Crystalline Nucleus: Porringa's Lattice Nested Hydrino Atomic Model
- Crystalline Nucleus: Porringa's Lattice Nested Hydrino Atomic Model
Revolutionary Atomic Model
(Framework For A Grand Unified Theory)
Secrets Of Nuclear & Atomic Structure Deciphered
~Ancient Mysteries Solved~
Possibly the biggest development in atomic and nuclear theory in over 200 years, the Lattice Nested Hydreno model takes science to the next level of fundamental understanding, explaining many of the greatest mysteries of the Universe in truly astounding detail.
Contrary to the assertions of Bohr and Rutherford, it is intuitively obvious that the structure and geometry of the nucleus must have a direct bearing on the properties of the atom as clearly evident in this radically new atomic model.
For the first time in history, the hidden geometric code of the Periodic Table of Elements, including their Isotopes and Allotropes, is deciphered in a logical, common sense fashion accounting for literally thousands of previously unexplained chemical and nuclear properties and phenomena including:
The relationship between nuclear, atomic and macroscopic reality.
Isotopic distribution, abundance, missing isotopes & elements (Tc).
The void of stability from Bi toTh & the upper limit of nuclear diameter.
What causes the escalating neutron-proton ratio.
Why U235 is thermal neutron fissionable, while U238 is not.
The difference between thermonuclear and "cold" nuclear reactions.
The strong force, nuclear geometry, nucleon structure, spin quanta.
Atomic and nuclear based allotropes, isomers & crystal structure.
Electron structure, orbital shells, orbital shapes and quantization.
Chemical bonding, bond angles, bond types and bond strength.
why matter and mass are not the same thing.
What really causes gravitational and inertial forces.
. . ...and many other properties and phenomena.
Despite the radical departure from conventional thought, the vast majority of chemical and nuclear data is easily encompassed within the new atomic model, although the interpretation of it is dramatically altered, providing a quantum leap in deterministic understanding.
"God doesn't play dice with the Universe" - Einstein
By comparision, the indeterminate and frequently counter intuitive Bohr-Rutherford atom is irremediably inconsistent with macroscopic reality and much of contemporary science. The conventional Planetary model and its modern refinements is consequently declared pretty well defunct. A comparison of the two models is provided in the attached table which clearly demonstrates the superior merit and determinism of the Hydreno atom.
A limited edition, pre-print ebook of this extraordinary development has recently been released. Follow this link for a brief synopsis of this historic publication. The Hydreno atomic model could very well revolutionize the world of science and engineering in an unprecedented fashion providing a solid framework for the much anticipated Grand Unified Theory.
Some Major Distinctions of the New Model
The notion of point "particle" electrons orbiting the nucleus is discarded in favour of a composite standing-wave of electromagnetic energy which defines a spherical force-field. This force-field electron provides the apparent solidity and volume of matter. The electrons "material" structure is continually driven by resident harmonic frequencies of the Quantum Vacuum Flux otherwise known as the Zero-Point Energy Field.
This wave-particle electron, analogous to a soap bubble or balloon, can exist in many different quantized, harmonic wave states and diameters corresponding to the electron orbits and orbitals of conventional chemistry.
However, the electron does not orbit the nucleus. It is instead "anchored" to a particular proton on the surface of the nucleus with an "orbiting" zone of charge concentration, which provides the magnetic field of the electron in a manner similar to that proposed for the Mills Hydrino.
The nucleus is found to exhibit a very definitive and predictable geometry (in contrast to the conventional ad-hoc, spherical assembly) based in a narrow range of platonic solids with the protons confined to surface nested bond sites. The chemistry of the atom is consequently directly linked to the semi-rigid, yet dynamic structure of the nucleus in contrast to the assertions of Bohr and Rutherford.
Neutrons are understood to be a peculiar bound state of hydrogen with the "orbital" electron fully collapsed onto the surface of the proton causing neutrality. The individual nucleons are in turn composed of a dynamic lattice of positrons and negatrons (nuclear state electrons) evidently much larger than Rutherford's claim.
The Strong force is revealed to be an ultra-close range Casimir Effect of the absolute radiation pressure of the Quantum Vacuum Energy Flux. In addition, the new model contains some 200 postulates, principles, rules and theorems describing the properties and behavior of the atom and bulk matter in meticulous detail constituting the framework of a Theory Of Everything.
Vast Implications For Science and Technology
The revolutionary model entails a massive scientific reformation, encompassing the entire body of Standard theory. The artificial barrier of the Engineering Work Function (W=Fd), inapropriately adopted as a fundamental scientific truth, has also been extricated paving the way for an unprecedented renaissance in engineering.
In effect, the new model constitutes a "Rosetta Stone" for chemistry and physics, permitting fundamental interpretation and comprehension of a vast array of unexplained empirical data as well as a logical foundation for the much anticipated Grand Unified Theory, encompassing all of the forces of nature.
The Hydreno atomic model could very well alter the course of history, providing real solutions to numerous social, environmental, technological and energy issues on a global scale.
The move from an empirically based, highly constrained scientific paradigm, to one of precise determinism and essentially limitless potential is upon us. Heisenberg consequently rolls over in his grave but Einstein dances with glee. God doesn't play dice with the Universe afterall.
