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Digging up treasures

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  • carol
    Out of curiosity yesterday, I opened a window at the archives of unclassified lectures (no GA attachment) and chose the first on the list, seeing as it touched
    Message 1 of 4 , May 3, 2008
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      Out of curiosity yesterday, I opened a window at the archives of unclassified lectures (no GA attachment) and chose the first on the list, seeing as it touched upon the 'race' issue.

      THE MIGRATIONS OF THE RACES Rudolf Steiner Berlin, n.d. 1904

      http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/GA/Unknown/19040000p01.html

      The content of the lecture led to the setting of the Christ event, of which Steiner affirms as having " achieved through the whole personality being taken possession of by another Being, the Christ, who represents the whole Fifth Root Race."

      However, my focus today is towards the first of the list:

      "The Jews provide form for Christ

      The Greeks understand Christ

      The Romans become Christians"

      On 'skipping around' older post entries dating back to early 2001, I came across an article on the Dead Sea Scrolls is writen by Frederick Hiebel, an early Anthroposophist who worked with Rudolf Steiner. Bradford has likely seen this entry as his name is visible on the list at that time, Bruce's as well. Apparently discovered in 1947, some of the scrolls where made public while others remained barred from public consultation by 'high authoriities' it seems. This was the case some 30 years ago at the time the essay was published, I'm not aware if these others have seens been disclosed. If not, the conditions of our day and the Michaelimic efforts thus collectively applied towards 'harmonizing' these, have offered us enough evidence to conclude that there exists, in increased measure, a concerted effort by a global elitist ruling class to explicitly bar TRUTH from the public domaine for the purpose of population 'control' and the monopolization of acceptable public thought forms.

      Lenghty as this piece may be,  it is quite enthrawling! Of particular interest is the language used to describe Michael,  so many years ago when he last reigned as Time Spirit. 

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/anthroposophy/message/2637

      Dear List Members:

      This article on the Dead Sea Scrolls is writen by Frederick Hiebel, an early Anthroposophist who worked with Rudolf Steiner, and the article [which I have in 2 sections] was published perhaps 20 years ago or more in one of the Anthroposophical Journals, the name of which I cannot recall exactly, but the editor, unless I'm mistaken, at the time was Henry Barnes, and now Christy Barnes.

      The praise for Dr. Burrows is well deserved, I feel, and his findings were the first dealing specifically with the Dead Sea Scrolls per se which I read. If memory serves correctly, he was amazed and saddened by the halt brought to translating these Scrools by Egypt's wish for preservation, although there is much more to it than that. Surely if the entire material contained in the Scrolls was publicised, organised religion would suffer a mighty blow to its very existence; but this is only my opinion gained from my own thoughts based upon the material itself and the unusual and sudden denial of access to these works as though a curtain went down to cover them.

      Sheila

      THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS

      Starting in the spring of 1947, in eleven caves around Khirbet Qumran along the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, there were discovered a number of manuscripts that have come to be known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. They have attracted enormous interest ever since they were identified.

      The scrolls originated in an Essene settlement resembling a monastery at Khirbet Qumran. Five seasons of excavation in the years 1951 56 brought to light the ruins of the Essene´s cloister and of a scriptorium where the manuscripts had been written and assembled. Even some of the equipment for writing was discovered. Study of a number of coins found on the site indicated that the cloister was built about 100 B.C., destroyed about 31 B.C., and again destroyed about 70 A.D. Carbon-14 tests show with reasonable certainty that the scrolls could have been produced as early as 100 B.C.

      The contents of the scrolls point to the following facts, although it must be recognized that practically every aspect of the matter is the subject of continuing and vigorous debate among the experts:

      1. The teacher and leader of the Essenes is never given a personal name, being referred to as the Teacher of Righteousness of God´s Elect. The same is true of the "wicked priest" or "man of the life," but he is generally identified as the Jewish priest-king Alexander Jannaeus (ruled 103-76 B.C.). The martyr´s death of the Teacher of Righteousness is dated to the beginning of Alexander´s reign, thus again giving us a figure of about 100 B.C.

      2. The Essenes were the most important religious group in the last pre-Christian years in Palestine. Their rules, rites of initiation, prayers, and hymns all show that they had a highly developed secret teaching and apocalyptic doctrine.

      3. The Essenes expected the coming of a final prophet and the birth of a priestly as well as a kingly Messiah.

      4. The Essenes were aware of Zarathustra´s Persian doctrine of the war of light against darkness. They called it the war of the Archangel Michael against Belial, the Prince of Darkness.

      5. Khirbet Qumran is located very close to the site of the Baptism in Jordan. The ritual of the Essenes reminds us of John´s baptism with water. John the Baptist, and also the youthful Jesus, must have had some connection with the Essenes of Qumran.

      The discoveries in the first cave were already enough to astonish the scientific world. The items of principal interest to us were as follows:

      THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE. This sets forth the ritual and rules of the Essene order. These tally very well with the descriptions given by Flavuis Josephus and Philo of Alexandria.

      THE WAR OF THE SONS OF LIGHT WITH THE SONS OF DARKNESS. This shows the light-versus-darkness theme in the Essene views of the approaching end, and gives the final summons of the Archangel Michael.

      THE HYMNS AND THANKSGIVING PSALMS. These give us a glimpse into the Essene esoterics.

      THE HABAKKUK COMMENTARY. This interprets the first 2 chapters of the prophet. The Teacher of Righteousness is referred to very particularly. Everyone who sought to join the Essenes had to be convinced as to the message of the Teacher, who stood in opposition to the "wicked priest."

      THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. This was not entirely new, a copy of it having been found about 1896 in Cairo and published in 1910. A second copy was found at Qumran. Here again the Teacher of Righteousness is contrasted to the "preacher of the lie."

      Among the many finds in other caves, we will mention only the MESSIANIC FLORILEGIUM, which is especially important for its references to the "David Messiah" and the "Teacher of the Torah" (the priestly Messiah); and the COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH, which describes the David Messiah, who was to rule and judge under the guidance of the priestly Messiah.

      The work of deciphering and publishing began in 1947, and there has been a flood of scientific essays by representatives of numerous religions and philosophical positions. Even a specialist can

      Hardly keep track of the literature. Many of the manuscripts, however, have not yet been deciphered because of their poor condition, hence a good deal of completely new material will be available in the future and may give us deeper insight.

      THE SEARCH FOR THE ESSENES

      Various antique writers speak of the Essenes in Palestine and the likeminded Therapeutae in Egypt. Philo of Alexandria, Flavius Josephus, and Pliny the Younger describe in varying length the life in the Essene communities, which seem to have had about four thousand members at the time when Jesus was born. These people led a contemplative life, whether or not they were actually in monasteries; abstained from all meat and alcohol; and devoted themselves to the ascetic attainment of purity and virtue.

      In the 19th century, a retionalistic critic of the Bible such as Ernest Renan could still include the Essenes in his reconstruction of Jesus´ life. In the present century, however, it was until very recently considered unscientific and fantastic to discuss the Essenes. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has changed all this. Full of doubts at the beginning, cautiously changing their views, and finally abandoning all hesitation, the scholars have concluded that Khirbet Qumran was the center of the Essene communities, and that the scrolls in the caves were part of a systematic collection of the books of the order.

      The Director of the American School of Oriental Research at Jerusalem for the year 1947 was Miller Burrows, professor of biblical theology at Yale. Professor Burrows was connected with the discoveries at Khirbet Qumran from the beginning and has published his views in two books: The Dead Sea Scrolls (Viking, 1956) and More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Viking, 1958). Since these works scrupulously report the widely differing opinions of other scholars, they are probably the best sources of information for the general public. (Our latest quotations from Professor Burrows refer to the first of these 2 books.) Therefore we will rely heavily on Professor Burrows´ exposition of the various texts.

      In Burrows´ earliest remarks (published in a news release dated 11 April, 1948) the first text was called "a manual of discipline of some comparatively little-known sect of monastic order, possibly the Essenes." Half a year later, in September of 1948, he spoke of it as a "curious work which I will call for the present the Sectarian Document." At the same time he wrote: "This again appears to confirm the idea that our text is the manual of discipline of a group organized like the later monastic orders in Christianity."

      Shortly thereafter Andre Dupont-Sommer of the Sorbonne in Paris asserted vigorously that THE HABAKKUK COMMENTARY and THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE came from the Essenes. This was also the opinion of Paul Kahle.

      Burrows himself finally concluded that the sectaries at Qumran were Essenes. "The installations uncovered at Khirbet Qumran could be easily understood as belonging to a settlement of the Essenes." (280)

      Now Burrows summarizes the results of 7 years of research. The Essenes were in possession of a very special revelation. They regarded the Teacher of Righteousness as the inspired expositor of the divine mysteries. They awaited a final prophet, as well as one Messiah for Aaron (priestly) and a second for Israel (Davidic and kingly). The Messianic expectations of Qumran ran parallel with the sermon of John the Baptist, although "nothing corresponding to the strong organization of the community is attested concerning John´s disciples." (329) Also, the Essene communities must not be equated with the primitive church. "The church was not an exclusive, esoteric group with jealously guarded secret teachings. The gospel given to it had to be proclaimed to all the world." (333)

      These carefully weighed surmises and hypotheses have been drawn from the research at Qumran. What did Rudolf Steiner say 50 years earlier?

      It is a sad fact that none of the archeaologists and theologians working on the Dead Sea Scrolls have even mentioned Rudolf Steiner´s research on the gospels. Is this because he did not belong to the academic fraternity? The same would be true of Philo, Josephus and Pliny, the scholars of the Talmud and the Kabbala, the writers of the gospels and the epistles. Is it a case of simple ignorance or of conscious ignoring?

      No matter what the explanation may be, it is our obligation to call attention to Rudolf Steiner's remarkable discoveries, as well as to the works of his students, particularly Emil Boch´s Caesars and Apostles and The Childhood and Youth of Jesus and the numerous articles by Emil Bock, Rudolf Frieling, and W. Kelber that have appeared in the journal of The Christian Community.

      Let us now compare Rudolf Steiner´s Christology with the Qumran results on Essenism and its connection with Jesus. We will begin with a general view of the Essenes, then proceed to the doctrine of the two Messiahs and the problem of identifying the Teacher of Righteousness.

      CHRISTIANITY AS MYSTICAL FACT

      AND THE RIDDLE OF ESSENISM

      The earliest work in which Rudolf Steiner dealt with the Gospels was Christianity as Mystical Fact (1902). The 10th chapter, which discusses the Essenses, is already different from the other 12 chapters in the book. It is the shortest by a considerable margin, and the German original is divided into only 2 paragraphs. The first paragraph discusses Essenism in general, and the second edition (1910) makes only 4 changes in it (three single words and a short subordinate clause). The second paragraph, which goes into the Essenes´ attitude toward Jesus and touches on the Baptism in Jordan, is completely reworked in the second edition.

      The first paragraph describes the Essenes as "a community which required its members to lead a life that would bring man close to becoming divine." The last clause was altered in the second edition. In place of the general concept of "becoming divine," it now reads "should lead a life that developed a higher self within the soul and brought about a new birth."

      The Essene movement is described as a connecting link between the Myseries of antiquity and the founding of Christianity. The contents of the heathen Mysteries, which had been revealed only to a few initiates, appeared among the Essenes embodied in the form of communities. "In the wisdom of the Mysteries is to be sought the soil out of which grew the spirit of Christianity. All that was needed was the gaining ground of the fundamental conviction that this spirit must be introduced into life in greater measure than had been the case with the Mysteries." Such a fundamental conviction prevailed in the Essene comminities.

      With the aid of a long quotation from Philo´s book On the Contemplative Life, Rudolf Steiner described the tests and vows of the Essenes. He was actually summarizing the then unknown contents of the MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE for the benefit of readers who, 50 years before the finds at Qumran, had no access to the problems concerning the Essenes. The passage from Philo describes the dwellings of the members of the community, and especially their consecrated chamber. Such a chamber is now visible to our eyes in the excavations at Qumran. The passage also mentions how the members of the order devoted themselves to the exposition of sacred writings. This activity is clearly reflected in the scriptorium at Qumran, and is embodied in the Scrolls themselves.

      The first paragraph culminates in the assertion that the communities of the Essenes and Therapeutae formed a natural transition from the Mysteries of antiquity to the founding of Christianity. Then follows the lapidary sentence: "Christianity, however, wished to convert into the business of mankind in general that they had made the business of a sect."

      The Essenes are the bridge from the Mysteries to Christianity. This is why Steiner presents them as the historical background of the life of Jesus. This proposition has its full impact, however, only when we read this chapter as one of the 13 in the book and bear in mind the contents of the preceding 9 chapters. Rudolf Steiner was reckoning with readers who would not regard the contents of the Mysteries as fantastic allegories, which is the way they are usually presented by modern scholars. He saw them as the embodiment of direct spiritual experience, conveying pure reality despite their enigmatic language.

      This is the decisive point through which Rudolf Steiner tried to awaken the consciousness of modern intellectualism.

      The second paragraph of Chapter 10 is devoted to a problem that has greatly exercised the students of the Dead Sea Scrolls what are the differences between the Essenes and the communities of the primitive Christian church, between the Teacher of Righteousness and Christ? A careful comparison of the 2 versions of this paragraph shows clearly how, along with his spiritual research, Rudolf Steiner was wrestling continually with problems of style and clarity.

      In 1902 Rudolf Steiner wrote: "The existence of such sects makes the personality of Jesus fully understandable." The word "fully" was deleted in revision, because it sometimes misled careless readers into thinking that Jesus had been an Essene. The second edition was expanded to read as follows: "The existence of such sects enables us to understand to what extent the times were ripe for grasping the Christ mystery."

      In the first edition we read: "They (such sects as the Essenes) offered the possibility that, in a man in whom lay the highest spiritual qualities, these should actually be converted into reality." The second edition changes this to the following: "In the Mysteries, a man was artificially prepared for the dawning upon his consciousness, at the appropriate time, of the spiritual world." The 2 formulations mean pretty much the same thing, but the latter is better in that it makes the application more general (Mysteries rather than sects) and speaks of the gradual ascent of a well prepared soul into the spiritual world rather than of a vague conversion of spiritual qualities into reality.

      The first edition continues: "In such a community each person is awakened to the extent permitted by the stage at which his soul stands." The second edition makes this clearer and more generally applicable: "Within the Essene or Therapeutic community the soul sought, by a certain mode of life, to make itself ripe for the awakening of the higher man."

      Rudolf Steiner now begins to focus more clearly on the figure of Jesus as this gradually emerges from the historical background of Essenism. The differences in the second edition are so great that we will set longer passages beside each other for comparison:

      "A Buddha-nature differs from that of an ordinary person in that its soul-life has evolved much further. It has a larger spiritual inheritance than the other; more numerous spiritual ancestors. It is born with higher capacities, which these ancestors have worked out. The belief in the return of the souls is a premise for the conduct of life in the manner of the Essenes and Therapeutae. The more highly developed soul will rise to a higher rank in the governing hierarchy. It will be an initiate of higher degree. Such a Buddha-nature is cultivated in the community." (1902)

      "A further step forward is that one struggles through to the feeling that a human individuality may have evolved to higher and higher stages of perfection in repeated lives on earth. One who had arrived at a glimpse of this truth would also be able to feel that in Jesus a being of lofty spirituality had appeared. The loftier the spirituality, the greater the possibility of accomplishing something of importance." (1910)

      The first edition speaks of "the belief in the return of souls." The second edition improves this by speaking of "repeated lives on earth."

