Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Re: Heinrich Himmleer's SS and the Jesuit Order

Expand Messages
  • ted.wrinch
    Very interesting - thanks. There s a lot of stuff I wasn t familiar with, and some significant seeming indications, such as: On April 20, Hitler s birthday,
    Message 1 of 3 , Feb 27, 2012
    • 0 Attachment
      Very interesting - thanks. There's a lot of stuff I wasn't familiar with, and some significant seeming indications, such as:

      'On April 20, Hitler's birthday, the cadet received his collar patches and his permanent SS pass. At a solemn ceremony, the cadet avowed: "I swear to thee, Adolf Hitler, as Führer and Chancellor of the German Reich, loyalty and bravery. I vow to thee and to the superiors whom thou shalt appoint obedience unto death, so help me God."
      …

      In the natural successor to the Kaiser's Reich, Nazi Ger-many, the `divine appointment' of Hitler was emphasised over and over again. Messianic slogans, including the hideous "By resisting the Jews, I strive for the work of the Lord", bedecked hoardings and even churches, for Hitler claimed that his work was a divine crusade for Germany against all those whom he believed to be against the `inevitable' rise of the Herrenvolk.'

      and on the SS:

      'In Nazi mythology, the SS-man was the future hope of the race, and we see this emphasised in the final ceremony of the applicant's transition to full membership.
      ...
      The function of medieval knights was to create order in the land. Each knight was seen as the image of the higher man, in Arthurian terms the Christ; in Nazi terms the new superman.'

      But he's rather down on the Teutonic Knights:

      'The career of the SS in Poland and the east curiously echoed the atrocities of the Teutonic Order - every winter the chivalric knights mounted Slav-hunting expeditions.'

      'Slav hunting expeditions'?! Probably the name : the German version, Deutschritterorden, is less sinister than 'Teutonic…'; but as Steiner says, 'the periphery' never uses the name Deutsch for the Germans, as it simply means 'the people', without regard for nationality.

      T.