A SYNOPSIS OF THE HYDRENO ATOMIC MODEL
A radically new and revolutionary model of the atom is proposed to address the numerous deficiencies and errors in the Bohr-Rutherford theory, which is irremediably inconsistent with much of chemistry and physics, and a growing number of contemporary anomalies. The conventional planetary model (and its refinements) is consequently replaced with a simple, yet very powerful concept, which incorporates the recent discovery of the Tetra-Neutron at the GANIL Accelerator and a loose variant of the Mills Hydrino; a fractional quantum state of Hydrogen.
By way of distinction, the Lattice Nested Hydreno (LNH) atomic model, effectively reintegrates chemistry and nuclear physics providing logical and frequently intuitive means for understanding a wide variety of nuclear and chemical phenomena, both familiar and previously unexplained. In effect, the LNH model represents a move from an empirically based, indeterminate science, to a highly deterministic logic. The glaring disconnect between the atomic and macroscopic reality has been effectively eliminated. This is in stark contrast to the tenets of modern science that would suggest that relative chaos at the atomic and nuclear scale, somehow produces order and structure at the macroscopic scale.
As an extremely close pass on literal reality, the new atomic model allows the user to explain in a very concise and logical fashion, a vast array of unaccounted for chemical and nuclear data and observations that are presently without any fundamental understanding whatsoever. Its astounding determinism and predictive value is without precedent, accounting for meticulous details such as why Tin has 10 stable isotopes of predominately even atomic weights and tetrahedral bonding; why Technetium doesn't exist naturally; why Rhodium behaves as a catalyst with only one stable isotope; why metals naturally arrange their atoms in clearly defined crystal structures of generally high strength; why Uranium 235 is thermal neutron fissionable, while U238 is not; why there are no stable elements between Bi82 and Th90; the difference between thermonuclear and cold fission reactions; what really causes superconductivity, and so on, through literally thousands of unaccounted for empirical observations.
The new model also handily accommodates several new classes of low energy fusion and fission reactions that have been reported in reputable publications such as Fusion Technology. One class of reaction produces visible microgram quantities of Iron, and numerous other elements from the Passive Inertial Confinement (PIC) fusion of simple molecules and smaller atoms in a bench top, carbon arc electrolysis cell. In some cases these same reactions have been found to be reversible as Cold fission reactions yielding stable daughter products without radiation or the large release of energy that attends conventional thermonuclear reactions. These low energy induced reactions are frequently very predictable yielding determinate end products according to simple chemo-nuclear reactions including, 2 8O16 >> 16S32 which evidently proves that nuclei have definitive structure in contrast to the assertions of conventional theory.
The theory offered to explain these anomalies invokes the well established reality of the Casimir Effect as exhibited in the peculiar properties of Sonoluminescence, Condensed Charge phenomena, Cavity Quantum Electromagnetics and the Negentropic implosion of quasi-stable hydrogen oxide gas. All of these phenomena are believed to cohere the otherwise random Zero-Point Energy (ZPE) of the Vacuum Fluctuations of Quantum field theory. These same concepts are incorporated into a new model of the atom with profound implications for many fields of science and engineering, constituting the foundation of a much-anticipated Grand Unified Theory, neatly integrating the four forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong and weak) under a singular concept.
A major implication of the new model, is that the Strong force is understood to be an ultra-close range Casimir Effect, that literally holds the nucleus together from the outside by virtue of the continuous, impelling force from the photon, radiation pressure of the Zero-Point Field energy, estimated to be >1018 kPa, rather than the conventional view of internal "glue" like bonding. Another major outcome, is that the chemistry and most other properties of the atom and bulk matter are ultimately determined by the geometric, crystalline structure of the nucleus based on a fundamental tetrahedral space unit.
Furthermore, it is asserted that the entire material structure of the atom, is in fact, a complex assembly of composite standing wave, energy vortices, constituting spheroid force fields. These spherical forcefields, analogous to a soap bubble or balloon, are sustained by a combination of harmonic resonance, interference and brute force interactions with the ubiquitous ZPE spectrum of space that exists well beyond cosmic rays at 1022 Hz. In effect the ZPE sustains all matter and forces, and ultimately supplies all observable forms of energy.
The foundational concepts of the model also happen to be applicable to the wider scope of the physical sciences including: what causes mass, gravity and inertial forces; why matter and mass are not the same thing; the real nature of so called dark matter. Indeed, the entire collection of Standard Theory from Newton to Einstein, Faraday to Maxwell is consequently being reworked within this new scientific paradigm to arrive at a far more fundamental level of understanding, starting with a single well established concept, already widely reported in Quantum Field theory and backed with solid experimental data. The existence of this singular reality at the root of all physical phenomena in the Universe constitutes the first real attempt at the much anticipated Theory of Everything, or Final Theory.
This move, from a superficial, empirical science to one of greater depth, and determinism was facilitated in part by extricating the engineering Work Function (W=Fd), which was misappropriated into the body of scientific knowledge as a fundamental truth, rather than the simple closed system engineering tool that it is. This one grave error has apparently curtailed progress in many areas of science and technology over the past 300 years, restricting our inquiries to a very superficial level of understanding. As a corrective measure, a new fundamental form of energy is formally recognized, in addition to the widely applied concepts of Potential (Ep) and Kinetic Energy (Ek). This new form, tentatively referred to as Sustaining Energy (Es), literally maintains all the "static" and steady state forces of material systems, through continuous interaction with the ZPE of space.