      The expression "a Buddha-nature" appears twice in the first edition, and is compounded shortly thereafter by the phrases "Buddha-personality" and "Buddha-Jesus." All these are dropped in the second edition. They were originally employed by Rudolf Steiner (and here we should recall that in 1901 and 1902 he was lecturing on "From Buddha to Christ" at the same time that he gave the lectures on which Christianity as Mystical Fact is based) to designate the grade of perfection of a very highly developed being such as had appeared in Jesus. He expressly states that in this "Buddha-Jesus" the divine spirit of the Logos was able to become flesh. Nevertheless, a superficial reader (and there are many such, even among scholars) could misinterpret this passage and conclude that Jesus, in whom the Christ-spirit became flesh, had proceeded directly out of Essenism. This is why the revised version no longer says that "Essenism enables us to understand the arising of Christianity" and that "the highest personality who could arise out of Essenism" was Jesus.

      "Thus, at the time when Christianity arose, the conditions were present under which a new Buddha-personality could be trained and recognized. A Buddha-Jesus could arise in such a community. Essenism and Therapeutism enable us to understand the arising of Christianity." (1902)

      "Thus the individuality of Jesus could become capable of accomplishing the deed that the Gospels so mysteriously indicate in the Baptism by John, speaking of it in such a way as to show clearly that they consider it extremely important." (1910)

      The most striking difference between the first and second formulations is in the reference to the Baptism by John, through which the Christ ego entered into Jesus. The training of Jesus, especially what he experienced among the Essenes in the years preceding the Baptism, is described as a gradually intensifying process of becoming capable of "accomplishing the deed of the Baptism by John."

      The baptism of Jesus is not only John´s activity, to which Jesus passively submits; part and parcel of it is Jesus´ strenuous activity in preparing his soul for the sacrifice entailed for him by the action of the Baptist. This is reflected in the Baptist´s sagely modest remark: "He must increase, but I must decrease." (John 3:30)

      "In an Essene community, the Logos could become flesh, i.e. a personality, and dwell there. Jesus was able to be the highest personality who could arise out of Essenism." (1902)

      "The personality of Jesus became capable of receiving into its own soul Christ the Logos, so that this was made flesh in him. After this reception, the "ego" of Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ and the outer personality was the bearer of the Logos. This event, the "ego" of Jesus becoming the Christ, is enacted in the Baptism by John." (1910)

      This fact of the John-Baptism is the climax of the chapter and gives the answer to the central question of how Essenism differs from Christianity.

      "The requirement that the basic character of Essenism should become the concern of mankind in general led this personality to become the founder of Christianity. This meant being independent of external forms and concentrating on the training of the soul, so that everything possible could be achieved without the strict regulations of the Essene way of life. This second requirement must now be added to the first. And is was added. The kingdom of God is "not here or there, it is in you." Even without becoming Essenes you can come to a conviction of the truth of the divine. This conviction is the main thing. One who has this will be able to find God everywhere. With this conviction, one need only open his eyes in order to find the divine everywhere." (1902)

      "During the epoch of the Mysteries, the "union with the spirit" was the concern of the few persons who were to be initiated. Among the Essenes, a whole community cultivated a way of life that aimed to enable all its members to arrive at this "union." Through the Christ-event, something the deeds of Christ was placed before all mankind so that the "union" might become the knowledge and concern of all mankind." (1910)

      The fact of the Baptism in Jordan is the most significant addition to the revised version. It is the climax not only of the chapter, but of the book. Throughout the whole work the motif of the incarnation of the Word of God, which took up residence in the Son of Man, resounds like an organ tone.

      We should also note how this theme was gradually built up in the preceding chapters until it could reach the present climax.

      The 6th chapter, on "The Mystery Wisdom of Egypt," states in the first edition: "The life of Jesus contains more than the live of Buddha. Buddha showed by his life that man is the Logos and that, when his earthly body dies, he returns into this Logos, into the Light. Jesus is himself the Logos, become a person. In him the Word became flesh." In the second edition, the next-to-last sentence has been slightly clarified to read: "In Jesus the Logos itself became a person."

      Another passage in both editions says: "Jesus and Buddha, to those who have recognized their divine nature, are initiates in the most eminent sense." To this the new edition adds, in brackets: "Jesus is an initiate through the indwelling of the Christ Being."

      A further step in the metamorphosis of this motif is found in the 8th chapter on "The Lazarus Miracle." Here it is said of Lazarus: "Through his initiation he had become capable of recognizing that the Word that had become alive in him had become a person in Christ Jesus."The first edition had not been quite so explicit: "He is the living Word. In him ancient tradition has become a person."

      The highest point in this progression is clearly in the 10th chapter. Here the mystery of the epiphany is directly revealed once and for all: "The personality of Jesus became capable of receiving Christ the Logos into its own soul. After this reception, the ´ego´ of Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ and the outer personality was the bearer of the Logos."

      However, the Baptism as the birth of Christ in the body of Jesus is inextricably connected with the relationship of John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth to the Essenes.

      ZARATHUSTRA AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE TWO MESSIAHS

      The controversies that have raged among the scholars since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls would serve a good purpose if, as part of the general revision of views on the Bible, they led to some attention being paid of Rudolf Steiner´s work on the subject. The new texts throw a sort of broken light on a number of facts that were clearly expounded in Rudolf Steiner´s lectures on the Gospels before the first World War.

      The Essenes were filled with the conviction that this world is divided between the Sons of Light and the Children of Darkness. This Persian doctrine, stemming from Zarathustra, was prt of their basic position. Under Michael´s leadership the Sons of Light were waring against Belial, the figure who appears in Zarathustra´s teachings as Ahriman.

      Why, and to what extent, had the heathen views of Zarathustra penetrated into Essene Judaism before the birth of Christ? The answer to this question will throw a good deal of light on the other problems connected with the Essene doctrine of the 2 Messiahs.

      THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT is especially rich in passages pointing to a Messiah of Aaron and a Messiah of Israel, a priestly and a Davidic=kingly. In the Essene community the doctrine that in the last days a priestly and a Davidic Messiah would rule side by side became a central dogma. The priestly Messiah outranked the lay Messiah, wow as to come of the House of David. The Old Testament basis for the 2 Messiahs was found in Balaam´s words in Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel." The Essenes took the star as the sign for the coming of the priestly Messiah and the scepter as that for the kingly Messiah.

      This dual expectation of the Messiah is clearly expressed in a sentence of the MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE. "They shall be judged by the first judgment by which the men of the community began to be disciplined, until there shall come a prophet and the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel." (Miller Burrows, The Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking, 1956, p.383.) This passage shows that the Essenes also expected a last prophet to prepare the way. This can be none other than John the Baptist.

      Here are some similar passages from the DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. "These escaped in the period of the first visitation, but those who turned back they delivered to the sword when comes the Messiah of Aaron and Israel." (Burrows, 355).

      All the scientific research that has been devoted to this problem in the last few years will never achieve a satisfactory answer as long as it neglects Rudolf Steiner´s work on the gospels. Two basic facts especially must be recognized: the importance of reincarnation in the history of mankind, and the impossibility of Christ´s incarnating on earth a second time.

      Rudolf Steiner obtained his information through reading the spiritual script known as the Akashic Record, quite apart from all documents, but his statements can be tested in complete detail by an unprejudiced scholar working from the documents. His access to the Akashic Record enabled Rudolf Steiner to ascertain many facts that solve contradictions and fill gaps in the biblical record. There is no conflict between the two. Often he spoke of his contributions as constituting a "fifth Gospel" that had never yet been written, remarking at the same time that in a sense it was as old as the other four Gospels. Many truths that he presented in a completely new light, in accordance with the consciousness of our time, can not be partially confirmed through apocryphal writings, although these are often mulilated or obscure.

      A conspicuous example of this sort of work is Rudolf Steiner´s clarification of the conflicting stories of Matthew and Luke about the childhood of Jesus. It we do not take this into account, we will never completely solve certain questions raised by the Essene texts from Qumran.

      The two different genealogies of Jesus have been a baffling problem for the critics from the beginning. Theologians of all camps, schools, and denominations agree that it is impossible to reconcile the two series of ancestors given by Matthew and Luke, to say nothing of their stories of the birth. Thus Charles Guignebert, professor of theology at the Sorbonne, states candidly: "If the two editors of the Matthew and Luke Gospels had gone to the public archives and consulted the records, they would have come out with the same material, subject to errors and omissions. But they not only contradict and vary from each other; they are completely unlike."

      In Matthew, Joseph´s father is Jacob; in Luke, he is Heli. Jacob and Heli in turn have different fathers, and desperate appeals to ancient Jewish marriage customs have given no aid in explaining this. Between David and Joseph, Matthew gives only about 42 generations in all, down to Jesus, and he traces Jesus back to Solomon, thus connecting him with the royal line of the House of David. Luke gives 77 generations and shows Jesus as descended from David through the priestly line of Nathan the prophet. Luke´s series is supposed to be about 400 years longer.

      We must now look at the style and motifs of the two stories, training our eyes to see the compositional elements in the Gospels. This is what Rudolf Steiner expected from students of the Bible.

      In Matthew, the genealogy is at the beginning of the first chapter. In Luke, it appears in the third chapter, after the Baptism in Jordan. Matthew traces the line from Abraham to Joseph, whereas Luke goes beyond Abraham to Adam. The two series move contrapuntally. The first leads from the past to the present and shows us the course of history as a result of the Fall. The second proceeding from the present to the past, seems to suspend history and show us the way from earth to heaven.

      Matthew´s story of the birth puts the accent on Joseph, to whom the angel makes the annunciation in a dream. In Luke, the angel appears to Mary. In Matthew, the home is in Bethlehem and the birth takes place in Joseph´s house, where the Wise Men from the east make their appearance. In Luke, the parents live in Nazareth, but are on a journey to Bethlehem; they find no accommodation, and the birth takes place in a stable, whither the shepherds come to worship. In Matthew, Joseph is warned in a dream to escape from Herod´s persecution by fleeing to Egypt. The parents of the Luke child simply return to Nazareth in peace.

      The striking thing in Rudolf Steiner´s explanation of the riddles of the birth stories is that he points to two separate Mystery streams lying behind the Matthew and Luke Gospels and their authors. The Matthew Gospel, with its emphasis on the masculine element in the figure of Joseph, leads into the expanses of star-knowledge; in the light of wisdom and sagacity the three Magi follow the golden star. Luke, on the other hand, leads us through the mystery of the Madonna into the midnight-hour of the human inner world, where the shepherds hear the annunciation.

      Matthew´s genealogy describes the birth of the golden star (Zoro-Aster, Zarathustra), who, during the Babylonian Exile, had prepared the prophets while incarnated as Zarathos or Nazaratos. The battle of Ormuzd against Ahriman, which Zarathustra had long ago revealed to the Persians, is still the basic mood of the Matthew Gospel. Therefore, many things appear in such a black-white contrast: the Wise Men and Herod; the child fleeing to Egypt, and the slaughter of the innocents in Bethlehem.

      Luke recounts the story as though it had occurred in the chaste moonlight of the midnight-hour. The mood is one of recovery from the Fall, of the redemption of Lucifer.

      Matthew´s story of the temptation reaches a climax where Christ turns on Ahriman with the worlds: "Get thee hence, Satan" (Matthew 4:10). Luke, however, does not use the word Satanas, (The King James version, however, says "Get thee behind me, Satan" (Luke 4:8) the original Greek text employing only the word Diablos, or devil, meaning Lucifer. Matthew describes the defeat of Satan-Ahriman. The Magi are able to transform the haughtiness of knowledge into humility and reverence. Luke´s shepherds, innocent souls leading a selfless life, are able to tear the thorn of egotism out of their hearts.

      The head´s knowledge, aiming at the wisdom of the stars; the heart´s innocence, resting on the selflessness of the human soul: these were the two Mystery paths that pre-Christian mankind had to tread in order to unite them at the end in the Christ event. Everything depended on this uniting of the two streams.

      Rudolf Steiner´s assertion that there were two Jesus boys does not relate only to the stories of descent from the two sons of David, Solomon the kind and Nathan the priest; it also reckons with the problem of their reunion. The unitary Jesus, lost through the contradictions in the Gospels, is restored to us. The clue (recounted only by Luke) is the mysterious three-day sojourn of the 12 year old Jesus in the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

      In his small book, THE SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE OF MAN AND HUMANITY, Rudolf Steiner describes how, in the 12th year, Zaarathustra left the body of the Matthew Jesus in order to live in the Luke Jesus. The Luke child, all soul and heart, received into himself the spirit and thinking power of Zarathustra. Therefore this child, who until then had been dreamy and sensitive, was now suddenly so alert and wise that he could instruct the doctors in the temple. His parents "were amazed" (Luke 2:48) and could hardly recognize him after a separation of only three days.

      From this moment on, the two were one. The Zarathustra stream, containing all the heathen wisdom of the world, was poured into the fruitful soil of Jewry, the noblest flower of which was the Jesus child of the Luke Madonna.

      The path of the highest head led into the depths of the greatest heart. The body of the Nathan Jesus became the temple of Solomon. The keenest capacities of wisdom in the brain, such as only a scion of the house of Solomon could develop, were combined with the purest love-forces of the heart of the Luke child.

      With these facts in mind, we are no longer puzzled by Jesus´ answer to his parents when they found him in the temple: "How is it that ye sought me? Wist ye not that I must be about my Father´s business?" (Luke 2:49). The house of the father was now in one sense the temple of Solomon the king, who was also the ancestor of the Zarathustra-Jesus. But the temple of Solomon, in contrast to all heathen mysteries, was the path toward a grasp of the Mystery of Man, who experiences his ego in the bloodstream. The Jesus body, with which the Solomon child now united himself, was in the truest sense the temple of the body that had been prepared as a dwelling for the Lord. Its destiny was that its head and brain should be the Grail temple, while its heart´s blood, which later flowed into the earth on Golgotha after the Logos had become Flesh, should be the blood of the Grail.

      The transfer of the scion of King Solomon into the heart of the priestly child is the beginning of the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem. The task of the temple of Solomon was fulfilled in this hour.

      What do the Qumran texts have to say on this problem? One student, the theologian Karl Georg Kuhn of Heidelberg, repeatedly points to the connections between the doctrines of Zoroaster and Judaism in post-Exilic times, and in so doing he lays special stress on the Essenes. The Parisian orientalist, Andre Dupont-Sommer, even cites medieval Syrian sources that speak of Zoroaster´s being of Jewish descent. Burrows (259-261) also discusses the subject.

      Rudolf Steiner asserted as early as 1910 (THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW, 6th lecture) that there were 2 groups of people who knew the secret of the Zarathustra Jesus. These were the Chaldean initiates and the Essenes. The Chaldeans learned of it through their spiritual connection with Zarathustra himself; the Essenes through mystical knowledge gained in their occult training. The secret doctrines of the Essenes taught of the approach of Jesus in a slow descent through 42 generations, as in the Gospel of Matthew. The Essene pupils went through an initiation in 42 stages. Matthew was able to describe this because he himself had trodden the Essene path.