      Ted Wrinch

      --- In anthroposophy_tomorrow@yahoogroups.com, "elfuncle" <elfuncle@...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > Here is an excerpt from Nigel Pennick's book Hitler's Secret
      > Sciences -- His quest for the hidden knowledge of the ancients (1981):
      >
      >
      >
      > CHAPTER ELEVEN
      >
      > Perverted Chivalry - Himmler's SS
      >
      > THE BLACK ORDER
      >
      > It has often been observed that `fantasy' literature sometimes
      > prefigures future events. Whether this is because of unconscious
      > precognition by the author, or because the book itself becomes
      > self-fulfilling prophecy is a matter of speculation. However, in 1896
      > was published what is perhaps the most remarkable precognitive novel
      > ever printed: M. P. Shiel, an English author, penned a curious fantasy
      > which tells of a group of callous murderers ravaging Europe,
      > exterminating those they considered hindered the progress of humanity,
      > and cremating their bodies. The title of the book was The S. S.
      >
      > Four years after this `absurdly fanciful' novel was published,
      > on October 7 1900 Heinrich Himmler was born at Munich. Here was the
      > person who would make Shiel's fantasy a harsh reality. Himmler was
      > the son of a devout Roman Catholic schoolmaster who had at one time been
      > the private tutor of Prince Heinrich of Bavaria, after whom he was
      > named. Too young to see service in the Great War, Himmler was only an
      > Officer Cadet when the Kaiser's Reich collapsed. In the immediate
      > post-war period, he took up the study of agriculture which led to an
      > obsessive interest in heredity, paving the road to Auschwitz twenty
      > years later.
      >
      > With the rise of many para-military political parties in the early 20s,
      > Himmler joined the fledgling Nazi party and in 1923 took part in
      > Hitler's Munich Putsch. This led to a partial and temporary eclipse
      > of the Nazis, the imprisonment of Hitler in Landsberg Castle for a mere
      > ten months, and the imprisonment of Ernst Rohm, head of Hitler's
      > brownshirt stormtroops, the SA. During the imprisonment of the Nazi
      > leadership, Himmler was taken on by the Strasser brothers, Otto and
      > Gregor, who were in temporary control of the party. On Hitler's
      > release, Himmler took on additional power. Hitler had given up the idea
      > of armed revolution, and began a campaign for legal power which
      > successfully ended with his election in January 1933. During that period
      > Ernst Rohm temporarily gave up his position as leader of the SA and
      > emigrated to Bolivia to act as a military advisor in the forthcoming
      > Chaco War. In 1926, Himmler was promoted to the post of deputy leader of
      > the Schutzstaffel - Protection Units - better known and feared as the
      > SS. Formed originally in 1922 as a personal bodyguard for Hitler, the SS
      > under Himmler became transformed into something quite different.
      >
      > By the age of 28, Himmler had been promoted to the head of the SS with
      > the grand title Reichsführer-SS, the rank he held until the
      > destruction of the Third Reich a mere seventeen years later. In 1929,
      > however, the SS was not the feared and hated organization it was later
      > to become. Subordinate to the then mighty SA, the SS numbered a mere 200
      > men. Behind the scenes Himmler worked incessantly for the growth of his
      > private empire. Not for him the glory of public speaking - he left that
      > to Goebbels and Hitler. Working long hours for little pay in his office,
      > Himmler plotted for the taking of power which would enable him to
      > implement his dream - the creation of the Master Race, a new Aryan
      > warrior caste which would rule the world.
      >
      > In his dreams of the New Order, Himmler was thinking not only of the new
      > political order championed by Hitler, but also of a new biological and
      > spiritual order. This new order was to change the course of
      > civilization, science and religion, and at the heart of it was to be the
      > magic empire of the Black Order of the SS. Or so Himmler thought. From
      > his young days, the agrarian in Himmler had led him to regard the
      > peasantry as the backbone of the German nation. "The yeoman on his
      > own acre," wrote the SS chief, "is the backbone of the German
      > people's strength and character." This grounding of racial stock
      > - blood - with ancestral place - soil - was soon to be elevated into a
      > whole doctrine, a theoretical groundbase of German racial supremacy.
      > Himmler's friends in Bavaria bought a farm and let him have access
      > to it in order to try out his idea of a `peasant school'. This
      > school was to be the core of a `back to the land' movement which
      > Himmler envisaged as the future of Germany; the eventual dismantling of
      > most of industry and the recreation of a healthy, self-reliant,
      > self-sufficient and racially-pure peasant society.
      >
      > The dream of the peasant on his own acre had been the driving force
      > behind the Baltic Freikorps adventure of 1919-20, and many former
      > Freikorps members still cherished the idea of self-sufficient farming.
      > Originally, Himmler envisaged this society in Germany, but in later
      > years this was to be combined with the Reich's expansion eastward.