This includes all systems, from the fundamental particles of matter to the Universal scale. It is, for instance, recognized that a continuous input of energy is required to sustain the forces required to maintain the integrity of the atom. On the macro-scale it is also recognized that the earth's gravitational field requires a constant, unseen input of sustaining energy in order to maintain the force required to keep the moon in its orbit, or for that matter, objects clinging (or more correctly impelled) to its surface.
Having formally labeled this new form of energy, a vast array of revolutionary technologies are envisioned and legitimized, which utilize transient non equilibrium interactions between matter and the seething energy flux of the vacuum. This new field of Quantum Vacuum Engineering will soon provide clean energy systems that require no material fuel; field effect propulsion systems, requiring no material reaction medium; and low energy induced nuclear reactions, all of which have been reported by independent labs around the world and frequently occur naturally in great abundance.
A massive, scientific renaissance is consequently in the works involving an all-encompassing reformation of the entire spectrum of science. The ensuing wave of breakthrough technologies within the growing field of QVac Engineering set to occur on the near horizon is bound to surprise even the most jaded Sci-fi enthusiast, providing all manner of practical solutions to wide array of pressing Global issues, not to mention preserving our planet from environmental catastrophe.
© 2006, 2007 Mark Porringa
Revolutionary Atomic Model
Based In Ultra Close Range Casimir Effects
(Sample Portions From The Ebook)
From the Preface
While leafing through some back issues of TIME magazine a few years ago, I came across a curious cover story suggesting that the "golden age" of science was over. The author was in fact declaring "Science is dead" - just a few minor details to iron out and essentially everything will be known. In a more recent offering, Steven Hawking has even been declared "The last of the red hot Nerds" in resignation to the presumed twilight years of science.
While some academics would lead us to believe that they have solved all the mysteries, nothing could be further from the truth. It is however, a lamentable fact, that modern science now steeped in the pride of its lofty accomplishments over the last few centuries, has succumbed to a form of self-assured arrogance, a kind of know-it-all attitude, that is pretty much devoid of any authentic objectivity or humble inquiring innocence. Science, confined as it is to the physical realm, certainly has its limits, but they are not to be seen on the horizon any time soon.....
In whimsical contrast to this know-it-all mindset, it is routinely claimed that knowledge now doubles at break neck speed every few years. Granted, the shear volume of our information increases exponentially, but the portion that is of practical use and significance to real understanding is diminishingly small. I would in fact suggest that the mass of incomprehensible, scientific gobbledygook gathering dust in the halls of academia does little to advance the cause of real understanding. As knowledge increases, fundamental understanding seems in fact to be waning as science becomes more and more esoteric and divorced from solid logic and realistic modeling. We have hardly a first clue about a lot of things when it comes to the deeper how and why questions of what makes the Universe tick.....
Oh sure, we have our descriptive equations, and we can engineer things that behave predictably, more or less, but we certainly don't understand them from a fundamental standpoint. And on top of that, there is a long and growing list of other stuff that doesn't fit into any part of Standard theory; those numerous pesky anomalies that we too often conveniently ignore. Modern science has in many ways become hopelessly fragmented, specialized and complex making it less and less consequential; even sterile, seriously deterring any real fundamental progress. Nobody seems to even bother with the big picture anymore where the integration of diverse concepts can lead to surprising new discoveries and applications. And virtually no one dares question the existing, well-entrenched dogmas of science without risking a major set back in their career expedited by the high priests of modern science.....
As it turns out, there are in fact lots of alternatives that have never been given serious consideration, that could rapidly solve our present energy and environmental crises by applying simple concepts that are fundamentally no more mysterious than the "free" energy provided by solar panels or windmills. Fortunately, due in large part to the free exchange of ideas over the Internet, the near future is beginning to look a lot brighter with the emergence of what Nobel Laureate, T.D. Lee, first referred to as Quantum Vacuum (QVac) Engineering. Based in little known and largely ignored aspects of advanced Quantum Field theory and major refinements to Maxwell's Electromagnetics, this brand new field of engineering is tied to a more fundamental understanding of the atom and its continuous interaction with the energetic vacuum of so called "empty space" - a huge misnomer as it turns out....
A growing number of radical innovators of both the scientific and technical variety are seriously challenging the natural and frustrating limitations of the existing closed system paradigm, to entertain revolutionary ideas that are blowing the lid off the boxes of convention. These self styled pioneers, working in the bold spirit and likeness of such icons as Einstein and the Wright brothers, are making revolutionary advances that will soon reach the critical mass of public awareness that historically accompanies major breakthroughs, and unleashes rapid technological development. Barring unforeseen events, we are about to ride the crest of a huge wave of breakthroughs that are primarily based in the realization that space is full energy.....
Everything from cosmology to medicine will be radically transformed in what promises to be a combination of scientific reformation and renaissance. Like it or not, these monumental changes are coming on many different fronts simultaneously, all based in the emerging realization, that space, far from being the empty void we perceive it to be, is actually full of the extremely high frequency, and largely unobservable Zero-Point energy of the Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations. It is within this sea of primordial, "Dark Energy" that every aspect of our material Universe appears in fact, to be rooted.....