      Any modern person must, of course, have great initial difficulties with the suggestion that there were 2 Jesus children. One question that arises is why the birth of the Matthew boy, whose individuality moved into the other boy at 12, should have been necessary at all. Why could not the Zarathustra wisdom simply be incorporated into the Agamitic body of the Luke Jesus, whose entelechy could then remain in the depths of the soul?

      This is a central problem. We must recall something mentioned earlier, the "contrapuntal" motion in the 2 genealogies. Matthew emphasizes the masculine element, Luke the feminine; Matthew the adversary power of Satan-Ahriman, Luke the tempting of the devil, Lucifer. The human body in its material condensation, which runs counter to the original plan of the divine creation, is the result of the Fall of both the first ancestors, Adam and Eve, the masculine and the feminine, and also of Ahriman´s work in the bones and nerves and pulsing of the blood.

      The separation of the sexes is the first physical expression of the fall into matter through the expulsion from Paradise.

      What did the Jesus body have to become if it was to be the dwelling place of the Christ Logos? It had to be a "Paradise body", a body that resisted the laws of the Fall, remaining as it had been in the plan of the Elohim before the Satanic-diabolic powers began to solidify and darken it. Had only the Luke child been born, the flower of the Jewish blood-forces would not have received the wealth of heathen Mystery wisdom. Had only the Matthew boy appeared, the vessel offered to the Logos would have contained wisdom without the heartfelt love derived from the Madonna mystery; in such a body, Christ would have been a teacher but not a savior, and his sayings would never have been understood by all mankind, by the "shepherds" as well as the "kings".

      The story of the Luke Jesus´ birth is connected with the supersensible influence of the Gautama Buddha. It has a Buddhistic-oriental atmosphere. The Zarathustra impulse, as shown in the Matthew Gospel, points from the east towards the west. Pupils of Zarathustra worked among the priests of Hermes (Thoth) in Egypt and among the Pythagoreans in Southern Italy. The path of the Wise Men from the east led toward the west. The 2 gospels present the fact of the new birth of mankind from eastern and from western standpoints. Luke speaks from the aspect of oriental feeling-mysticism; Matthew from the aspect of the western knowledge of the world.

      The union of the 2 streams, as shown in Luke´s story of the 12 year old Jesus in the temple, seems like an apocalyptic anticipation of the announcement of the fall into sin and the separation of the sexes.

      Since wisdom was not united with love as in the beginning, Christ was able to express the highest spiritual secrets in the simplest pictures. These appealed to the feelings of the east as well as to the understanding of the west. His body had the purest blood and the most perfect brain. The Zarathustra individuality worked on this brain as Rudolf Steiner vividly described during his 12 year sojourn in the Solomon child, and then continued and completed this work during the following 18 years in the Luke body.

      Many apocryphal books hint at the mystery of the 2 Jesus boys. Rudolf Steiner called our attention to this. Thus in the Gospel of the Egyptians it is said: "to Salome´s question, when will the 2 become one and the exterior like the interior."

      The BOOK OF ZOHAR contains the following passage: "The son of David and the son of Joseph are two, not one another Messiah, the son of Joseph, will unite himself with the Messiah, the son of David."

      In the very early Christian document called THE TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS, at the close of the testament of Simeon, we read: "A lord out of Levi will awake a high priest and out of Judah a king, God and man."

      The PISTIS SOPHIA, a Gnostic writing preserved in the Coptic language, says: "The divine lordliness will dwell in our land, grace and truth will meet one another, righteousness and peace will kiss one another."

      The Essene documents also confirm what Rudolf Steiner said, Matthew describes the jesus who stems from the kingly Davidic line; Luke the Jesus who stems from the priestly line of Nathan. That the first must be the liegeman of the second, i.e. must unite himself with him, in order to pave the way for the Mystery of the epiphany, the Baptism in Jordan, is made quite clear in the Essene books and is repeatedly mentioned by the students of the Dead Sea Scrolls.

      THE TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS

      The most mysterious figure in the Qumran documents is the Teacher of Righteousness, also known as God´s Elect. How can we identify this teacher, who is never called by a personal name?

      Perhaps we should first identify the wicked priest, which is an easier task even if there is no unanimity among the students of the subject. Several suggestions have been made, but no one seems to fit the requirements as well as Alexander Jannaeus, who ruled as king from 103 to 76 B.C. His Jewish name, Jonathan, was shortened to Yannai in late Hebrew and was written in Greek as Jannaeus or Janneus. His assumption of the title of king was regarded as a breach of faith toward the House of David. As to his being the wicked priest, he not only fits the chronological necessities but his character and reputation were suitable. Burrows remarks: "He is qualified for the role on several points, including drunkenness, luxery, immorality, love of riches, sickness and final punishment by his enemies." (175) Professor John Marco Allegro of the University of Manchester strongly concurs in this indentification.

      If Alexander Jannaeus was the wicked priest, who was the Teacher of Righteousness? Burrows discusses a number of possibilities. Flavius Josephus spoke of a certain Eleazar (called Judah ben Jebediah in the Talmud) who rebuked John Hyrcanus (ruled 135 104 B.C.), and he also described an Essene named Judah who preached against Aristobulus I (rules 104-103 B.D.). Furthermore, both Josephus and the Talmud tell of a righteous man named Onias, who was stoned in 65 B.C. under Aristobulus II. All these and many more have been ruled out on one ground or another, and we are left with nobody who is acceptable to any considerable number of scholars (Burrows 185).

      The philologists have shown that THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT, by speaking of the Teacher as still alive, implies that his violent death took place about the year 100 B.C., i.e. in the early years of the reign of Alexander Jannaeus. This date and the person of Alexander are accepted by most of the scientists as closely connected with the anonymous Teacher of Righteousness. This is as far as the consensus goes.

      In the lectures in Berne on the Gospel of St. Matthew in 1910, Rudolf Steiner raised the veil that obscured this problem. He distinguished carefully between the inspirer ant the inspired. The former was of purely spiritual nature, while the latter was an earthly instrument of flesh and blood.

      The spiritual leader had the rank of a Bodhisattva. When, in ancient India, the Prince Gautama, son of King Sudhodana, ascended from Bodhisattva to Buddha, he selected from a number of other leaders the one who would be the next to attain the rank of Buddha. This new Bodhisattva had the task of acting as the spiritual leader of the Essenes and the related Therapeutae.

      At this point Rudolf Steiner gave a historical clue that tallies as to names and dates in a remarkable way with details already well known to the modern students of Qumran. He said: "This Bodhisattva sent, as it were, for the leadership of the Essenes under the reign of King Alexander Jannaeus, a special person into the Essene communities. This person is well known in occultism, and also in the external Talmudic literature, under the name of Jesus ben Pandira. We must regard him as a person standing under the protection of the Bodhisattva who was the successor of the Buddha."

      Thus we must distinguish between the human personality of Jesus ben Pandira (who was accused of blasphemy, stoned, and hanged upon a tree about 100 B.C.) and his divine patron, the Bodhisattva who inspired him and who will be known in the future as the Maitreya Buddha. This explains why the documents never mention a personal name. Emphasizing the divine rank of the leader, they speak of him always with the recurring formula of "Teacher of Righteousness" or "God´s Elect."

      Rudolf Steiner adds: "No clairvoyant faculties are needed in order to say something about Jesus ben Pandira, to assert that he existed. Anyone who wishes can read about him in Hebrew sources such as the Talmud. He has frequently been confused with the true Jesus, even as early as the second century A.D."

      Rudolf Steiner repeatedly stressed thqt Jesus ben Pandira was in no way identical with Jesus of Nazareth. He stood under the special guidance of the Bodhisattva, one of those spiritual leaders who continually incarnate in order to prepare men to understand the Christ (who incarnated only once in an earthly body, remaining from the Baptism in Jordan until Golgotha). In the years when Rudolf Steiner was lecturing on the Gospel of Matthew, this circumstance played a part in the unhappy conflict that culminated in his exclusion from the Theosophical Society. Annie Besant was one of those who erroneously identified Jesus ben Pandira with the Christ.

      Modern theology may be committing similar errors in the face of the new manuscripts found at Qumran. Thus Andre Dupont-Sommer, one of the principle writers in this field, speaks of Christ as an astonishing "reincarnation" of the Essene Teacher of Righteousness. Others attempt to show that early Christianity was an uninterrupted continuation of the pre-Christian Essene comminities.

      When we note that Rudolf Steiner so carefully pointed out that the personality of Jesus ben Pandira can be grasped without occult knowledge, merely by studying the ancient sources, we must wonder whether anything could be more prophetic for the Qumran finds in our time. The documents seem to challenge us to take a fresh look at the originality of Rudolf Steiner´s work, and to measure it against the problems and riddles that are not becoming apparent.

      "It is completely incomprehensible", says Wilhelm Kelber, "that the scholars have not given more attention to the figure of Jesus ben Pandira in the Talmud. They have often used the Talmud to elucidate historical passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls. It has even been debated whether another man whose stoning is described in the Talmud, Onias the Just, was the Teacher of Righteousness. But Jesus ben Pandira has been ignored, although Emil Bock has reconstructed his biography on the basis of the Talmud. True, the Essene writings speak of the decisive encounter between the Teacher of Righteousness and his adversaries as occurring on the Day of Atonement, whereas the Talmud asserts that Jesus ben Pandira was executed on the day before the Passover. But this is not fatal, because the Talmud also says that Jesus ben Pandira was imprisoned for some time before his execution, and this imprisonment may well have lasted from the autumn of one year to the spring of the next year."

      This significance of the newly found Essene writings was neatly summed up by Rudolf Steiner half a century ago, when he said: "The most important teachings available to mankind in order to grasp the Christ event came from the communities of the Therapeutae and Essenes. Jesus, son of Pandira, who selected to let himself be inspired, by the Bodhisattva who would later beome the Maitreya Buddha, with teachings that could make the Mystery of Christ understandable."

      NAZARENES AND NAZARETH

      In cultural history there are occasional coincidences that must be heeded by the historian. We have in mind cases where the discovery of documents suddenly drawn out attention to something in the past and seems to demand that we examine this with new forces of consciousness.

      As Novalis was writing his "Lehrlinge zu Sais" and presenting the Madonna mystery in the form of Isis-Sophia, the Rosetta Stone was discovered, the deciphering of the hieroglyphics was made feasible, and Egyptology was inaugurated as a new branch of science.

      At the end of the last century, scholars were beginning to decipher the cuneiform texts of the epic of Gilgamesh and to make it the subject of learned expositions. Nowadays the epic is known everywhere and is mentioned in every course on ancient history, but in 1910, when Rudolf Steiner began to discuss it, there was still much controversy about it among the orientalists.

      Until quite recently only a bold scholar would refer to the Essenes in expounding biblical texts. In this respect Rudolf Steiner showed the way very early in the century. A document of the Essene community in Damascus had been discovered in 1896. This was published in 1910 and is now known as THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. Although it excited interest in only the narrowest professional circles, it hardly seems accidental that it should be published at the same time, even in the same year, that Rudolf Steiner was putting the finishing touches on his exposition of the riddles of Essensism.

      It was in September of 1910, in Berne, that Rudolf Steiner gave his lectures on the Gospel of Matthew, in which he discussed the problem of the great Essene teacher. As though in preparation for this, he had given in Berlin, a year earlier, 3 lectures on "Some Deeper Secrets of Human Development in the Light of the Gospel of Matthew". In these lectures he pointed to the Nazarenes.

      The Nazarenes were a sect of earlier origin than the Essenes. In strict asceticism, they refrained from meat and wine. They had clairvoyant capacities in respect to the date of Christ´s approach. The last of the great Nazarenes was John the Baptist.

      John spoke of the coming of the Lamb. He called the Pharisees and Sedducees the children of the serpent (generation of vipers). Rudolf Steiner stressed the significance of these words. All earlier knowledge, resting on ancient inspiration, had been instilled into men by Luciferic beings. John, however, wa aware of the change. Man was no longer to remain children of the serpent.

      The Pharisees and Sadducees adhered to the letter of the law. They wanted to remain children of the serpent.

      Two streams were at work in the ancient Hebrew people: the development of capacities based on the purity of the blood, and the observance of the law. The Pharisees clung to the law given on Sinai, whereas the Nazarenes worked on the blood stream. This brought them into collaboration with the Essenes.

      The Nazarenes had existed before the Essenes, who continued the movement in a far stricter form. The Essenes became a bud on the tree, a "living branch" (netzer in Hebrew) in the pure line of successive generations. Those pupils among the Essenes who cultivated this special approach were called "netzers".

      Jesus ben Pandira had 5 principle pupils, whose names were Matthai, Maki, Netzer, Boni, and Toda. The Talmud text agrees with Rudolf Steiner in this respect. Netzer expanded the doctrines that had long been cultivated among the Nazarenes. He founded an Essene colony, which was named Nazareth after him.

      The Jesus described in the Gospel of Matthew was brought to Nazareth after the return to Egypt, "that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene" (2:23). Rudolf Steiner threw a great deal of light on this passage. It was necessary that Jesus should grow up in an Essene colony. Here in Nazareth Jesus found the Essene stream of the Netzers that was his needed historical background, and thereby he came into contact with the Nazarene John.

      In lectures given in Oslo (THE FIFTH GOSPEL) from 1 to 6 October, 1913 (especially in the fifth lecture), Rudolf Steiner described how the Essenes imparted to the young Jesus, as a sort of "visiting fellow", all the wisdom of their initiates; and how John was a sort of lay brother among them. Jesus and John were intimately connected with the Essenes, but did not themselves become Essenes or partake in ascetic training and monastic exclusiveness. The Essenes regarded them as the instruments and witnesses of the Messianic expectations.

      It may have been precisely at Qumran, that Jesus of Nazareth, before the Baptism in Jordan, experienced the onesided asceticism of monastic life as the last consequences of the Buddhist-Indian path. He saw the two adversary powers, Lucifer and Ahriman, fleeing from the Essene cloisters, but he sensed that their influence among other people, outside the cloisters, was not impaired and that this influence had to be transformed and redeemed. This was an especially poignant experience for Jesus of Nazareth just before the Baptism. This is why we find him, after the Baptism, wrestling with his adversaries in the wilderness and consorting, as a redeemer, with publicans and sinners.

      The Essenes, in their exclusiveness, received into their communities only persons who were striving toward initiation. John the Baptist and Christ turned their efforts toward all of mankind and worked for the entire world.

      For Jesus and John the Baptist, the Essenes represented the highest moral development in the Jewish blood-experience, combining the purest mysticism and the deepest wisdom. Their task was to prepare the way. This determined their special historical place. After the Mystery of Golgotha, Essenism rapidly dwindled away.