      > For a model of this peasant utopia, Himmler harked back to the days of
      > the First Reich, a thousand years earlier. He was a natural
      > hero-worshipper and the greatest of his heroes was King Heinrich der
      > Vogler (Henry the Fowler), founder of the First Reich. King of Saxony
      > and conqueror of the Slays, he was described by Himmler as "The
      > noble peasant of his people".
      >
      > Around this time (1926-28), Himmler became connected with a strange
      > movement known as the Artamanen. This politico-religious body was
      > dedicated to the idea of the owner-settler. Although most of the
      > Artamans were not Nazi party members, they swore by `blood and
      > soil' and vowed that they would re-conquer and re-colonize Europe
      > for Germany. In 1924, the first Artaman group set up on an estate in
      > Saxony to practise their doctrine of self-reliance; soon over 2000
      > youths had occupied farms in eastern Germany and armed themselves for
      > the forthcoming fight against the Slays. The Artamanen movement was so
      > noticeable that the novelist Hanns Nikol in 1924 published a book titled
      > Das Neue Leben (The New Life) about the genesis of the movement.
      >
      > Among the ranks of the Artamanen were several men whose later careers
      > were to make them notorious: in Brandenburg was Rudolf Höss, destined
      > to become commandant of the Auschwitz death camp; and Richard Walther
      > Darré, an agrarian racist from Argentina educated in England.
      > Darré believed that everything important was linked with race, and
      > according to his philosophy the peasantry had "always formed the
      > only reliable basis for our people from the point of view of blood."
      > The state, he wrote, must therefore expand the peasant class by rural
      > resettlement, reversing the drift towards the towns. Darr& was another
      > of that peculiar school of thought that all the great cultures of the
      > world had been founded by men of Nordic blood. He wrote several books on
      > the `blood and soil' theme, all of which were supported by
      > Himmler. Darré claimed that all the great civilizations of the past
      > had fallen because their people did not keep their Nordic blood pure. As
      > a result of this `discovery', Dane recommended that to prevent
      > the collapse of modern German culture, all internationalist and humanist
      > organizations ought to be suppressed. These organizations ranged from
      > Anarchism and Communism to Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism and Christianity,
      > all of which preached the universal brotherhood of mankind, threatening
      > the purity of the Nordic race.
      >
      > Darré's racist ideas, like the earlier theories of Paul de Lagarde,
      > were incorporated by Himmler into his wider occult vision of the
      > universal order. As the continuation of civilization depended upon the
      > purity of the Nordic race, reasoned Himmler, then this race must possess
      > some special mystic or psychic powers denied to lesser humanity. The
      > mystic actualization of a magic race of potential supermen was only
      > possible when they were in their rightful place, in intimate contact
      > with the holy soil of their homeland.
      >
      > The Artamanen faded into nothingness like so many movements, but
      > Darré was recruited into the SS where he was put in charge of the new
      > Rasse and Siedlungsamt (Race and Resettlement Office). Darré used
      > this as a means of access to the Reich Ministry of Agriculture, where he
      > was able to put his theories about self-sufficiency into action. One of
      > his more beneficial edicts was the re-afforestation of waste and.
      > derelict land. On the negative side, his office promoted anti-Semitic
      > propaganda and finally the extermination of the Jews and Gypsies.
      >
      > The wartime atrocities of the SS might make one imagine that the vast
      > majority of its members were subnormal sadists, yet it has been
      > estimated that no fewer than one in four actually possessed the degree
      > of Doctor. In 1933, shortly after the Nazis gained power, Himmler
      > invited a select audience of scholars, industrialists, officers and
      > landowners to a private address. Apprehensive of the recent propaganda
      > against intellectuals and the upper classes, many expected to be the
      > butt of a fanatical diatribe. Yet precisely the opposite happened.
      > Himmler called upon the elite gathered there to "assist in directing
      > into the SS all the various currents of tradition." Every state
      > needed an elite, he asserted, and in Nazi Germany that was the SS. But
      > the SS, he continued, could only be effective if its members
      > "brought to the social requirements of the present day the genuine
      > military tradition, the distinctive outlook, bearing and breeding of
      > German nobility, and the creative efficiency of the industrialist, on a
      > basis of racial selection." Such a statement, at first received with
      > astonishment, was given a standing ovation, and the audience joined the
      > SS practically to a man.
      >
      > From the beginning the SS regiments were an elite corps. To instil in
      > the soldiery a sense of elite continuity, Himmler revived the old
      > Imperial regimental names from the Kaiser's Reich. Echoing the
      > exclusive Prussian Knights of the Black Eagle, an order founded in 1701,