It was Arthur C. Clarke who rightly observed that any sufficiently advanced technology has the appearance of magic, but most slight-of-hand tricks are actually based in a lack of understanding by the observer. It is my intention in producing this conceptual treatise, that I will in some measure dispel this vale of mystery and help to usher in the ensuing age of deeper understanding of this incredible Universe in which we find ourselves.....
Not surprisingly, this whole scientific and technological revolution will naturally gravitate toward the fundamental properties of matter and its continuous interaction with the energetic vacuum of space. That being said, my primary focus for the remainder of this dissertation will be the intricate structure of matter with numerous conceptual side excursions into the wider scope of the physical sciences in a rather brash attempt to make such incredible things understood by the Layman. This daunting task has not been entered into lightly, culminating from almost ten years of experimentation, theoretical inquiry and extensive musing...
© 2006, 2007
Postulates, Principles and Rules Of
The Lattice Nested Hydreno Atomic Model
(A 1/5th Sampling Of Approximately 200)
NOTE: Many critical and sensitive details have been purposely omitted in this "condensed" sample of the postulates, principles and rules. This is not meant to be a puzzle for solving. It is only intended to tickle your curiousity and provide an general idea of the basic concepts. To get the whole story with more detailed explanations, buy the book like lots of other people. Life is too short, already. This monumental discovery may very well go down in history - extraordinary information available nowhere else on the planet.
WARNING: Despite the radical implications of many of these assertions, the majority are actually based on well established science and compelling experiments reported in the peer reviewed literature. Nonetheless, cherished dogmas and esoteric "pet theories" are challenged and replaced with pragmatic realism and logic. The end result of this exercise may very well be a massive Scientific Reformation of unprecedented proportions. Closed minded, entrenched thinkers comfortable with their superficial understanding of all things natural are advised not to continue.
Concerning The Vacuum And Its Energy:
1) The primordial energy of the Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations of space is conjectured to be the root of all material existence. Empty space is in fact filled with - possibly composed of - the ubiquitous, isotropic energy of the Zero-Point Field (ZPF), which theoretically ranges up to the Planck frequency of 1043 Hz, with a wavelength approaching 10-35 m. The ZPF of free space has the highest entropy and lowest enthalpy of any form of energy. The "Dark matter" proposed by Cosmologists, should more appropriately be referred to as "Dark energy", having a virtual (non-material) mass.
2) This largely unobservable Zero-Point Energy (ZPE) interacts with, and sustains all matter on a continuous basis through a combination of brute force, harmonic resonance and interference interactions, not so different from the discreet interactions of sound waves in music theory. The absolute, dynamic radiation/photon pressure of the vacuum exceeds 1020 kPa by a wide margin based on a simple extrapolation of the Casimir effect to the subatomic scale. Consequently, there are no closed systems in the Universe; everything interacts through the ZPF (a well established fact of Quantum Field theory).
3) Forces can only exist between two or more fundamental particles of matter or between individual fundamental particles and the organized (coherent) energy of space. Forces do not exist in the incoherent (random) energy of space - only fields of energy. Force is therefore inseparable from the concepts matter and mass according to Newton's equation, F=ma. However, matter and mass are not the same thing. All forces are a manifestation of the interaction of net radiation pressure of the organized ZPF and the energy vortex that constitutes the fundamental particles of matter.
4) All forces therefore involve a continuous input of energy from the local vacuum flux regardless of whether motion results or not. Despite its practical use in closed system engineering applications, the work function, W=Fd, is actually a gross simplification based on a superficial perspective which disregards the reality of the energetic vacuum. The work function is only valid when the material system is in dynamic equilibrium with the ZPF. It must be realized that all material systems have sustaining forces and consequently require continuous energy flow. This energy flow can be tapped for useful purposes.
5) Sustaining energy (Es or SE) is for distinction, set apart from the conventional notions of Potential or Kinetic energy of a material system in that it and does not entail any apparent displacement term such as Ep = mgh. It generally remains undetected as a coherent flow of ZPE in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the material system. Sustaining Energy is a time related energy, expressed as Es = QFt, where Q is a system specific constant with space-time units. Sustaining power is then simply, Ps= Es/t = QF.
Concerning Electrons & Positrons:
1) The Positron and the mirror image, counter rotating, oppositely charged Negatron (Electron) are the fundamental "particles" of all matter, and are essentially just organized energy in a standing wave vortex, (analagous to a whirlpool in a stream) created from and continually sustained by the Zero-Point Energy flux of the vacuum. The composite standing wave is evidently comprised of radial, spherical and time harmonic functions, which together produce a discreet spherical force-field, which provides the illusion of solidity and bulk volume of all matter.
2) The superposition of these three wave functions creates an orbiting zone of charge density, which produces the magnetic field of the electron and positron. The fundamental orbital frequency of the zone of superposition is the inherent Compton frequency of a stationary electron. The Compton frequency of the electron in motion, superimposed on the ZPF spectrum, produces a Doppler induced beat frequency that precisely corresponds to the de Broglie wavelength. Electrons and positrons annihilate when their oppositely rotating energy vortices interact in destructive interference producing a gamma ray pulse/photon of discrete frequency.