      The doctrine of the Teacher of Righteousness, however, is a message from the person who, as the Maitreya Buddha, is the coming world-teacher. Rudolf Steiner´s lecture cycle on the Gospel of Matthew describes the inspiration of this leader of mankind, as through the Essene Teacher, prepared the way for Christ´s appearance in a physical body, so it is his task at present to announce the Parousia, the return of Christ "in the clouds" (Luke 21:27), i.e. in the etheric-spiritual world.

      The more we modern men feel ourselves compelled by the Dead Sea Scrolls to take an interest in the ancient Essenes of Judea, the more aware we will be of the value of Rudolf Steiner´s research into the Gospels. These new discoveries present living problems, not antiquarian puzzles.

      THE MICHAEL MESSAGE OF THE ESSENES

      The doctrine of the heavenly hierarchies appears in apocryphal books in Old Testament times. Later we find it in esoteric writings such as the Kabbala and especially the Zohar. In the New Testament, and particularly in the Epistles of Paul, the terminology dealing with angels stems from the initiation-lore of Dionysius the Ageopagite. The climax in regard to the angels, etc., is the APOCALYPSE of John. All angelology is basically apocalyptic.

      If this is true in general, it is particularly true for the archangelic being known as Michael. Right from the beginning he is the spiritual property of prophetic esotericism.

      Thus it is understandable that only one of the canonical books of the Old Testament points directly to the activity of Michael. This is DANIEL, which describes the seer´s apocalyptic vision. It is worthy of note that, in the Hebrew Bible, DANIEL was originally not placed among the books of the prophets but among the descriptions of the saints (the Hagiographa). The book was one of the last to be included in the canonical Bible.

      In three passages in DANIEL (10:13, 10:21, and 12:1) we encounter the being called Michael.

      Daniel describes a vision that he had in the 3rd year of Cyrus, king of Persia. He saw a spiritual being whose "body also was like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in color to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude." (10:6) This angel says to Daniel, who has fallen to the ground in a faint: "I am come for thy words. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me." (10:20 21)

      At the close of the 10th chapter, the angel comes back to his Michael-message and says to Daniel: "Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? And now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come. But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things but Michael your prince." (10:20-21)

      Thereafter the angel, who stands under Michael´s protection, prophesies concerning the future kings of Persia and the advent of Alexander the Great. As to Alexander´s empire he says: "And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled." )11:3-4)

      Now the spirit described to Daniel in his vision the events occurring down to the terrible reign of King Antiochus Epiphanes, closing with these words: "And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great pcince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that be wise (the teachers) shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever." (12:1-3)

      Thus Daniel receives the message that Michael is the folk-soul of the Hebrew people and that he will save the best people. The prophets, the Old Testament initiates, will "shine as the brightness of the firmament." This suggests that the teachers are illuninated by the brightness of the cosmic intelligence, which was administered by Michael in pre-Christian times.

      The figure of Daniel has much in common with the far older figure of Joseph (son of Jacob) in Egypt. Joseph was able to interpret the royal dreams, and was therefore promoted by Pharaoh. Daniel expounded Nebuchadnexxar´s dream of the 4 kingdoms of the world and the everlasting kingdom of God, and was made a great man, a ruler, and governor over all the wise men of Babylon. The parallels between Daniel and Joseph are not limited to the outer course of their lives. The 2 Old Testament figures seem to be inwardly connected through the leadership of Michael.

      Daniel´s vision of Michael must be compared with the apocryphal stories about Joseph. These latter are connected with the influence of the Archangel Michael. The Dead Sea Scrolls have supplied evidence that the Therapeutae in Egypt were familiar with the apocryphal legend of Joseph´s wife Aseneth, an Egyptian priest´s daughter who was converted to the Old Testament faith. (The legend of Joseph and Aseneth was first translated into German by P. Riessler in 1922 and was inerpreted in his book "Altjudisches Schrifttum ausserhalb der Bibel" (1928). It is discussed in Karl Georg Kuhn´s essay "On the Original Meaning of the Last Supper and its Relation to the Commjnity Meals in the MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE.")

      In this apocryphal text a recurring formula speaks of "eating of the blessed bread of life and drinking from the sanctified cup of immortality." Joseph prays to God that Aseneth may be blessed by participating in this sacred ceremonial meal. Then the Archangel Michael appears and says to Aseneth as she is partaking of the heavenly honeycomb proffered to her: "See, thou hast eaten of the bread of life and drunk from the cup of immortality." Before laying the heavenly honeycomb in Aseneth´s mouth, Michael has himself eaten thereof. Then he turns to Aseneth and says: "This honeycomb is the spirit of life, made by the bees of Paradise out of the dew on the roses of life that stand in God´s Paradise. The angels eat thereof, and all God´s Elect and all the sons of the highest. No one who eats thereof will ever die."

      Riessler points out that this legend originated among the Essenes and refers to their ceremonial meal. Among the Essenes at Qumran, only men partook of this meal. But the Aseneth legend speaks of the Therapeutae who, according to Philo, allowed women to share the meal.

      As this Michael legend of Joseph and Aseneth is connected with the Therapeutae of Egypt, so the newly found Qumran texts are connected with the Essenes of Palestine, who were notorious warriors of Michael.

      The MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE expressly states the "the teacher´s (maskil´s) duty is to make all the Sons of Light understand and to instruct them in the history of all the sons of man as to all their kinds of spirits." (Burrows, 374). The novice must be initiated into the secrets of the heavenly hierarchies. "From the God of knowledge is all that is and that is to be; and before they (the hierarchies) came into being he established all their designing" (Burrows, 374). "In the hand of the Prince of Light is dominion over all sons of righteousness and in the hand of the Angel of Darkness is all dominion over the sons of error" (374).

      Who is the Prince of Light? He is not simply identical with God, since it is clearly stated: "The God of Israel and his angel of truth have helped all the sons of light" (Burrows, 374). The Angel of Truth is the Prince of Light, the active guardian of the divine wisdom. He is the Archangel Michael.

      THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE never calls Michael by name, referring to him always as Angel of Truth or Prince of Light. The Prince of Darkness is often expressly called Belial, but his divine adversary, the prince of the angels, though often addressed, is never expressly named.

      The same is true of THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. The expression "Prince of Light" is used, in a form that is unmistakably in the singular number; but no personal name is employed, although the meaning is clear. "For of old arose

      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • carol
      From Journal for Anthroposophy, Number 8, Autumn, 1968 TREASURES OF BIBLICAL RESEARCH AND THE CONSCIENCE OF THE TIMES By Frederick Hiebel 21 years have passed
      Message 2 of 4 , May 3, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        From Journal for Anthroposophy, Number 8, Autumn, 1968

         

        TREASURES OF BIBLICAL RESEARCH AND THE CONSCIENCE OF THE TIMES

         

        By Frederick Hiebel

         

        21 years have passed since the discovery of the manuscripts which have come to be known as the Dead Sea Scrolls and a wealth of research and interpretation by outstanding scholars has arisen in relation to them. Nine years ago, Professor Frederick Hiebel published a small volume in German entitled BIBELFUNDE UND ZEITGEWISSEN in which he drew attention to the unique contribution of Rudolf Steiner´s spiritual-scientific scholarship toward an understanding of these epoch-making discoveries. Since that time there has been virtually no discussion in scientific and scholarly circles either of Professor Hiebel´s monograph or of Rudolf Steiner´s insights published almost a half century before the discoveries in the Qumran caves.

         

        It is high time that Dr. Hiebel´s conscientious study should be available to English readers. The essay which follows is the condensed version of Frederick Hiebel´s work, translated and edited by Normal Macbeth.

         