      > the SS regiments received such titles as Totenkopf, Liebstandarte,
      > Hohenstauffen, das Reich; names which rang with the heroic military
      > deeds of past victories. Like the Death's Head Hussars of Frederick
      > the Great and the Life Guards of the King of Bavaria, the new SS
      > regiments would serve the Third Reich in its `finest hour'.
      >
      > In addition to the old-fashioned military model, Himmler consciously
      > based his SS upon the Jesuit Order. The Jesuits' founder, Ignatius
      > Loyola (1491-1566), set up a command-structure of initiates which
      > Himmler followed almost to the letter. Just as the Jesuits had become
      > the religious wing of the Spanish Empire, so Himmler saw his fledgling
      > SS playing the same role in the `Thousand-Year Reich'. Although
      > ostensibly orthodox, the Jesuits made detailed studies of astrology,
      > sacred geometry, geomancy and symbolism. Their monasteries and churches
      > were laid out according to the ancient canons of siting and proportion
      > derived from pre-Christian tradition. Likewise, the shrines of the SS.
      > In the Americas, the Jesuits took over the ancient holy sites for the
      > spiritual and psychic conquest of the country. Similarly, the SS sought
      > out and purchase key points on German ley lines.
      >
      > Ignatius Loyola was a Basque. To Himmler, this was important, for some
      > German occultists had claimed that the Basque people was the last
      > remnant of the Atlantean race. Loyola's famous spiritual exercises
      > had been derived from the monks of Monserrat monastery - a Benedictine
      > holy mountain. Himmler believed that these exercises had been handed
      > down from the Masters of Atlantis, and that now he was the man chosen by
      > `higher powers' to use them in the reactivation of Vril for the
      > dominance of the Teutonic race over all others.
      >
      > The connexion of geomancy with conquest has been discussed in chapter 8
      > with regard to Europe, but it is not commonly appreciated that the same
      > thing occurred in North America. Although Arizona, New Mexico and
      > California are now integral parts of the United States, they were
      > originally colonized by Spanish settlers. Many of the famous towns of
      > California that bear the names of saints are the sites of missions
      > founded by Spanish monastic orders, and many, if not all, occupy the
      > sites of former native holy places. In Arizona and Lower California,
      > these missions were founded by Jesuits. In the 1690s, under the Jesuit
      > Eusebio Francisco Kino (an Italian), a mathematician and geographer
      > educated at Ingoldstadt, the peninsula of California was laid out for
      > his order. In 1732, his work was continued by a new band of Jesuits,
      > mainly German, named Keler, Sedelmayr, Steiger, Grashofer and Paver.
      > Forty years later, the Jesuits were expelled from California, and the
      > founding of missions was entrusted to the Franciscan Order. Originating
      > at the College of San Fernado in Mexico City, in 1769 these friars
      > sailed up the western coast of America to their new mission. At
      > Monterey, they founded a mission in the same place where 168 years
      > earlier Father Asensión had said mass under a spreading Oak tree. Los
      > Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Diego de Alcalá, San Jose, Soledad, Santa
      > Monica, San Gabriel Arcángel, San Juan Capistrano and San Francisco
      > de Asis were all founded at the end of the eighteenth century by
      > Franciscan sacred geographers. In all, 21 permanent missions were built
      > between the first, San Diego de Alcalá, in 1769, and the last, San
      > Francisco Solano, in 1823. California was psychically `pinned
      > down' in the way that the rest of North America was not.
      >
      > Along the coast from San Diego to San Francisco stretched a chain of
      > missions, situated so that the lands were divided equally between them.
      > Each mission formed a virtually autonomous patriarchal state under the
      > Padre's autocratic rule, backed up by the soldiers of the Spanish
      > Empire. The monasteries were finally dissolved under an order of the
      > Spanish government in 1813, which was not enforced in California until
      > the mid-1820s. The mission system then collapsed, the natives reverted
      > to their old ways, and the United States finally occupied California in
      > 1846.
      >
      > These monastic orders were in a unique position to synthesize the
      > geomantic arts of east and west. Steeped in arcane Qabalistic lore,
      > alchemy, astrology and the psychic sciences, the Jesuits had been the
      > driving-force behind Spain's messianic counter-reformation and the
      > dreaded inquisition. Through this hideous institution they gained secret
      > knowledge from suppressed occult orders which they then turned to their
      > own advantage. Himmler, too, had his own inquisition, the Gestapo, a
      > useful tool with which to extract all sorts of information, some of it
      > occult. The Jesuits had shown what an organization armed with these
      > secrets could do in a conquered land - suffuse the nation with spiritual
      > power, as they saw it, the Holy Spirit. Himmler's SS, steeped in
      > Jesuit methods, also dreamed of suffusing the world with their own evil