3) The composite standing wave of the electron can be changed to higher and lower, quantized energy states without observable radiation, permissible according to the harmonic relation 2re = n (re, nominal electron radius). This ocurrs as a result of interactions with resonant frequencies of the ubiquitous ZPF radiation; interference frequencies from other orbital electrons; excitation from incident photons/radiations; and the degree of ZPF shadowing inherent to its environment.
4) Electrons and to a lesser extent positrons, can exist in five different basic states ranging from the smallest inter-nucleon state from which the nucleons are constructed, here referred to as the negatron and positron, to the plane wave state electron resulting from the continuous expansion of a free electron. The ratio of cross sectional area of the orbital electron compared to the nuclear state negatron is consequently about 106 with a volumetric ratio approaching 109.
Concerning The Nucleons:
1) The proton is considered to be a composite particle with a geometric shape approximating a sphere having a positron center, composed of x negatrons and x positrons bound in a square planar lattice arrangement so as to provide stronger coulomb attraction between adjacent, opposite charges than the repulsion between diagonal like charges. The nominal diameter of the proton is equivalent to 15 positrons and negatrons.
2) The neutron has one additional electron, which occupies a position that is mostly outside the envelope of the proton providing significantly greater exposure to the quantum vacuum flux in its protruded position. The nucleons are very likely, much larger than the presently accepted dimension of 10-15m, probably closer to 10-12 m. The intensity of the mutual coulomb repulsion of the protons within the nucleus is consequently much less than presently thought, in accordance with the typical 1/r2 relation of an electric field radiating from a point charge.
3) The neutron defining electron can only remain in its small inter nucleon state, provided it is reasonable well shielded by other nucleons. The neutron is in effect a fully condensed Hydreno composed of a proton plus its electron orbital shell, in a fully collapsed, zero quantum state, such that neutrality results for the entire assembly with localized charge asymmetry.
4) Observed mass defects of the elements are due to slight variations in the mass of the nucleons as a function of the structure of the nucleus. For instance a neutron at the center of the nucleus will have a marginally lower Insitu Mass than a peripheral neutron even though they have exactly the same "material" structure.
Concerning The Nucleus:
1) The nuclear core is composed entirely of neutrons arranged in the closest packing tetrahedral and pyramidal lattice arrangement practically attainable through square planar or trigonal nuclear bonds to produce a variety of platonic polyhedrons. Trigonal bonding is most prevalent because it is more stable and space efficient. The center of the nucleus can be either space centered or neutron centered. The points and facets of the neutron core geometry are the major contributors to valence and observed bond angles in the atom.
2) The Strong force is an ultra-close range Casimir effect that literally holds the nucleus together from the outside through the brute radiation pressure of the incident ZPF estimated to exceed 1020 Pa (1015 atm). The nucleus is not held together by internal attraction by some mysterious gluon particle. The gluon is just crazy glue for bad nuclear physics and solves nothing. The individual facets of the nucleons provide a secure contact interface between bonded nucleons contributing to bond strength, lattice stability and semi-rigidity.
3) The upward bound on nuclear diameter is limited to a large extent by a simple surface area (r2) to volume (r3) ratio, such that the coulomb repulsion is a function of nuclear volume and the sustaining radiation pressure of the vacuum is primarily a function of interactions at the nuclear surface. It is therefore not surprising that stable, generally spherical nuclei, do not exist beyond a neutron to proton ratio of ~1.6. At such a ratio the accumulated internal coulomb repulsion, and the external impelling ZPF pressure approach equilibrium.
4) The void of nuclear stability between Bi83 and Th90 can be accounted for due to these multiple considerations. Only highly spherical and symmetric geometries are permissible as the size of the nucleus approaches the upward bound, barring the majority of more acute angular geometries. This causes the observed void of stability as the only remaining, highly spherical geometries approach completion, through an unstable transition region requiring the addition of numerous nucleons.
Concerning Nuclear Reactions And Decay:
1) The nature, cause and sequence of nuclear decay and its associated radiations are predictable based primarily on the geometry of the nucleus and its interactions with the ZPF of the vacuum. Beta particles result from the emission of a nuclear state negatron or positron resulting in the conversion of a nucleon. Electron capture occurs as a result of hydreno collapse to its fully bound state forming the negatron/proton pair of the neutron. The energy of the collapsed orbital shell electron is emitted.
2) Low Energy induced fusion can occur when the hydrenos occupying the mating faces between the fusing nuclei collapse to zero quantum energy states forming neutrons due to atomic scale Casimir forces. These forces are the result of mutual ZPF shadowing and the inward directed radiation pressure of ZPE coherence. If the fusion interface hydrenos do not collapse completely, a composite nucleus comprised of two distinct, but indiscernible nuclei may be formed. Diatomic oxygen for instance may collapse along the bond interface producing a single atom of organic sulfur.
3) Cold fission can occur when the nucleus is sheared along a fractal plane of the neutron lattice core without disruption of the individual nucleons along the fracture. The resulting fission fragments then rapidly regroup their nucleons to form stable elements without release of observable nuclear radiations. The excess neutrons are prompt converted to hydrenos as the fission fragments separate, exposing the core neutrons to the full energy of the ZPF. There is in fact, no energy/matter conversion occurring in Low Energy Induced fusion and Cold fission reactions -- only in thermonuclear reactions.