        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/anthroposophy/message/2638

        --- In anthroposophy@yahoogroups.com, "carol" <organicethics@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > Out of curiosity yesterday, I opened a window at the archives of
        > unclassified lectures (no GA attachment) and chose the first on the
        > list, seeing as it touched upon the 'race' issue.
        >
        > THE MIGRATIONS OF THE RACES Rudolf Steiner Berlin, n.d. 1904
        >
        > http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/GA/Unknown/19040000p01.html
        >
        > The content of the lecture led to the setting of the Christ event, of
        > which Steiner affirms as having " achieved through the whole personality
        > being taken possession of by another Being, the Christ, who represents
        > the whole Fifth Root Race."
        >
        > However, my focus today is towards the first of the list:
        >
        > "The Jews provide form for Christ
        >
        > The Greeks understand Christ
        >
        > The Romans become Christians"
        >
        > On 'skipping around' older post entries dating back to early 2001, I
        > came across an article on the Dead Sea Scrolls is writen by Frederick
        > Hiebel, an early Anthroposophist who worked with Rudolf Steiner.
        > Bradford has likely seen this entry as his name is visible on the list
        > at that time, Bruce's as well. Apparently discovered in 1947, some of
        > the scrolls where made public while others remained barred from public
        > consultation by 'high authoriities' it seems. This was the case some 30
        > years ago at the time the essay was published, I'm not aware if these
        > others have seens been disclosed. If not, the conditions of our day and
        > the Michaelimic efforts thus collectively applied towards 'harmonizing'
        > these, have offered us enough evidence to conclude that there exists, in
        > increased measure, a concerted effort by a global elitist ruling class
        > to explicitly bar TRUTH from the public domaine for the purpose of
        > population 'control' and the monopolization of acceptable public thought
        > forms.
        >
        > Lenghty as this piece may be, it is quite enthrawling! Of particular
        > interest is the language used to describe Michael, so many years ago
        > when he last reigned as Time Spirit.
        >
        > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/anthroposophy/message/2637
        > <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/anthroposophy/message/2637>
        >
        > Dear List Members:
        >
        > This article on the Dead Sea Scrolls is writen by Frederick Hiebel, an
        > early Anthroposophist who worked with Rudolf Steiner, and the article
        > [which I have in 2 sections] was published perhaps 20 years ago or more
        > in one of the Anthroposophical Journals, the name of which I cannot
        > recall exactly, but the editor, unless I'm mistaken, at the time was
        > Henry Barnes, and now Christy Barnes.
        >
        > The praise for Dr. Burrows is well deserved, I feel, and his findings
        > were the first dealing specifically with the Dead Sea Scrolls per se
        > which I read. If memory serves correctly, he was amazed and saddened by
        > the halt brought to translating these Scrools by Egypt's wish for
        > preservation, although there is much more to it than that. Surely if the
        > entire material contained in the Scrolls was publicised, organised
        > religion would suffer a mighty blow to its very existence; but this is
        > only my opinion gained from my own thoughts based upon the material
        > itself and the unusual and sudden denial of access to these works as
        > though a curtain went down to cover them.
        >
        > Sheila
        >
        > THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS
        >
        > Starting in the spring of 1947, in eleven caves around Khirbet Qumran
        > along the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, there were discovered a
        > number of manuscripts that have come to be known as the Dead Sea
        > Scrolls. They have attracted enormous interest ever since they were
        > identified.
        >
        > The scrolls originated in an Essene settlement resembling a monastery at
        > Khirbet Qumran. Five seasons of excavation in the years 1951 56 brought
        > to light the ruins of the Essene´s cloister and of a scriptorium
        > where the manuscripts had been written and assembled. Even some of the
        > equipment for writing was discovered. Study of a number of coins found
        > on the site indicated that the cloister was built about 100 B.C.,
        > destroyed about 31 B.C., and again destroyed about 70 A.D. Carbon-14
        > tests show with reasonable certainty that the scrolls could have been
        > produced as early as 100 B.C.
        >
        > The contents of the scrolls point to the following facts, although it
        > must be recognized that practically every aspect of the matter is the
        > subject of continuing and vigorous debate among the experts:
        >
        > 1. The teacher and leader of the Essenes is never given a personal name,
        > being referred to as the Teacher of Righteousness of God´s Elect. The
        > same is true of the "wicked priest" or "man of the life," but he is
        > generally identified as the Jewish priest-king Alexander Jannaeus (ruled
        > 103-76 B.C.). The martyr´s death of the Teacher of Righteousness is
        > dated to the beginning of Alexander´s reign, thus again giving us a
        > figure of about 100 B.C.
        >
        > 2. The Essenes were the most important religious group in the last
        > pre-Christian years in Palestine. Their rules, rites of initiation,
        > prayers, and hymns all show that they had a highly developed secret
        > teaching and apocalyptic doctrine.
        >
        > 3. The Essenes expected the coming of a final prophet and the birth of a
        > priestly as well as a kingly Messiah.
        >
        > 4. The Essenes were aware of Zarathustra´s Persian doctrine of the
        > war of light against darkness. They called it the war of the Archangel
        > Michael against Belial, the Prince of Darkness.
        >
        > 5. Khirbet Qumran is located very close to the site of the Baptism in
        > Jordan. The ritual of the Essenes reminds us of John´s baptism with
        > water. John the Baptist, and also the youthful Jesus, must have had some
        > connection with the Essenes of Qumran.
        >
        > The discoveries in the first cave were already enough to astonish the
        > scientific world. The items of principal interest to us were as follows:
        >
        > THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE. This sets forth the ritual and rules of the
        > Essene order. These tally very well with the descriptions given by
        > Flavuis Josephus and Philo of Alexandria.
        >
        > THE WAR OF THE SONS OF LIGHT WITH THE SONS OF DARKNESS. This shows the
        > light-versus-darkness theme in the Essene views of the approaching end,
        > and gives the final summons of the Archangel Michael.
        >
        > THE HYMNS AND THANKSGIVING PSALMS. These give us a glimpse into the
        > Essene esoterics.
        >
        > THE HABAKKUK COMMENTARY. This interprets the first 2 chapters of the
        > prophet. The Teacher of Righteousness is referred to very particularly.
        > Everyone who sought to join the Essenes had to be convinced as to the
        > message of the Teacher, who stood in opposition to the "wicked priest."
        >
        > THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. This was not entirely new, a copy of it having
        > been found about 1896 in Cairo and published in 1910. A second copy was
        > found at Qumran. Here again the Teacher of Righteousness is contrasted
        > to the "preacher of the lie."
        >
        > Among the many finds in other caves, we will mention only the MESSIANIC
        > FLORILEGIUM, which is especially important for its references to the
        > "David Messiah" and the "Teacher of the Torah" (the priestly Messiah);
        > and the COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH, which describes the David Messiah, who was
        > to rule and judge under the guidance of the priestly Messiah.
        >
        > The work of deciphering and publishing began in 1947, and there has been
        > a flood of scientific essays by representatives of numerous religions
        > and philosophical positions. Even a specialist can
        >
        > Hardly keep track of the literature. Many of the manuscripts, however,
        > have not yet been deciphered because of their poor condition, hence a
        > good deal of completely new material will be available in the future and
        > may give us deeper insight.
        >
        > THE SEARCH FOR THE ESSENES
        >
        > Various antique writers speak of the Essenes in Palestine and the
        > likeminded Therapeutae in Egypt. Philo of Alexandria, Flavius Josephus,
        > and Pliny the Younger describe in varying length the life in the Essene
        > communities, which seem to have had about four thousand members at the
        > time when Jesus was born. These people led a contemplative life, whether
        > or not they were actually in monasteries; abstained from all meat and
        > alcohol; and devoted themselves to the ascetic attainment of purity and
        > virtue.
        >
        > In the 19th century, a retionalistic critic of the Bible such as Ernest
        > Renan could still include the Essenes in his reconstruction of Jesus´
        > life. In the present century, however, it was until very recently
        > considered unscientific and fantastic to discuss the Essenes. The
        > discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has changed all this. Full of doubts
        > at the beginning, cautiously changing their views, and finally
        > abandoning all hesitation, the scholars have concluded that Khirbet
        > Qumran was the center of the Essene communities, and that the scrolls in
        > the caves were part of a systematic collection of the books of the
        > order.
        >
        > The Director of the American School of Oriental Research at Jerusalem
        > for the year 1947 was Miller Burrows, professor of biblical theology at
        > Yale. Professor Burrows was connected with the discoveries at Khirbet
        > Qumran from the beginning and has published his views in two books: The
        > Dead Sea Scrolls (Viking, 1956) and More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls
        > (Viking, 1958). Since these works scrupulously report the widely
        > differing opinions of other scholars, they are probably the best sources
        > of information for the general public. (Our latest quotations from
        > Professor Burrows refer to the first of these 2 books.) Therefore we
        > will rely heavily on Professor Burrows´ exposition of the various
        > texts.
        >
        > In Burrows´ earliest remarks (published in a news release dated 11
        > April, 1948) the first text was called "a manual of discipline of some
        > comparatively little-known sect of monastic order, possibly the
        > Essenes." Half a year later, in September of 1948, he spoke of it as a
        > "curious work which I will call for the present the Sectarian Document."
        > At the same time he wrote: "This again appears to confirm the idea that
        > our text is the manual of discipline of a group organized like the later
        > monastic orders in Christianity."
        >
        > Shortly thereafter Andre Dupont-Sommer of the Sorbonne in Paris asserted
        > vigorously that THE HABAKKUK COMMENTARY and THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE
        > came from the Essenes. This was also the opinion of Paul Kahle.
        >
        > Burrows himself finally concluded that the sectaries at Qumran were
        > Essenes. "The installations uncovered at Khirbet Qumran could be easily
        > understood as belonging to a settlement of the Essenes." (280)
        >
        > Now Burrows summarizes the results of 7 years of research. The Essenes
        > were in possession of a very special revelation. They regarded the
        > Teacher of Righteousness as the inspired expositor of the divine
        > mysteries. They awaited a final prophet, as well as one Messiah for
        > Aaron (priestly) and a second for Israel (Davidic and kingly). The
        > Messianic expectations of Qumran ran parallel with the sermon of John
        > the Baptist, although "nothing corresponding to the strong organization
        > of the community is attested concerning John´s disciples." (329)
        > Also, the Essene communities must not be equated with the primitive
        > church. "The church was not an exclusive, esoteric group with jealously
        > guarded secret teachings. The gospel given to it had to be proclaimed to
        > all the world." (333)
        >
        > These carefully weighed surmises and hypotheses have been drawn from the
        > research at Qumran. What did Rudolf Steiner say 50 years earlier?
        >
        > It is a sad fact that none of the archeaologists and theologians working
        > on the Dead Sea Scrolls have even mentioned Rudolf Steiner´s research
        > on the gospels. Is this because he did not belong to the academic
        > fraternity? The same would be true of Philo, Josephus and Pliny, the
        > scholars of the Talmud and the Kabbala, the writers of the gospels and
        > the epistles. Is it a case of simple ignorance or of conscious ignoring?
        >
        > No matter what the explanation may be, it is our obligation to call
        > attention to Rudolf Steiner's remarkable discoveries, as well as to the
        > works of his students, particularly Emil Boch´s Caesars and Apostles
        > and The Childhood and Youth of Jesus and the numerous articles by Emil
        > Bock, Rudolf Frieling, and W. Kelber that have appeared in the journal
        > of The Christian Community.
        >
        > Let us now compare Rudolf Steiner´s Christology with the Qumran
        > results on Essenism and its connection with Jesus. We will begin with a
        > general view of the Essenes, then proceed to the doctrine of the two
        > Messiahs and the problem of identifying the Teacher of Righteousness.
        >
        > CHRISTIANITY AS MYSTICAL FACT
        >
        > AND THE RIDDLE OF ESSENISM
        >
        > The earliest work in which Rudolf Steiner dealt with the Gospels was
        > Christianity as Mystical Fact (1902). The 10th chapter, which discusses
        > the Essenses, is already different from the other 12 chapters in the
        > book. It is the shortest by a considerable margin, and the German
        > original is divided into only 2 paragraphs. The first paragraph
        > discusses Essenism in general, and the second edition (1910) makes only
        > 4 changes in it (three single words and a short subordinate clause). The
        > second paragraph, which goes into the Essenes´ attitude toward Jesus
        > and touches on the Baptism in Jordan, is completely reworked in the
        > second edition.
        >
        > The first paragraph describes the Essenes as "a community which required
        > its members to lead a life that would bring man close to becoming
        > divine." The last clause was altered in the second edition. In place of
        > the general concept of "becoming divine," it now reads "should lead a
        > life that developed a higher self within the soul and brought about a
        > new birth."
        >
        > The Essene movement is described as a connecting link between the
        > Myseries of antiquity and the founding of Christianity. The contents of
        > the heathen Mysteries, which had been revealed only to a few initiates,
        > appeared among the Essenes embodied in the form of communities. "In the
        > wisdom of the Mysteries is to be sought the soil out of which grew the
        > spirit of Christianity. All that was needed was the gaining ground of
        > the fundamental conviction that this spirit must be introduced into life
        > in greater measure than had been the case with the Mysteries." Such a
        > fundamental conviction prevailed in the Essene comminities.
        >
        > With the aid of a long quotation from Philo´s book On the
        > Contemplative Life, Rudolf Steiner described the tests and vows of the
        > Essenes. He was actually summarizing the then unknown contents of the
        > MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE for the benefit of readers who, 50 years before the
        > finds at Qumran, had no access to the problems concerning the Essenes.
        > The passage from Philo describes the dwellings of the members of the
        > community, and especially their consecrated chamber. Such a chamber is
        > now visible to our eyes in the excavations at Qumran. The passage also
        > mentions how the members of the order devoted themselves to the
        > exposition of sacred writings. This activity is clearly reflected in the
        > scriptorium at Qumran, and is embodied in the Scrolls themselves.
        >
        > The first paragraph culminates in the assertion that the communities of
        > the Essenes and Therapeutae formed a natural transition from the
        > Mysteries of antiquity to the founding of Christianity. Then follows the
        > lapidary sentence: "Christianity, however, wished to convert into the
        > business of mankind in general that they had made the business of a
        > sect."
        >
        > The Essenes are the bridge from the Mysteries to Christianity. This is
        > why Steiner presents them as the historical background of the life of
        > Jesus. This proposition has its full impact, however, only when we read
        > this chapter as one of the 13 in the book and bear in mind the contents
        > of the preceding 9 chapters. Rudolf Steiner was reckoning with readers
        > who would not regard the contents of the Mysteries as fantastic
        > allegories, which is the way they are usually presented by modern
        > scholars. He saw them as the embodiment of direct spiritual experience,
        > conveying pure reality despite their enigmatic language.
        >
        > This is the decisive point through which Rudolf Steiner tried to awaken
        > the consciousness of modern intellectualism.
        >
        > The second paragraph of Chapter 10 is devoted to a problem that has
        > greatly exercised the students of the Dead Sea Scrolls what are the
        > differences between the Essenes and the communities of the primitive
        > Christian church, between the Teacher of Righteousness and Christ? A
        > careful comparison of the 2 versions of this paragraph shows clearly
        > how, along with his spiritual research, Rudolf Steiner was wrestling
        > continually with problems of style and clarity.
        >
        > In 1902 Rudolf Steiner wrote: "The existence of such sects makes the
        > personality of Jesus fully understandable." The word "fully" was deleted
        > in revision, because it sometimes misled careless readers into thinking
        > that Jesus had been an Essene. The second edition was expanded to read
        > as follows: "The existence of such sects enables us to understand to
        > what extent the times were ripe for grasping the Christ mystery."
        >
        > In the first edition we read: "They (such sects as the Essenes) offered
        > the possibility that, in a man in whom lay the highest spiritual
        > qualities, these should actually be converted into reality." The second
        > edition changes this to the following: "In the Mysteries, a man was
        > artificially prepared for the dawning upon his consciousness, at the
        > appropriate time, of the spiritual world." The 2 formulations mean
        > pretty much the same thing, but the latter is better in that it makes
        > the application more general (Mysteries rather than sects) and speaks of
        > the gradual ascent of a well prepared soul into the spiritual world
        > rather than of a vague conversion of spiritual qualities into reality.
        >
        > The first edition continues: "In such a community each person is
        > awakened to the extent permitted by the stage at which his soul stands."
        > The second edition makes this clearer and more generally applicable:
        > "Within the Essene or Therapeutic community the soul sought, by a
        > certain mode of life, to make itself ripe for the awakening of the
        > higher man."
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner now begins to focus more clearly on the figure of Jesus
        > as this gradually emerges from the historical background of Essenism.
        > The differences in the second edition are so great that we will set
        > longer passages beside each other for comparison:
        >
        > "A Buddha-nature differs from that of an ordinary person in that its
        > soul-life has evolved much further. It has a larger spiritual
        > inheritance than the other; more numerous spiritual ancestors. It is
        > born with higher capacities, which these ancestors have worked out. The
        > belief in the return of the souls is a premise for the conduct of life
        > in the manner of the Essenes and Therapeutae. The more highly developed
        > soul will rise to a higher rank in the governing hierarchy. It will be
        > an initiate of higher degree. Such a Buddha-nature is cultivated in the
        > community." (1902)
        >
        > "A further step forward is that one struggles through to the feeling
        > that a human individuality may have evolved to higher and higher stages
        > of perfection in repeated lives on earth. One who had arrived at a
        > glimpse of this truth would also be able to feel that in Jesus a being
        > of lofty spirituality had appeared. The loftier the spirituality, the
        > greater the possibility of accomplishing something of importance."
        > (1910)
        >
        > The first edition speaks of "the belief in the return of souls." The
        > second edition improves this by speaking of "repeated lives on earth."
        >
        > The expression "a Buddha-nature" appears twice in the first edition, and
        > is compounded shortly thereafter by the phrases "Buddha-personality" and
        > "Buddha-Jesus." All these are dropped in the second edition. They were
        > originally employed by Rudolf Steiner (and here we should recall that in
        > 1901 and 1902 he was lecturing on "From Buddha to Christ" at the same
        > time that he gave the lectures on which Christianity as Mystical Fact is
        > based) to designate the grade of perfection of a very highly developed
        > being such as had appeared in Jesus. He expressly states that in this
        > "Buddha-Jesus" the divine spirit of the Logos was able to become flesh.
        > Nevertheless, a superficial reader (and there are many such, even among
        > scholars) could misinterpret this passage and conclude that Jesus, in
        > whom the Christ-spirit became flesh, had proceeded directly out of
        > Essenism. This is why the revised version no longer says that "Essenism
        > enables us to understand the arising of Christianity" and that "the
        > highest personality who could arise out of Essenism" was Jesus.
        >
        > "Thus, at the time when Christianity arose, the conditions were present
        > under which a new Buddha-personality could be trained and recognized. A
        > Buddha-Jesus could arise in such a community. Essenism and Therapeutism
        > enable us to understand the arising of Christianity." (1902)
        >
        > "Thus the individuality of Jesus could become capable of accomplishing
        > the deed that the Gospels so mysteriously indicate in the Baptism by
        > John, speaking of it in such a way as to show clearly that they consider
        > it extremely important." (1910)
        >
        > The most striking difference between the first and second formulations
        > is in the reference to the Baptism by John, through which the Christ ego
        > entered into Jesus. The training of Jesus, especially what he
        > experienced among the Essenes in the years preceding the Baptism, is
        > described as a gradually intensifying process of becoming capable of
        > "accomplishing the deed of the Baptism by John."
        >
        > The baptism of Jesus is not only John´s activity, to which Jesus
        > passively submits; part and parcel of it is Jesus´ strenuous activity
        > in preparing his soul for the sacrifice entailed for him by the action
        > of the Baptist. This is reflected in the Baptist´s sagely modest
        > remark: "He must increase, but I must decrease." (John 3:30)
        >
        > "In an Essene community, the Logos could become flesh, i.e. a
        > personality, and dwell there. Jesus was able to be the highest
        > personality who could arise out of Essenism." (1902)
        >
        > "The personality of Jesus became capable of receiving into its own soul
        > Christ the Logos, so that this was made flesh in him. After this
        > reception, the "ego" of Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ and the outer
        > personality was the bearer of the Logos. This event, the "ego" of Jesus
        > becoming the Christ, is enacted in the Baptism by John." (1910)
        >
        > This fact of the John-Baptism is the climax of the chapter and gives the
        > answer to the central question of how Essenism differs from
        > Christianity.
        >
        > "The requirement that the basic character of Essenism should become the
        > concern of mankind in general led this personality to become the founder
        > of Christianity. This meant being independent of external forms and
        > concentrating on the training of the soul, so that everything possible
        > could be achieved without the strict regulations of the Essene way of
        > life. This second requirement must now be added to the first. And is was
        > added. The kingdom of God is "not here or there, it is in you." Even
        > without becoming Essenes you can come to a conviction of the truth of
        > the divine. This conviction is the main thing. One who has this will be
        > able to find God everywhere. With this conviction, one need only open
        > his eyes in order to find the divine everywhere." (1902)
        >
        > "During the epoch of the Mysteries, the "union with the spirit" was the
        > concern of the few persons who were to be initiated. Among the Essenes,
        > a whole community cultivated a way of life that aimed to enable all its
        > members to arrive at this "union." Through the Christ-event, something
        > the deeds of Christ was placed before all mankind so that the "union"
        > might become the knowledge and concern of all mankind." (1910)
        >
        > The fact of the Baptism in Jordan is the most significant addition to
        > the revised version. It is the climax not only of the chapter, but of
        > the book. Throughout the whole work the motif of the incarnation of the
        > Word of God, which took up residence in the Son of Man, resounds like an
        > organ tone.
        >
        > We should also note how this theme was gradually built up in the
        > preceding chapters until it could reach the present climax.
        >
        > The 6th chapter, on "The Mystery Wisdom of Egypt," states in the first
        > edition: "The life of Jesus contains more than the live of Buddha.
        > Buddha showed by his life that man is the Logos and that, when his
        > earthly body dies, he returns into this Logos, into the Light. Jesus is
        > himself the Logos, become a person. In him the Word became flesh." In
        > the second edition, the next-to-last sentence has been slightly
        > clarified to read: "In Jesus the Logos itself became a person."
        >
        > Another passage in both editions says: "Jesus and Buddha, to those who
        > have recognized their divine nature, are initiates in the most eminent
        > sense." To this the new edition adds, in brackets: "Jesus is an initiate
        > through the indwelling of the Christ Being."
        >
        > A further step in the metamorphosis of this motif is found in the 8th
        > chapter on "The Lazarus Miracle." Here it is said of Lazarus: "Through
        > his initiation he had become capable of recognizing that the Word that
        > had become alive in him had become a person in Christ Jesus."The first
        > edition had not been quite so explicit: "He is the living Word. In him
        > ancient tradition has become a person."
        >
        > The highest point in this progression is clearly in the 10th chapter.
        > Here the mystery of the epiphany is directly revealed once and for all:
        > "The personality of Jesus became capable of receiving Christ the Logos
        > into its own soul. After this reception, the ´ego´ of Jesus of
        > Nazareth was the Christ and the outer personality was the bearer of the
        > Logos."
        >
        > However, the Baptism as the birth of Christ in the body of Jesus is
        > inextricably connected with the relationship of John the Baptist and
        > Jesus of Nazareth to the Essenes.
        >
        > ZARATHUSTRA AND THE DOCTRINE OF THE TWO MESSIAHS
        >
        > The controversies that have raged among the scholars since the discovery
        > of the Dead Sea Scrolls would serve a good purpose if, as part of the
        > general revision of views on the Bible, they led to some attention being
        > paid of Rudolf Steiner´s work on the subject. The new texts throw a
        > sort of broken light on a number of facts that were clearly expounded in
        > Rudolf Steiner´s lectures on the Gospels before the first World War.
        >
        > The Essenes were filled with the conviction that this world is divided
        > between the Sons of Light and the Children of Darkness. This Persian
        > doctrine, stemming from Zarathustra, was prt of their basic position.
        > Under Michael´s leadership the Sons of Light were waring against
        > Belial, the figure who appears in Zarathustra´s teachings as Ahriman.
        >
        > Why, and to what extent, had the heathen views of Zarathustra penetrated
        > into Essene Judaism before the birth of Christ? The answer to this
        > question will throw a good deal of light on the other problems connected
        > with the Essene doctrine of the 2 Messiahs.
        >
        > THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT is especially rich in passages pointing to a
        > Messiah of Aaron and a Messiah of Israel, a priestly and a
        > Davidic=kingly. In the Essene community the doctrine that in the last
        > days a priestly and a Davidic Messiah would rule side by side became a
        > central dogma. The priestly Messiah outranked the lay Messiah, wow as to
        > come of the House of David. The Old Testament basis for the 2 Messiahs
        > was found in Balaam´s words in Numbers 24:17: "There shall come a
        > star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel." The Essenes
        > took the star as the sign for the coming of the priestly Messiah and the
