properly educated scientists have
      firmly learned the standard (though erroneous) logical techniques that
      have been taught for generations to provide ready answers for the
      mysteries and violations of Newtonian gravity. This leads to the
      curious
      fact that, on the one hand, science found it necessary to search for
      and
      accept such alternate gravitational theories as Einstein's General
      Relativity Theory, while on the other hand, Newtonian gravity is still
      widely accepted by scientists. This makes the Work Function an
      important pivotal element in this whole mystery, and therefore worthy
      of
      a closer look.
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