4) Thermonuclear fission results from electron-positron annihilations on a massive scale, within individual nucleons producing a powerful gamma burst and radioactive daughter products as a result of the violent disruptive explosion of the nucleus, which rips through the generally spherical nuclear lattice in adhoc fashion. This leaves ragged asymmetric fragments that emit quantized radiations as they gradually transition to stable end products, through the emission of particles, nucleon conversions and nuclear transitions. Energy yields from thermonuclear reactions are not simply due to the separation or joining of nucleons.
Concerning The Atom:
1) The Hydreno is the building block of all atoms and is essentially the same as the hydrogen atom in that it is composed of a proton and its associated spherical standing wave electron "shell" at various fractionally quantized, harmonic energy levels. The standing wave orbital electron simply attaches itself by coulomb attraction and impelling ZPF radiation to one proton on the surface of the nucleus forming a dynamic force field shell. This electron, proton pairing constitutes the Hydreno.
2) The orbital electron is generally much larger than its paired proton with a highly dispersed orbiting charge density that spends most of its time away from the proton. The teardrop shape typical of the p, d and f orbital subshells described by the Schrodinger wave equations, is a good approximation of the actual shape of the force field. The electrons standing wave force field is free to extend far from the nucleus to provide the normal volume of the atom and the illusion of the bulk solidity of matter.
3) The K, L, M, N, O, P and Q electron shells of the periodic table correspond to the quantum energy states of the nested hydrenos. The quantized energy level within the subshells of particular shell can however vary to some extent within harmonic constraints. For brevity it should again be emphasized that electrons in this view do not "orbit" the entire nucleus. They remain directly associated with a singular proton on the surface of the nucleus.
4) The escalating number of orbital electrons in each shell, from K to Q is determined by radial bisections of the subshells, of the underlying shell. For instance, bisections of the subshells of the L shell give rise to the (2n2) 18 s, p and d subshells of the M shell, topping out with a population of 32 electrons, limited by excessive electron crowding. The s, p, d, f, h orbital subshells of conventional chemistry largely correspond to real geometric orientations and quantum energy states of the electrons within each shell (K to Q) determined by the nested position of the high energy hydrenos on the neutron lattice core.
5) The outer valence shell responsible for bonding is always restricted to a maximum of eight subshells corresponding to the radially symmetric orientation of the corners of a cube. Mutual shadowing of the high-energy hydrenos and the resulting spectral shift and attenuation of the local vacuum flux evidently prevents anymore than 8 electrons in the outer valence shell.
Concerning Atomic Bonding and Chemistry:
1) Ultimately the atoms of all materials are held together by very close range Casimir forces, which are provided by the net ZPF radiation pressure, with the individual atoms acting as minute conductive plates. The structure Crystalline materials such as metals, diamond, and mineral compounds have regular geometric atomic shapes directly attributable to the structure of the nucleus conducive to packing in regular self-organizing lattice structures. Self-organization is largely provided by the atomic polarity.
2) The chemistry, valence and bond angles of the elements are fundamentally determined and indirectly indicative of the structure of the nucleus and are therefore predictable to a large extent. Similarly, the structure of the nucleus can be deduced to some extent from the known electron configuration. Peripheral neutrons have a strong bearing on the valence and observed bond angles of the atom. Bohr's assertion that the nucleus has little significance to the chemistry of the atom is evidently incorrect.
3) Diatomic bonds in elements such as H2, O2, N2, and Cl2 having a negative valence, bond by covering each other's vacant outer valence electron orbital sites. These vacant sites are characterized by a depression on the surface of the atom forming a saddle into which the mating atom fits with a right angle orientation (except hydrogen). Orientation results from the polarity of the asymmetric distribution of the hydrenos in the individual atoms. Bond strength is provided primarily by the net pressure of the impelling radiation of the ZPF, not "sharing" of electrons.
4) Covalent bonding between atoms is determined by a literal peg and hole match between the unoccupied hydreno sites of the moderately full outer valance orbital and the surplus hydrenos of the moderately empty valence orbital ideally having corresponding orbital electron energy surplus and deficiency. Inert elements have neither a surplus of valence orbital hydrenos that may be thought of as pegs nor orbital gaps as holes in which to receive a hydreno.
5) Ionic bonding occurs when the bond site (hole) of the receiving atom has a much greater affinity for the electron than the hydreno of the atom from which it is taken. This acute difference in electron affinity results in the transfer of the electron, which is pulled from its proton anchor in the nucleus of the donor atom and deposited in the vacant orbital site on the surface of the receptor atom. The transfer of the electron effectively forms two ions that bond by coulomb attraction, which again is fundamentally an impelling force from the ZPF radiation.
Concerning Bulk Matter:
1) Bulk matter is considered almost transparent to the vast majority of the ZPE spectrum aside from minor localized effects such as gravity, inertia and atomic and molecular bonding. The properties of bulk matter are directly attributable the combined attributes of its atomic and nuclear structure based in the energetic vacuum of space. Fundamentally, bulk matter (like nuclear and atomic matter) is held together by the greatly diminished, net impelling radiation pressure of the ZPF primarily acting at the molecular and macro scale, such that the individual atoms and molecules constitute microscopic Casimir plates.
2) Amorphous solids are generally composed of complex molecular arrangements with a high degree of molecular scale roughness and irregularities conducive to loose packing, entanglement and intertwining of the individual molecules with large inter atomic and molecular void spaces providing low bulk densities. Amorphous solids are ultimately held together by the impelling ZPF radiation, acting primarily at the molecular and macroscopic scale, above the atomic scale.