        > scepter as that for the kingly Messiah.
        >
        > This dual expectation of the Messiah is clearly expressed in a sentence
        > of the MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE. "They shall be judged by the first judgment
        > by which the men of the community began to be disciplined, until there
        > shall come a prophet and the Messiahs of Aaron and Israel." (Miller
        > Burrows, The Dead Sea Scrolls, Viking, 1956, p.383.) This passage shows
        > that the Essenes also expected a last prophet to prepare the way. This
        > can be none other than John the Baptist.
        >
        > Here are some similar passages from the DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. "These
        > escaped in the period of the first visitation, but those who turned back
        > they delivered to the sword when comes the Messiah of Aaron and Israel."
        > (Burrows, 355).
        >
        > All the scientific research that has been devoted to this problem in the
        > last few years will never achieve a satisfactory answer as long as it
        > neglects Rudolf Steiner´s work on the gospels. Two basic facts
        > especially must be recognized: the importance of reincarnation in the
        > history of mankind, and the impossibility of Christ´s incarnating on
        > earth a second time.
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner obtained his information through reading the spiritual
        > script known as the Akashic Record, quite apart from all documents, but
        > his statements can be tested in complete detail by an unprejudiced
        > scholar working from the documents. His access to the Akashic Record
        > enabled Rudolf Steiner to ascertain many facts that solve contradictions
        > and fill gaps in the biblical record. There is no conflict between the
        > two. Often he spoke of his contributions as constituting a "fifth
        > Gospel" that had never yet been written, remarking at the same time that
        > in a sense it was as old as the other four Gospels. Many truths that he
        > presented in a completely new light, in accordance with the
        > consciousness of our time, can not be partially confirmed through
        > apocryphal writings, although these are often mulilated or obscure.
        >
        > A conspicuous example of this sort of work is Rudolf Steiner´s
        > clarification of the conflicting stories of Matthew and Luke about the
        > childhood of Jesus. It we do not take this into account, we will never
        > completely solve certain questions raised by the Essene texts from
        > Qumran.
        >
        > The two different genealogies of Jesus have been a baffling problem for
        > the critics from the beginning. Theologians of all camps, schools, and
        > denominations agree that it is impossible to reconcile the two series of
        > ancestors given by Matthew and Luke, to say nothing of their stories of
        > the birth. Thus Charles Guignebert, professor of theology at the
        > Sorbonne, states candidly: "If the two editors of the Matthew and Luke
        > Gospels had gone to the public archives and consulted the records, they
        > would have come out with the same material, subject to errors and
        > omissions. But they not only contradict and vary from each other; they
        > are completely unlike."
        >
        > In Matthew, Joseph´s father is Jacob; in Luke, he is Heli. Jacob and
        > Heli in turn have different fathers, and desperate appeals to ancient
        > Jewish marriage customs have given no aid in explaining this. Between
        > David and Joseph, Matthew gives only about 42 generations in all, down
        > to Jesus, and he traces Jesus back to Solomon, thus connecting him with
        > the royal line of the House of David. Luke gives 77 generations and
        > shows Jesus as descended from David through the priestly line of Nathan
        > the prophet. Luke´s series is supposed to be about 400 years longer.
        >
        > We must now look at the style and motifs of the two stories, training
        > our eyes to see the compositional elements in the Gospels. This is what
        > Rudolf Steiner expected from students of the Bible.
        >
        > In Matthew, the genealogy is at the beginning of the first chapter. In
        > Luke, it appears in the third chapter, after the Baptism in Jordan.
        > Matthew traces the line from Abraham to Joseph, whereas Luke goes beyond
        > Abraham to Adam. The two series move contrapuntally. The first leads
        > from the past to the present and shows us the course of history as a
        > result of the Fall. The second proceeding from the present to the past,
        > seems to suspend history and show us the way from earth to heaven.
        >
        > Matthew´s story of the birth puts the accent on Joseph, to whom the
        > angel makes the annunciation in a dream. In Luke, the angel appears to
        > Mary. In Matthew, the home is in Bethlehem and the birth takes place in
        > Joseph´s house, where the Wise Men from the east make their
        > appearance. In Luke, the parents live in Nazareth, but are on a journey
        > to Bethlehem; they find no accommodation, and the birth takes place in a
        > stable, whither the shepherds come to worship. In Matthew, Joseph is
        > warned in a dream to escape from Herod´s persecution by fleeing to
        > Egypt. The parents of the Luke child simply return to Nazareth in peace.
        >
        > The striking thing in Rudolf Steiner´s explanation of the riddles of
        > the birth stories is that he points to two separate Mystery streams
        > lying behind the Matthew and Luke Gospels and their authors. The Matthew
        > Gospel, with its emphasis on the masculine element in the figure of
        > Joseph, leads into the expanses of star-knowledge; in the light of
        > wisdom and sagacity the three Magi follow the golden star. Luke, on the
        > other hand, leads us through the mystery of the Madonna into the
        > midnight-hour of the human inner world, where the shepherds hear the
        > annunciation.
        >
        > Matthew´s genealogy describes the birth of the golden star
        > (Zoro-Aster, Zarathustra), who, during the Babylonian Exile, had
        > prepared the prophets while incarnated as Zarathos or Nazaratos. The
        > battle of Ormuzd against Ahriman, which Zarathustra had long ago
        > revealed to the Persians, is still the basic mood of the Matthew Gospel.
        > Therefore, many things appear in such a black-white contrast: the Wise
        > Men and Herod; the child fleeing to Egypt, and the slaughter of the
        > innocents in Bethlehem.
        >
        > Luke recounts the story as though it had occurred in the chaste
        > moonlight of the midnight-hour. The mood is one of recovery from the
        > Fall, of the redemption of Lucifer.
        >
        > Matthew´s story of the temptation reaches a climax where Christ turns
        > on Ahriman with the worlds: "Get thee hence, Satan" (Matthew 4:10).
        > Luke, however, does not use the word Satanas, (The King James version,
        > however, says "Get thee behind me, Satan" (Luke 4:8) the original Greek
        > text employing only the word Diablos, or devil, meaning Lucifer. Matthew
        > describes the defeat of Satan-Ahriman. The Magi are able to transform
        > the haughtiness of knowledge into humility and reverence. Luke´s
        > shepherds, innocent souls leading a selfless life, are able to tear the
        > thorn of egotism out of their hearts.
        >
        > The head´s knowledge, aiming at the wisdom of the stars; the
        > heart´s innocence, resting on the selflessness of the human soul:
        > these were the two Mystery paths that pre-Christian mankind had to tread
        > in order to unite them at the end in the Christ event. Everything
        > depended on this uniting of the two streams.
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner´s assertion that there were two Jesus boys does not
        > relate only to the stories of descent from the two sons of David,
        > Solomon the kind and Nathan the priest; it also reckons with the problem
        > of their reunion. The unitary Jesus, lost through the contradictions in
        > the Gospels, is restored to us. The clue (recounted only by Luke) is the
        > mysterious three-day sojourn of the 12 year old Jesus in the temple of
        > Solomon in Jerusalem.
        >
        > In his small book, THE SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE OF MAN AND HUMANITY, Rudolf
        > Steiner describes how, in the 12th year, Zaarathustra left the body of
        > the Matthew Jesus in order to live in the Luke Jesus. The Luke child,
        > all soul and heart, received into himself the spirit and thinking power
        > of Zarathustra. Therefore this child, who until then had been dreamy and
        > sensitive, was now suddenly so alert and wise that he could instruct the
        > doctors in the temple. His parents "were amazed" (Luke 2:48) and could
        > hardly recognize him after a separation of only three days.
        >
        > From this moment on, the two were one. The Zarathustra stream,
        > containing all the heathen wisdom of the world, was poured into the
        > fruitful soil of Jewry, the noblest flower of which was the Jesus child
        > of the Luke Madonna.
        >
        > The path of the highest head led into the depths of the greatest heart.
        > The body of the Nathan Jesus became the temple of Solomon. The keenest
        > capacities of wisdom in the brain, such as only a scion of the house of
        > Solomon could develop, were combined with the purest love-forces of the
        > heart of the Luke child.
        >
        > With these facts in mind, we are no longer puzzled by Jesus´ answer
        > to his parents when they found him in the temple: "How is it that ye
        > sought me? Wist ye not that I must be about my Father´s business?"
        > (Luke 2:49). The house of the father was now in one sense the temple of
        > Solomon the king, who was also the ancestor of the Zarathustra-Jesus.
        > But the temple of Solomon, in contrast to all heathen mysteries, was the
        > path toward a grasp of the Mystery of Man, who experiences his ego in
        > the bloodstream. The Jesus body, with which the Solomon child now united
        > himself, was in the truest sense the temple of the body that had been
        > prepared as a dwelling for the Lord. Its destiny was that its head and
        > brain should be the Grail temple, while its heart´s blood, which
        > later flowed into the earth on Golgotha after the Logos had become
        > Flesh, should be the blood of the Grail.
        >
        > The transfer of the scion of King Solomon into the heart of the priestly
        > child is the beginning of the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem.
        > The task of the temple of Solomon was fulfilled in this hour.
        >
        > What do the Qumran texts have to say on this problem? One student, the
        > theologian Karl Georg Kuhn of Heidelberg, repeatedly points to the
        > connections between the doctrines of Zoroaster and Judaism in
        > post-Exilic times, and in so doing he lays special stress on the
        > Essenes. The Parisian orientalist, Andre Dupont-Sommer, even cites
        > medieval Syrian sources that speak of Zoroaster´s being of Jewish
        > descent. Burrows (259-261) also discusses the subject.
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner asserted as early as 1910 (THE GOSPEL OF ST. MATTHEW, 6th
        > lecture) that there were 2 groups of people who knew the secret of the
        > Zarathustra Jesus. These were the Chaldean initiates and the Essenes.
        > The Chaldeans learned of it through their spiritual connection with
        > Zarathustra himself; the Essenes through mystical knowledge gained in
        > their occult training. The secret doctrines of the Essenes taught of the
        > approach of Jesus in a slow descent through 42 generations, as in the
        > Gospel of Matthew. The Essene pupils went through an initiation in 42
        > stages. Matthew was able to describe this because he himself had trodden
        > the Essene path.
        >
        > Any modern person must, of course, have great initial difficulties with
        > the suggestion that there were 2 Jesus children. One question that
        > arises is why the birth of the Matthew boy, whose individuality moved
        > into the other boy at 12, should have been necessary at all. Why could
        > not the Zarathustra wisdom simply be incorporated into the Agamitic body
        > of the Luke Jesus, whose entelechy could then remain in the depths of
        > the soul?
        >
        > This is a central problem. We must recall something mentioned earlier,
        > the "contrapuntal" motion in the 2 genealogies. Matthew emphasizes the
        > masculine element, Luke the feminine; Matthew the adversary power of
        > Satan-Ahriman, Luke the tempting of the devil, Lucifer. The human body
        > in its material condensation, which runs counter to the original plan of
        > the divine creation, is the result of the Fall of both the first
        > ancestors, Adam and Eve, the masculine and the feminine, and also of
        > Ahriman´s work in the bones and nerves and pulsing of the blood.
        >
        > The separation of the sexes is the first physical expression of the fall
        > into matter through the expulsion from Paradise.
        >
        > What did the Jesus body have to become if it was to be the dwelling
        > place of the Christ Logos? It had to be a "Paradise body", a body that
        > resisted the laws of the Fall, remaining as it had been in the plan of
        > the Elohim before the Satanic-diabolic powers began to solidify and
        > darken it. Had only the Luke child been born, the flower of the Jewish
        > blood-forces would not have received the wealth of heathen Mystery
        > wisdom. Had only the Matthew boy appeared, the vessel offered to the
        > Logos would have contained wisdom without the heartfelt love derived
        > from the Madonna mystery; in such a body, Christ would have been a
        > teacher but not a savior, and his sayings would never have been
        > understood by all mankind, by the "shepherds" as well as the "kings".
        >
        > The story of the Luke Jesus´ birth is connected with the
        > supersensible influence of the Gautama Buddha. It has a
        > Buddhistic-oriental atmosphere. The Zarathustra impulse, as shown in the
        > Matthew Gospel, points from the east towards the west. Pupils of
        > Zarathustra worked among the priests of Hermes (Thoth) in Egypt and
        > among the Pythagoreans in Southern Italy. The path of the Wise Men from
        > the east led toward the west. The 2 gospels present the fact of the new
        > birth of mankind from eastern and from western standpoints. Luke speaks
        > from the aspect of oriental feeling-mysticism; Matthew from the aspect
        > of the western knowledge of the world.
        >
        > The union of the 2 streams, as shown in Luke´s story of the 12 year
        > old Jesus in the temple, seems like an apocalyptic anticipation of the
        > announcement of the fall into sin and the separation of the sexes.
        >
        > Since wisdom was not united with love as in the beginning, Christ was
        > able to express the highest spiritual secrets in the simplest pictures.
        > These appealed to the feelings of the east as well as to the
        > understanding of the west. His body had the purest blood and the most
        > perfect brain. The Zarathustra individuality worked on this brain as
        > Rudolf Steiner vividly described during his 12 year sojourn in the
        > Solomon child, and then continued and completed this work during the
        > following 18 years in the Luke body.
        >
        > Many apocryphal books hint at the mystery of the 2 Jesus boys. Rudolf
        > Steiner called our attention to this. Thus in the Gospel of the
        > Egyptians it is said: "to Salome´s question, when will the 2 become
        > one and the exterior like the interior."
        >
        > The BOOK OF ZOHAR contains the following passage: "The son of David and
        > the son of Joseph are two, not one another Messiah, the son of Joseph,
        > will unite himself with the Messiah, the son of David."
        >
        > In the very early Christian document called THE TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE
        > PATRIARCHS, at the close of the testament of Simeon, we read: "A lord
        > out of Levi will awake a high priest and out of Judah a king, God and
        > man."
        >
        > The PISTIS SOPHIA, a Gnostic writing preserved in the Coptic language,
        > says: "The divine lordliness will dwell in our land, grace and truth
        > will meet one another, righteousness and peace will kiss one another."
        >
        > The Essene documents also confirm what Rudolf Steiner said, Matthew
        > describes the jesus who stems from the kingly Davidic line; Luke the
        > Jesus who stems from the priestly line of Nathan. That the first must be
        > the liegeman of the second, i.e. must unite himself with him, in order
        > to pave the way for the Mystery of the epiphany, the Baptism in Jordan,
        > is made quite clear in the Essene books and is repeatedly mentioned by
        > the students of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
        >
        > THE TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
        >
        > The most mysterious figure in the Qumran documents is the Teacher of
        > Righteousness, also known as God´s Elect. How can we identify this
        > teacher, who is never called by a personal name?
        >
        > Perhaps we should first identify the wicked priest, which is an easier
        > task even if there is no unanimity among the students of the subject.
        > Several suggestions have been made, but no one seems to fit the
        > requirements as well as Alexander Jannaeus, who ruled as king from 103
        > to 76 B.C. His Jewish name, Jonathan, was shortened to Yannai in late
        > Hebrew and was written in Greek as Jannaeus or Janneus. His assumption
        > of the title of king was regarded as a breach of faith toward the House
        > of David. As to his being the wicked priest, he not only fits the
        > chronological necessities but his character and reputation were
        > suitable. Burrows remarks: "He is qualified for the role on several
        > points, including drunkenness, luxery, immorality, love of riches,
        > sickness and final punishment by his enemies." (175) Professor John
        > Marco Allegro of the University of Manchester strongly concurs in this
        > indentification.
        >
        > If Alexander Jannaeus was the wicked priest, who was the Teacher of
        > Righteousness? Burrows discusses a number of possibilities. Flavius
        > Josephus spoke of a certain Eleazar (called Judah ben Jebediah in the
        > Talmud) who rebuked John Hyrcanus (ruled 135 104 B.C.), and he also
        > described an Essene named Judah who preached against Aristobulus I
        > (rules 104-103 B.D.). Furthermore, both Josephus and the Talmud tell of
        > a righteous man named Onias, who was stoned in 65 B.C. under Aristobulus
        > II. All these and many more have been ruled out on one ground or
        > another, and we are left with nobody who is acceptable to any
        > considerable number of scholars (Burrows 185).
        >
        > The philologists have shown that THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT, by speaking of
        > the Teacher as still alive, implies that his violent death took place
        > about the year 100 B.C., i.e. in the early years of the reign of
        > Alexander Jannaeus. This date and the person of Alexander are accepted
        > by most of the scientists as closely connected with the anonymous
        > Teacher of Righteousness. This is as far as the consensus goes.
        >
        > In the lectures in Berne on the Gospel of St. Matthew in 1910, Rudolf
        > Steiner raised the veil that obscured this problem. He distinguished
        > carefully between the inspirer ant the inspired. The former was of
        > purely spiritual nature, while the latter was an earthly instrument of
        > flesh and blood.
        >
        > The spiritual leader had the rank of a Bodhisattva. When, in ancient
        > India, the Prince Gautama, son of King Sudhodana, ascended from
        > Bodhisattva to Buddha, he selected from a number of other leaders the
        > one who would be the next to attain the rank of Buddha. This new
        > Bodhisattva had the task of acting as the spiritual leader of the
        > Essenes and the related Therapeutae.
        >
        > At this point Rudolf Steiner gave a historical clue that tallies as to
        > names and dates in a remarkable way with details already well known to
        > the modern students of Qumran. He said: "This Bodhisattva sent, as it
        > were, for the leadership of the Essenes under the reign of King
        > Alexander Jannaeus, a special person into the Essene communities. This
        > person is well known in occultism, and also in the external Talmudic
        > literature, under the name of Jesus ben Pandira. We must regard him as a
        > person standing under the protection of the Bodhisattva who was the
        > successor of the Buddha."
        >
        > Thus we must distinguish between the human personality of Jesus ben
        > Pandira (who was accused of blasphemy, stoned, and hanged upon a tree
        > about 100 B.C.) and his divine patron, the Bodhisattva who inspired him
        > and who will be known in the future as the Maitreya Buddha. This
        > explains why the documents never mention a personal name. Emphasizing
        > the divine rank of the leader, they speak of him always with the
        > recurring formula of "Teacher of Righteousness" or "God´s Elect."
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner adds: "No clairvoyant faculties are needed in order to
        > say something about Jesus ben Pandira, to assert that he existed. Anyone
        > who wishes can read about him in Hebrew sources such as the Talmud. He
        > has frequently been confused with the true Jesus, even as early as the
        > second century A.D."
        >
        > Rudolf Steiner repeatedly stressed thqt Jesus ben Pandira was in no way
        > identical with Jesus of Nazareth. He stood under the special guidance of
        > the Bodhisattva, one of those spiritual leaders who continually
        > incarnate in order to prepare men to understand the Christ (who
        > incarnated only once in an earthly body, remaining from the Baptism in
        > Jordan until Golgotha). In the years when Rudolf Steiner was lecturing
        > on the Gospel of Matthew, this circumstance played a part in the unhappy
        > conflict that culminated in his exclusion from the Theosophical Society.
        > Annie Besant was one of those who erroneously identified Jesus ben
        > Pandira with the Christ.
        >
        > Modern theology may be committing similar errors in the face of the new
        > manuscripts found at Qumran. Thus Andre Dupont-Sommer, one of the
        > principle writers in this field, speaks of Christ as an astonishing
        > "reincarnation" of the Essene Teacher of Righteousness. Others attempt
        > to show that early Christianity was an uninterrupted continuation of the
        > pre-Christian Essene comminities.
        >
        > When we note that Rudolf Steiner so carefully pointed out that the
        > personality of Jesus ben Pandira can be grasped without occult
        > knowledge, merely by studying the ancient sources, we must wonder
        > whether anything could be more prophetic for the Qumran finds in our
        > time. The documents seem to challenge us to take a fresh look at the
        > originality of Rudolf Steiner´s work, and to measure it against the
        > problems and riddles that are not becoming apparent.
        >
        > "It is completely incomprehensible", says Wilhelm Kelber, "that the
        > scholars have not given more attention to the figure of Jesus ben
        > Pandira in the Talmud. They have often used the Talmud to elucidate
        > historical passages in the Dead Sea Scrolls. It has even been debated
        > whether another man whose stoning is described in the Talmud, Onias the
        > Just, was the Teacher of Righteousness. But Jesus ben Pandira has been
        > ignored, although Emil Bock has reconstructed his biography on the basis
        > of the Talmud. True, the Essene writings speak of the decisive encounter
        > between the Teacher of Righteousness and his adversaries as occurring on
        > the Day of Atonement, whereas the Talmud asserts that Jesus ben Pandira
        > was executed on the day before the Passover. But this is not fatal,
        > because the Talmud also says that Jesus ben Pandira was imprisoned for
        > some time before his execution, and this imprisonment may well have
        > lasted from the autumn of one year to the spring of the next year."
        >
        > This significance of the newly found Essene writings was neatly summed
        > up by Rudolf Steiner half a century ago, when he said: "The most
        > important teachings available to mankind in order to grasp the Christ
        > event came from the communities of the Therapeutae and Essenes. Jesus,
        > son of Pandira, who selected to let himself be inspired, by the
        > Bodhisattva who would later beome the Maitreya Buddha, with teachings
        > that could make the Mystery of Christ understandable."
        >
        > NAZARENES AND NAZARETH
        >
        > In cultural history there are occasional coincidences that must be
        > heeded by the historian. We have in mind cases where the discovery of
        > documents suddenly drawn out attention to something in the past and
        > seems to demand that we examine this with new forces of consciousness.
        >
        > As Novalis was writing his "Lehrlinge zu Sais" and presenting the
        > Madonna mystery in the form of Isis-Sophia, the Rosetta Stone was
        > discovered, the deciphering of the hieroglyphics was made feasible, and
        > Egyptology was inaugurated as a new branch of science.
        >
        > At the end of the last century, scholars were beginning to decipher the
        > cuneiform texts of the epic of Gilgamesh and to make it the subject of
        > learned expositions. Nowadays the epic is known everywhere and is
        > mentioned in every course on ancient history, but in 1910, when Rudolf
        > Steiner began to discuss it, there was still much controversy about it
        > among the orientalists.
        >
        > Until quite recently only a bold scholar would refer to the Essenes in
        > expounding biblical texts. In this respect Rudolf Steiner showed the way
        > very early in the century. A document of the Essene community in
        > Damascus had been discovered in 1896. This was published in 1910 and is
        > now known as THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. Although it excited interest in only
        > the narrowest professional circles, it hardly seems accidental that it
        > should be published at the same time, even in the same year, that Rudolf
        > Steiner was putting the finishing touches on his exposition of the
        > riddles of Essensism.
        >
        > It was in September of 1910, in Berne, that Rudolf Steiner gave his
        > lectures on the Gospel of Matthew, in which he discussed the problem of
        > the great Essene teacher. As though in preparation for this, he had
        > given in Berlin, a year earlier, 3 lectures on "Some Deeper Secrets of
        > Human Development in the Light of the Gospel of Matthew". In these
        > lectures he pointed to the Nazarenes.
        >
        > The Nazarenes were a sect of earlier origin than the Essenes. In strict
        > asceticism, they refrained from meat and wine. They had clairvoyant
        > capacities in respect to the date of Christ´s approach. The last of
        > the great Nazarenes was John the Baptist.
        >
        > John spoke of the coming of the Lamb. He called the Pharisees and
        > Sedducees the children of the serpent (generation of vipers). Rudolf
        > Steiner stressed the significance of these words. All earlier knowledge,
        > resting on ancient inspiration, had been instilled into men by Luciferic
        > beings. John, however, wa aware of the change. Man was no longer to
        > remain children of the serpent.
        >
        > The Pharisees and Sadducees adhered to the letter of the law. They
        > wanted to remain children of the serpent.
        >
        > Two streams were at work in the ancient Hebrew people: the development
        > of capacities based on the purity of the blood, and the observance of
        > the law. The Pharisees clung to the law given on Sinai, whereas the
        > Nazarenes worked on the blood stream. This brought them into
        > collaboration with the Essenes.
        >
        > The Nazarenes had existed before the Essenes, who continued the movement
        > in a far stricter form. The Essenes became a bud on the tree, a "living
        > branch" (netzer in Hebrew) in the pure line of successive generations.
        > Those pupils among the Essenes who cultivated this special approach were
        > called "netzers".
        >
        > Jesus ben Pandira had 5 principle pupils, whose names were Matthai,
        > Maki, Netzer, Boni, and Toda. The Talmud text agrees with Rudolf Steiner
        > in this respect. Netzer expanded the doctrines that had long been
        > cultivated among the Nazarenes. He founded an Essene colony, which was
        > named Nazareth after him.
        >
        > The Jesus described in the Gospel of Matthew was brought to Nazareth
        > after the return to Egypt, "that it might be fulfilled which was spoken
        > by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene" (2:23). Rudolf Steiner
        > threw a great deal of light on this passage. It was necessary that Jesus
        > should grow up in an Essene colony. Here in Nazareth Jesus found the
        > Essene stream of the Netzers that was his needed historical background,
        > and thereby he came into contact with the Nazarene John.
        >
        > In lectures given in Oslo (THE FIFTH GOSPEL) from 1 to 6 October, 1913
        > (especially in the fifth lecture), Rudolf Steiner described how the
        > Essenes imparted to the young Jesus, as a sort of "visiting fellow", all
        > the wisdom of their initiates; and how John was a sort of lay brother
        > among them. Jesus and John were intimately connected with the Essenes,
        > but did not themselves become Essenes or partake in ascetic training and
        > monastic exclusiveness. The Essenes regarded them as the instruments and
        > witnesses of the Messianic expectations.
        >
        > It may have been precisely at Qumran, that Jesus of Nazareth, before the
        > Baptism in Jordan, experienced the onesided asceticism of monastic life
        > as the last consequences of the Buddhist-Indian path. He saw the two
        > adversary powers, Lucifer and Ahriman, fleeing from the Essene
        > cloisters, but he sensed that their influence among other people,
        > outside the cloisters, was not impai