      > brand of psychic control.
      >
      > The SS-Jesuit parallel goes far beyond resemblances in occult
      > methodology. Novitiate for a Jesuit lasts for two years, followed by
      > several years of tuition and study. Finally the Priest takes his vows.
      > Here the SS was structured just like the Society of Jesus. Some Jesuits
      > take simple vows. In the SS there was an ordinary rank-and-file. Other
      > Jesuits take special vows and are considered `professed'. They
      > are the elite of the Society. In the SS this group comprised the inner
      > `priesthood' - the Black Order.
      >
      > The stages of candidature for the SS were as ritualized and formal as
      > any religious society. On November 9, the Putsch anniversary, the
      > 18-year-old candidate was accepted as an applicant. He was allowed to
      > wear the SS uniform without the collar patches. On January 30,
      > anniversary of the Nazi accession to power, the applicant became a cadet
      > and received his official SS pass. On April 20, Hitler's birthday,
      > the cadet received his collar patches and his permanent SS pass. At a
      > solemn ceremony, the cadet avowed: "I swear to thee, Adolf Hitler,
      > as Führer and Chancellor of the German Reich, loyalty and bravery. I
      > vow to thee and to the superiors whom thou shalt appoint obedience unto
      > death, so help me God."
      >
      > Even this fearsome oath was not the end. Between the oath-taking on
      > April 20 and entry into service on October 1, the entrant had to win the
      > Reich Sport Badge and learn the SS catechism by heart. This catechism,
      > based upon that of the Christian church, was intended to inculcate the
      > Nazi ethos into the candidate. By questions and answers, the
      > belief-system of the SS was explained and defined. "Why do we
      > believe in Germany and the Führer?" said the catechism. Answer:
      > "Because we believe in God, we believe in Germany which He created
      > in His world, and in the Führer, Adolf Hitler, whom He has sent
      > us." In this SS catechism, the messianic fantasies of Hitler were
      > played upon to the full.
      >
      > One of the commonest features of self-proclaimed messiahs is their
      > authoritarianism. Their reason is simple: they identify their
      > institutionalized authority with the Will of God. In their authority,
      > they assert, resides the Divine Will, which is therefore irresistable;
      > for to resist authority is to resist the Will of God, which is
      > blasphemy. The Nazis insisted on a literally religious devotion to their
      > Führer: obedience was the watchword, an obedience which led men to
      > perpetrate the worst possible crimes in the name of chivalrous loyalty.
      > Mass murderers like Adolf Eichmann were totally subordinated to the will
      > of their superiors, becoming no more than mere instruments, like
      > millions of other willing slaves in a system where slavish obedience was
      > the cardinal virtue.
      >
      > This religious authoritarianism was not of Hitler's making - it
      > dated from the Kaiser's Reich. On December 10 1891, Kaiser Wilhelm
      > II had given an address to new recruits at Potsdam in which he
      > encapsulated the whole attitude: "Recruits - You have now sworn
      > allegiance to me in the presence of a priest of God, and before this
      > altar. You have sworn allegiance to me. This means you are now my
      > soldiers. You have given yourselves to me, body and soul. You know
      > henceforth only one enemy - my enemy.... I may order you to shoot down
      > your own relatives, your brothers or even your parents - which certainly
      > God forbid! - but even then you must obey my orders without
      > question."
      >
      > In the natural successor to the Kaiser's Reich, Nazi Ger-many, the
      > `divine appointment' of Hitler was emphasised over and over
      > again. Messianic slogans, including the hideous "By resisting the
      > Jews, I strive for the work of the Lord", bedecked hoardings and
      > even churches, for Hitler claimed that his work was a divine crusade for
      > Germany against all those whom he believed to be against the
      > `inevitable' rise of the Herrenvolk. All who opposed Naziism
      > were seen as agents in opposition to the divine plan for the world, a
      > world in which Aryan, especially Teutonic, supremacy was the natural
      > order of things.
      >
      > In Nazi mythology, the SS-man was the future hope of the race, and we
      > see this emphasised in the final ceremony of the applicant's
      > transition to full membership. Having satisfactorily completed his
      > service to the Reich Labour Corps and the Army, the candidate had to
      > swear one final oath in order to become a fully-fledged SS member. In
      > this oath, taken on the Nazis' holy day' of November 9, the
      > member bound himself and his future family to obey the racial law
      > promulgated by Himmler on December 31, 1931: that SS members could marry
      > only "if the necessary conditions of race and healthy stock were
      > fulfilled". Now the young SS man received his SS insignia, which
      > conferred upon him special duties and priveleges closed to
      > `lesser' mortals. Bearing the Vehmic letters SS in runic script,
      > the insignia echoed the ancient rights of the Schöffen of the Vehm.
      > Being an organization set apart from ordinary society, the SS had a