3) Pure elemental fluids posses irregular or near spherical atomic geometry not conducive to stable, regular packing and/or extremely weak atomic polarity that cannot promote self organization of a solid crystal structure. Melting of crystaline solids including metals occurs when too much inter-atomic movement exists to permit effective bonding between the facets of the individual atoms. Fluids are therefore predominately molecular or mixtures of atoms and compounds of irregular collective geometry that cannot be easily "frozen" as solids with strong inter-atomic bonding.
4) The mechanical properties of bulk matter, such as strength, stiffness, elasticity, malleability, density and smoothness are primarily rooted in the macro, molecular and atomic level matter-vacuum interactions, which are in turn, rooted in the geometry of the nucleus. For instance the strength and density of metals are generally higher than other materials due to closely packed and highly regular atomic geometry, involving well defined facets and atomic polarity. Stressing a material within its elastic limit distorts the bonding electron force-field shell, altering its interaction with the ZPF, but without any actual displacement of the atomic facet bonds allowing the material to return to its relaxed state.
5) The intrinsic properties of matter such as enthalpy, resistance, conductivity, reflectivity, refraction, color, and a myriad of other properties, can also be accounted for within the LNH model. For instance, conductivity results from a high-energy valence electron that is easily displaced from its proton anchor in the nucleus, allowing it to move in halting fashion, within the interstitial spaces of the metal lattice. New EMP devices actually cause these free electrons to jump to a high-energy state, effectively locking them in the lattice, abruptly stopping current flow in circuits.
Some Astrophysical Implications:
1) The intended scope of our conceptual inquiry into the nature of the atom and matter has now extended through six levels of organization, from the vacuum, to bulk matter. It should go without saying, that many of the aforementioned postulates and principles, can be similarly extrapolated to all higher levels of matter organization, including the planetary, solar, stellar, galactic, galactic clusters, super clusters and ultimately to the Universal scale, very likely explaining an enormous collection of cosmological and astrophysical data and phenomena.
2) Application to the behavior of the solar system has already been inferred as a means of explaining gravitation, including such mysteries as the sling shot effect, moon libration and gravity shadowing during solar eclipses. The maximum dimension of a bulk matter star is ultimately determined by the penetration capabilities of the ZPF, which must extend to its core with sufficient brevity to sustain all of its constituent positrons and negatrons within the nuclei. Furthermore, the orbital electron force fields of the individual atoms must withstand the extreme fluid pressures at the core without collapsing to form a neutron star.
3) Consequently, the maximum dimension of a condensed matter, neutron star is much smaller than a bulk matter star, since the ZPF attenuation rate would be roughly 104 times higher. The graviton emissions would however be largely independent of the density with a direct correlation to the number of fundamental material particles only. In other words, a large bulk matter star would produce approximately the same gravitational field (at distance) as a much smaller neutron star composed of the same number of fundamental particles with slight variations due to secondary shadowing effects.
4) Ultimately, the energy which powers a star comes from the absorption of a small fraction of the incident ZPF energy. Thermonuclear fusion, consequently, is not really the fundamental source. Effectively stars just recycle the energy of the vacuum, transducing it from the incident unobservable, ultra-high frequency scalar radiations to the emitted observable low frequency thermal radiations of the conventional EM spectrum. Sufficient interstellar spacing is therefore critical to the survival of a star.
5) Similarly, the maximum matter density and dimension of a galaxy would be determined by the ZPF distribution, which would eventually be organized and attenuated to such an extent that new stars could not be sustained from the local vacuum flux. This process of extrapolation to ever higher levels could apparently continue ad nauseam to the Universal scale, at which point we would have nothing further to inquire about. But that is not about to happen anytime soon.....
To fill in the many missing details and see the rest of the ~200 postulates, principles and rules please purchase the book.
© Mark Porringa, 2006, 2007
Element Case Studies
Without going into a lot of detail, these short case studies are intended to demonstrate the extraordinary predictive value and deterministic logic of the Lattice Nested Hydreno Model as it applies to a wide array of atomic and nuclear properties and related phenomena. For a fuller comprehension of the underlying concepts described, please purchase the ebook.
Aluminum is a rather unique metal in many respects, possessing a high strength to weight ratio; a single valence state of +3; one stable isotope and cubic close packed (ccp) crystal structure. The question is, can these and many other properties of Aluminum be logically accounted for by the new atomic model? The answer is a resounding yes.
First of all why does aluminum possess only one stable isotope? This occurs at quite regular intervals throughout the periodic table, but the fundamental cause is not known. Conventional Bohr-Rutherford atomic theory and its refinements provides no means of comprehension, even though the answer is evidently quite simple, as clearly predicted by the Hydreno atomic model. The solution to this riddle turns out to be purely a matter of the permissible geometries and symmetry of the nucleus.
Consulting the table of nuclear geometries (provided in the ebook) one quickly finds a combination of core neutrons and surface nested bond sites that would appear to satisfy the requirement for 27 nucleons with a core of 13 neutrons, 13 surface nested protons (hydrenos) and one vacant site for an additional peripheral neutron. This combination produces a perfect, and complete geometric shape that cannot accommodate any more nucleons without disrupting the minimum required symmetry of the nucleus restricting the element to a single stable isotope.