        (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
      • Nina
        ... language, says: The divine lordliness will dwell in our land, grace and truth will meet one another, righteousness and peace will kiss one another. now
        Message 3 of 4 , May 4, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          --- In anthroposophy@yahoogroups.com, "carol" <organicethics@...> wr
          > Out of curiosity yesterday, I opened a window at the archives of
          > unclassified lectures (no GA attachment) and chose the first.....
          >
          > The PISTIS SOPHIA, a Gnostic writing preserved in the Coptic
          language, says: "The divine lordliness will dwell in our land, grace
          and truth will meet one another, righteousness and peace will kiss
          one another." now known as THE DAMASCUS DOCUMENT. Although it excited
          interest in only the narrowest professional circles, it hardly seems
          accidental that itshould be published at the same time, even in the
          same year, that Rudolf Steiner was putting the finishing touches on
          his exposition of theriddles of Essensism.
          > It was in September of 1910, in Berne, that Rudolf Steiner gave his
          > lectures on Daniel´s vision of Michael must be compared with the
          apocryphal stories about Joseph. These latter are connected with the
          influence ofthe Archangel Michael....
          > In this apocryphal text a recurring formula speaks of "eating of the
          > blessed bread of life and drinking from the sanctified cup of
          > immortality." Joseph prays to God that Aseneth may be blessed by
          > participating in this sacred ceremonial meal. Then the Archangel
          Michael appears and says to Aseneth as she is partaking of the
          heavenly honeycomb proffered to her: "See, thou hast eaten of the
          bread of life and drunk from the cup of immortality." Before laying
          the heavenly honeycomb in Aseneth´s mouth, Michael has himself eaten
          thereof. Then he turns to Aseneth and says: "This honeycomb is the
          spirit of life, made by the bees of Paradise out of the dew on the
          roses of life that stand in God´s Paradise. The angels eat thereof,
          and all God´s Elect and all the sons of the highest. No one who eats
          thereof will ever die."
          > Riessler points out that this legend originated among the Essenes
          andrefers to their ceremonial meal. Among the Essenes at Qumran, only
          men partook of this meal. But the Aseneth legend speaks of the
          Therapeutae who, according to Philo, allowed women to share the meal.
          > As this Michael legend of Joseph and Aseneth is connected with the
          > Therapeutae of Egypt, so the newly found Qumran texts are connected
          with the Essenes of Palestine, who were notorious warriors of Michael.