      > privileged legal status. Scharfe, head of the SS legal service, had
      > decided that no state court, not even a Nazi party court, had the right
      > to judge an SS man. It was the sole prerogative of superior SS officers.
      > By disrupting the ancient legal system whereby no person was above the
      > law, the Nazis had made the first step in reconstituting the ancient
      > Aryan caste system - a return to feudalism.
      >
      > This hierarchical structure of society was echoed in the structure of
      > all Nazi organisations. Many occult orders have been divided into three
      > grades of initiation, and the SS was no exception. The Freemasons in
      > general recognize three degrees_ of initiation; the academic degrees are
      > similar - bachelor, master and doctor. Even the ancient Celtic
      > priesthood was divided into bards, ovates and druids. Himmler divided
      > the SS `priests' and `high priests' of the Black Order
      > from the lay brothers' in an organization based upon the medieval
      > monastic orders of chivalry, the Knights Templar and Teutonic Knights,
      > whom Himmler deliberately set out to emulate. In Himmler's order,
      > there were three insignia. Proven SS men, irrespective of rank, were
      > entitled to wear a silver death's head signet ring. Originally
      > awarded to the `old guard' with membership numbers below 10,000,
      > by 1939 it had been extended to almost every SS commander who had held a
      > senior post for three years.
      >
      > The dagger was the symbol of the SS corps of leaders. Representative of
      > the ancient chivalry Himmler claimed to imitate, the dagger was granted
      > only to SS men of the rank of Oberstürmführer and upwards. Unlike
      > the ring, bestowal of the dagger was the prerogative of Himmler only,
      > but graduates of the Cadet Schools automatically received a dagger on
      > successfully taking their final examinations.
      >
      > Above this elite, a further inner elite existed. Himmler was much taken
      > with the archaic rites of the Teutonic Knights, Barbarossa and King
      > Arthur, and, in imitation of these heroes' hierarchies, he chose his
      > twelve best Obergruppenfuhrers to act as his disciples. A comparison
      > between the SS and the chivalric orders is illuminating. Only carefully
      > selected knights could join Barbarossa or the Round Table; those who
      > were not only masters of the martial arts, but who possessed the
      > knightly virtues of fortitude, valour and loyalty. Thinking was not one
      > of the knightly arts, obedience to higher authority being the guiding
      > principle. In Arthurian legend, the decisions were made by the magical
      > technologist Merlin; in Nazi Germany by the self-proclaimed
      > `messiah', Hitler.
      >
      > The function of medieval knights was to create order in the land. Each
      > knight was seen as the image of the higher man, in Arthurian terms the
      > Christ; in Nazi terms the new superman. Like the medieval orders of
      > chivalry, the Nazi SS was intended to create and impose a feudal system
      > upon `lesser' humanity. The parallels are unmistakeable, and
      > Himmler deliberately stressed them in both ritual and public relations.
      > In the east, Himmler sought to carve out feudal domains for the SS,
      > re-creating the medieval Ordensstaat of the Teutonic Knights. The
      > Teutonic Knights had been dedicated to sup-pressing non-Germanic nations
      > of the east, like the SS. A meticulous bureaucracy existed in both the
      > Teutonic Order and the SS: a dossier was kept on each member; financial
      > and legal archives were preserved, and the orders both ran their own
      > schools.
      >
      > The commanderies and headquarters of the Teutonic and SS orders were
      > both military and religious centres. Their for-tresses were called
      > Ordensburgen, and both the Teutonic Knights and the SS employed geomants
      > to determine the most auspicious sites for them. Several famous Teutonic
      > knights were mystics; like some SS members. One notable Teutonic work,
      > the Mainauer Naturlehre, compiled by Hugo von Langenstein in about 1290,
      > details in mystical terms geography, astronomy and medicine.
      >
      > Himmler's hatred of the Jews followed the Teutonic Knights, for no
      > Jew was alloweed to settle in any part of the Ordensstaat; indeed all
      > the elements of German supremacy existed there: the exclusion of Jews,
      > the suppression and extermination of the local population, and the
      > reduction of the survivors to slavery. It is no coincidence that the
      > chief architect of Nazi racism, Alfred Rosenberg, was a Baltic German
      > born at Reval, in the heartland of the old Ordensstaat.
      >
      > The career of the SS in Poland and the east curiously echoed the
      > atrocities of the Teutonic Order - every winter the chivalric knights
      > mounted Slav-hunting expeditions. Such Western luminaries as Henry of
      > Derby, later King Henry IV of England, are known to have participated.
      > Massacre and extermination were the order of the day, as again six
      > centuries later. Ironically, the SS were to meet their doom just as the
      > Teutonic knights did - overcome by the combined forces of the Poles,
      > Tartars, Czechs and Lithuanians.
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > Tarjei
      >
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.