Furthermore the resulting charge asymmetry of the nucleus produced by the lone peripheral neutron produces the requisite nuclear and atomic polarity required for self alignment of the elemental crystal solid exhibiting the ccp crystal lattice providing the observed 12 points of contact with adjacent atoms. This crystal arrangement quite obviously results from a simple extrapolation of the hydreno sites to produce 12 clearly defined facets of the base 2, cuboctahedral neutron core (B2 Cuboctacore) lattice, which also contributes to aluminums strength, particularly in alloyed form.
Looking down on the one peripheral neutron, (figure 2) the 3 high-energy hydreno, valence positions become immediately evident. These are the hydrenos in the most physically pronounced positions with greatest exposure to the sustaining frequencies of the quantum vacuum flux. These protons are clearly preferred due to their proximity to the peripheral neutron since it does not have a quantum orbital state to attenuate and shadow the local vacuum flux, leaving more energy to sustain these three valence positions. Indeed, the peripheral neutrons are a major contributing factor to the observed valence states for all the elements. In profusion, they also give rise to the many stable isotopes of elements such as Tin, which has a full slate of ten.
A myriad of other properties can also be explained in a similar logical and frequently intuitive fashion. In contrast to the Lattice Nested Hydreno model, the Bohr-Rutherford planetary concept is, irremediably inconsistent with such logical determinism and ought therefore to be largely abandoned as a plainly inferior model of physical reality.
Stay Tuned as we gradually add more Case Studies.....
© 2006, 2007
Element Case Studies
From a chemistry standpoint, one of the most daunting "acid tests" imaginable for the new model would be to explain the bizarre properties of Nitrogen - possibly the most enigmatic of all elements. In its diatomic gaseous form it is so inert that Lavoisier was compelled to label it Azote, (meaning without life) yet it's myriad of compounds are extremely volatile as a main component of explosives, and many other highly reactive compounds. It also exhibits a profusion of 8 valence states from -3 to +5. No other element comes even close. Obviously, there is something extremely peculiar about the atomic structure of Nitrogen that must logically explain such very unique properties.
What is behind all this strange behavior is actually quite easily explained by its cubic close packed nuclear geometry as illustrated in figure 1 in the left margin. Nitrogen's Base 2 Octahedral neutron core (B2 Octacore) is identical to that of diamond (figure 2) composed of six neutrons with 7 nested protons (hydrenos) and one additional peripheral neutron which provides perfect cubic symmetry of the nucleus as clearly evident in figure 3. The energy density and frequency distribution of the local vacuum has evidently been attenuated and taxed to its limit, barring the formation of the eighth hydreno which consequently remains in its unexcited state as a peripheral neutron (figure 4).
This implies that the valence states are poorly defined, subject to wide variations (accommodated all 8 valence configurations) and potentially very unstable. All eight nested bond sites on the neutron core are absolutely identical which logically infers that any of the 7 hydreno positions is apt to exchange states with the one peripheral neutron with very little aggravation, especially in explosive compounds such as TNT or Nitro-Glycerin, causing extremely volatile reactions involving the total collapse of any one of the seven hydrenos.
The entire quantum energy of the affected orbital is consequently liberated, releasing a massive burst of thermal radiations, while the neutron simultaneously expands to form a new hydreno to replace the one that is collapsing, gathering its required sustaining energy from the discrete harmonic frequencies of the local vacuum flux. This complete collapse of a valence orbital yields the maximum energy possible in a chemical reaction, if it is even appropriate to refer to it as such. Given that the nitrogen atom has in effect changed its nuclear structure, this is more properly referred to as a form of hyperchemisty or chemo-nuclear reaction. During the reaction transient there is evidently 8 hydrenos (protons), 2 of which are exchanging states, and only 6 core neutrons (the identical composition of unstable Oxygen 14).
In contrast diatomic nitrogen creates a virtually impenetrable chemical barrier composed of radially symmetric distribution of 14 hydrenos of essentially identical quantum energy states, none of which are free to react. The two atoms are firmly interlocked at the bond interface defined by the collapsed orbital of the two peripheral neutrons, preventing them from assuming an excited hydreno state.
Furthermore, the cause of the hexagonal close packed crystal structure of solid nitrogen is readily apparent from the six staggered facets formed by the hydreno grouping defined from the neutron core extrapolations. The cryogenic fluid nature of nitrogen is also revealed by the lack of significant charge polarity of the diatomic atom. Water by comparison forms a fluid at much higher temperatures due to its strong polarity and dielectric properties.
This closely bound diatomic gas is also known to undergo endogenous transformation from thermally excited N2 to form carbon monoxide with the exchange of a proton-neutron pair (deuteron) between the two closely bound nuclei. This discovery by Dr. Louis Kervran lead to major changes in welding practices that had caused numerous deaths due to CO poisoning that could not be traced to the work environment.
In contrast to Lattice Nested Hydreno model, the Bohr-Rutherford planetary model is irremediably inconsistent with such logical determinism and ought to be largely abandoned as plainly inferior theory of matter.
For a more thorough comprehension please purchase the ebook and help pay my mortgage. Stay Tuned as we add more Case Studies.....
© 2006, 2007