          Dear Carol,
          Yes, TREASURES - found earlier also - thanks to Sheila for
          placing them on this list. Was familiar with "Joseph and Aseneth"
          from Cayce-oriented research(Am very interested in the rich symbolism
          enclosed in the account).Wish had seen this material before took
          apocalypse class - would have been much better understood. NINA

          Sheila also shared this about PISTIS SOPHIA: (message #2591)

          Lecture 3
          of three lectures given at Dornach 31 December 1915 - 2 January 1916
          under "MEDITATIONS ON THE NEW YEAR"
          Perceiving and Remembering by Rudolf Steiner
          2 January 1916
          Let us think of the human etheric body as it is connected with the
          physical body. We shall sketch it thus:
          representing it entirely diagramatically, and we shall sketch the
          physical body as a kind of rind of the etheric body, though it must
          be understood that in reality it interpenetrates the whole human
          etheric body, except the most external part of the latter. Let this
          then be the etheric and physical body, and there, belonging to them,
          as is understood, in the whole system of man, his astral body and
          ego. Let us now recall that the etheric body of man naturally
          consists of the different kinds of ether which we have learnt to
          distinguish. We recognize these as consisting of warmth-
          <-------outer ether ether, light-ether, chemical-ether [by which the
          music of the spheres is communicated] and life-ether.

          Let us turn our attention to the light-ether. It is true that the
          whole etheric body consists of an inner blend - an inwardly organised
          blend of the four kinds of ether, but we shall only consider today
          that part of the ether body which is light-ether; and in order to fix
          our attention on that part of the etheric body which we call the
          light-ether, we have sketched it above.

          Now I have often said that man really only gains consciousness of
          things from being actually within them with his ego and soul being.
          It is in the daytime, when we are awake, that the astral body and ego
          are within the physical and etheric bodies; one may add, as regards
          that part of them which is not within things. Keeping this in view we
          say that we have sense perceptions. The cause of this is that the
          human ego and astral body first receive a revelation of things, and
          this revelation which remains unconscious, is then reflected on the
          instruments of the senses and their nerve extensions in the physical
          body. This has often been explained.

          Now we shall inquire today: How does memory come about? How is it
          that we have remembrance of many things, of objects and experiences
          that we have passed through? How does it come to pass that we have
          memory?

          Take this case. We meet a man today, whom we first saw five days ago.
          We remember that we saw him five days ago, that we spoke with him,
          that he told us his name. We say: we recognize this man. What is it
          that really takes place in us when we thus remember a man and our
          former meeting with him?

          This is what occurs; the first thing we have to take into
          consideration is this, that when we met the man five days ago our
          etheric body experienced certain movements. It is the light part of
          the etheric body that we are now considering; of course, the other
          members of the etheric body - the heat, chemical and life parts also
          vibrate in sympathy, but it is the light part that we are considering
          today; I will speak of it therefore as the light-body. Our etheric
          body, then, experienced certain movements, for the thoughts evoked by
          the man whom we met, revealed themselves within ur light-body as
          movements - as inner light-movements; so that apart from our having
          perceived the man with our senses, we received impressions [not
          communicated through the senses] that gave rise to movements in our
          light-body. Thus the whole result of our meeting with the man
          consisted in our light-body experiencing all kinds of movements.
          Picture this vividly to yourselves. While you stood before the man
          and spoke to him, your etheric light-body was in continual movement.
          While you stood before the man and spoke to him, your etheric light-
          body was in continual movement. What you said to him, what you felt
          and thought regarding him, is all disclosed in the movements of your
          light-body. When, several days after, you see this man again, the
          fresh sight of him stirs your soul, and this movement causes your
          etheric body, purely because of its laws of continuity, to reproduce
          the movements it experienced five days before, when you met the man
          and exchanged thoughts with him. Very well, we encounter this man
          again after five days. The etheric light-body, stirred by this
          meeting, experiences again the same movements which it did at the
          first meeting; and because man is always with part of his astral body
          and ego in the outer ether, he feels the movements which stir the
          outer ether, and thus because of its law of continuity [or
          persistence] he again becomes aware of what he experienced
          previously. We have really to picture to ourselves, that during the
          waking state we are both with our ego and astral body within the
          outer light-ether; sleep ony consists in that part of the astral body
          and ego, which during the day, when we are awake, is within the
          physical and etheric body, also withdrawing into the outer ether.
          Remembrance is this: the perception from the outer ether of inner
          etheric movements; the perception from the outer light-ether of
          movements in the inner light-body: that is, to remember.

          Suppose, for example, that you see two men meet each other. Perhaps
          the one merely sees the face of the other, but because of this
          certain movements arise in his etheric body. Then he goes his way.
          The etheric body retains the tendency to repeat these movements if
          stirred to do so. Five days later these two men meet again. They
          perceive each other, the one whose light-body is stirred to make the
          same movements which it made when he saw the other's face before.
          This is expressed in his cocsciousness when he says: I have seen this
          face before. That is: consciousness perceives the inner movements of
          the light-ether from the light-ether. This is remembrance purely as
          an act of perception. We can say: in the external light one perceives
          the movements taking place in the inner light-body. But we do not see
          them as light movements. Why do we not see them thus in ordinary
          life? We do not see them as light movements, because this light-ether
          body is seated within the physical body, and therefore the movements
          of the light-ether impinge everywhere on the physical body. Through
          these impacts, the light movements of the etheric body are
          transformed into memory pictures. These light movements are not
          perceptible, it is only through what the memory presents to us
          through contact with the physical body that we are aware of them.

          When the physical body is not there, that is when the body has passed
          through the gates of death, the ego and astral body are naturally at
          first far more intensely within the outer ether, till after a few
          days they leave the outer ether. The inner light-ether is then no
          longer stirred by impacts on the physical body to conceptions that
          are only possible in the physical body. Therefore the dead see
          everything that they have experienced, which the etheric body, now
          freed from the physical body and no longer restrained by it, throws
          off and allows to pass before it. During the first few days after
          death man sees everything pass before him; for the etheric has the
          tendency continually to repeat and to reproduce from within itself
          all those movements which the experiences of the physical body had at
          one time aroused in it. The man's whole life passes before him, set
          in motion by the vibrations of the ether body. It is seen projected
          as a mighty picture - one may say that all the etheric movements
          reflect, as in a panorama, the life just passed on earth.

          If it were possible for us always so to control the physical body is
          we could make ourselves so independent of it - not letting it disturb
          us - that the etheric body also were set free [as can be done by
          certain meditations connected with the process described in my
          book "Knowledge of Higher Worlds" it might be that even in life we
          might see, not the results of memory - not what arises through the
          impact of the etheric body on the physical body, but the actual
          swayings and movements of the etheric body itself. We should be then
          in the outer ether and look at the movements of our light-body.

          Why can we not do this in ordinary life? Why in ordinary life does it
          happen tht when Miss A meets Mr. B, for example, and recognises him;
          she remembers him - that is, she recalls the memory-picture of him,
          but she does not in ordinary circumstances, leaving clairvoyance out
          of the question, see what she otherwise could: the inner movements of
          her ether body which would give her the inner experience: 'Thus has
          my etheric body always been stirred on meeting Mr. B' Light would
          then perceive light, that is, the outer world perceive the inner -
          because the astral body and ego of Miss A would perceive the tendency
          to continual movement of her own light-body, and would know how to
          interpret them so as to say: 'These are the movements my light-body
          always experiences when I meet Mr. B.' The phenomenon would then
          occur, that through dwelling in the ether - which is what we are
          always doing with a large part of our ego and astral body - through
          dwelling in the ether, through perceiving the weaving and flowing in
          the light-ether, we see our own little organised etheric body with
          its movements. We perceive light by the light, the light that is
          ourselves. Why can this not be done in ordinary life? Why is it that
          we first perceive the results of the impacts of the etheric body on
          the physical body?

          It is because Ahriman and Lucifer are bound up with the earthly
          world, because Ahriman has shackled the physical body so firmly to
          the whole being of man, that the etheric body cannot easily free
          itself; because he has so densely compressed the physical body to the
          etheric body; and because the spirits tht serve Ahriman are always
          present, they bring it to pass tht when man is in the light, his
          light-body with its movements are darkened, so that he cannot behold
          them. Demons continually keep the light-body of man in darkness. This
          is because the organisation of the physical body and etheric body is
          brought about by Ahriman. We can therefore say [and I shall write
          this sentence on the blackboard, for it is of great
          importance]: "When from out of and by light the human soul is capable
          of observing what takes place in its own light-body, it has liberated
          itself from the Ahrimanic forces which otherwise obscure what takes
          place therein.'

          What might a soul wishing to attain this long and pray for? It might
          thus address certain powers that are in the spiritual world and which
          it recognizes.

          'Oh, ye Powers in the spiritual world, let me in my physical body be
          conscious in the world of Light, let me be in the Light so as to
          perceive my own light-body, and let not the power of the Ahrimanic
          forces be too strong for me, so as to prevent me from beholding what
          takes place in my light-body.'

          Once more I will repeat what a soul by whom these Powers are to some
          extent recognised in the spiritual world, might say in longing, in a
          kind of prayer:

          'Oh, ye Powers, let me consciously, in the light, from out of and by
          the light behold the occurrences within my own light-body; weaken and
          take away the power of the Ahrimanic forces which obscure them. Let
          me consciously by the light perceive my own light, and remove the
          force that hinders me from seeing the light from out of and by the
          light.'

          What I have just repeated to you is not simply an invented prayer,
          but it was thus that Christ taught those to pray who were able to
          understand Him after He had passed through the Mystery of Golgotha,
          during that time when He still lingered among His most intimate
          disciples.

          This belonged to the understanding, to the Gnostic understanding that
          such disciples of Christ could still evoke at that time and which, as
          I have explained to you, disappeared about the time in which the
          Mystery of Golgotha took place.

          Those souls which were so intimately associated with the Christ could
          raise their eyes to this power - who for them was the Christ - and
          pray Him that it might be possible for them by the light to perceive
          their own light-essence; pray Him to restrain the opposing Powers of
          Ahrimanic nature, that their vision might not be obscured and
          darkened, and that they might see the light-movements of their light-
          body. These things were learnt by the intimate disciples of Jesus
          Christ during the time I have indicated. They were well aware how all
          things I have mentioned were brought about, and were instructed in
          all these matters during the time that Christ held intercourse with
          them after the Mystery of Golgotha.

          Among the fragments that remain of ancient Gnostic wisdom I have
          mentioned the Pistis-Sophia script. I shall now read yu an extract
          from it as follows:

          'I will extol thee, O Light, for I desire to come to thee.'

          'I will extol Thee, for Thou art my Saviour.'

          'Leave me not in chaos (when I am withdrawn from the physical body).
          Leave me

          not in chaos, O Light of Heaven, for it is Thou whom I have
          glorified.'

          'Thou hast endowed me with thy Light and saved me; Thou hast led me
          to the upper Gods of Chaol (consciously, when out of the physical
          body). May the offspring of evil now be driven out (of Ahriman, but
          Ahriman is not written there), who follow me, and may they sink down
          among the lower Gods of Chaos; and let them not come near the upper
          Gods, that they may behold me. May great darkness cover them and
          black darkness come over them; and do not let them behold me in the
          Light of Thy Power, which Thou hast sent me to save me, so that they
          may not again have power over me. The determination that they have
          made, to take my strength, let it not take effect nor let them
          gainsay me to take from me my light. Take theirs rather than mine.
          They have desired to take away all my light, and have not been able
          to do so, for Thy Light-force was with me. Because they decreed,
          without Thy command, to take away my light, Thou has not allowed them
          to take it. Because I have believed in the Light I shall not fear.
          The Light is my Saviour, I shall not be afraid.'

          When we fear, we must think of Ahriman as we saw him in one of the
          Mystery Plays.

          Look at this fragment of the Pistis-Sophia. Does it not appear as if
          it had been saved on purpose to enable us to speak somewhat as
          follows: Behold, you opponents of the new Spiritual Science. Does not
          this new Spiritual Science say: that by the light the light-movements
          of the light-body can be seen, when the opposing Ahrimanic demons do
          not prevent it. There was once a time when this was already known;
          and the Pistis-Sophia presents a physical evidence of that time. For
          what I have read to you relly speaks of nothing else than that power
          that I have interpreted for you from the activities of the light-
          body, and the sojourning of the soul within this light-body. It is
          not possile to understand this fragment of the Pistis-Sophia unless
          you understand what I have just explained to you. Therefore those who
          come across this script of the Pistis-Sophia and attempt to read it
          have to admit to themselves that they do not understand it at all.
          They are not humble enough to be able to do so.

          This is something, however, that we must possess - this humility,
          this great modesty as regards the things contained in it, so that we
          feel constrained to say to ourselves: 'Here is a fragment of the
          Pistis-Sophia, which says, "I will extol Thee, O Light! for I desire
          to draw near unto Thee. I will extol Thee, O Light, for Thou art my
          Saviour." Reading it thus I do not understand it' - but one must have
          such humility, such modesty, that one will not desire to understand
          it until one has called forth in one's self the possibility of
          understanding it. It is precisely in our age that such humility is
          hardly to be found. The explorers who discover such writings among
          ruins and wreckage are frequently the least endowed with this
          modesty. They either explain what they find in the most trivial way
          saying, 'The light spoken of here is a nebulous conception intended
          to be taken allegorically.' Or else they say: 'Those who wrote this
          long ago were at a childish stage of human evolution; we have made
          splendid progress since then! [You will remember what I said of this
          yesterday] We have indeed made such magnificent progress that it is
          easy for us to realise that these forefathers of ours with all their
          wisdom, were but at a childish stage.' It is not so much a question
          in our day of not being able to understand, but above all that we
          cannot so easily come by a certain attitude of soul, which is
          necessary if spiritual knowledge is really to be attained.

          This attitude of soul is that which existed in the Mysteries, and it
          consisted in a man's developing within him the feeling that it is not
          possible for a matter to be understood without first preparing the
          soul for it - without preparing ourself for the understanding of it.
          In our day a far more prevalent attitude of soul is that a clever man
          [and in his own opinion every grown man is very clever today] that
          the clever man can form an opinion regarding any matter. But the
          world is profound; and all that is connected with the hidden things
          of the world is also profound. Because of this belief in his own
          cleverness which every grown man has today, he simply ignores the
          most profound problems of the world; and when these mysteries are
          mentioned or written about they are treated with scorn, are flung
          aside into the obscurest corner and labelled - fanaticism and
          superstition, or even worse.

          It is needful to see these facts clearly, for it is very important to
          recognize how at present those who do not desire to understand,
          spread scorn and derision on all that can only be reached by a soul
          that has first prepared itself with meekness and humility - with
          meekness and humility as regards knowledge. It is not only the
          knowledge of spiritual truths that is primarily wanting in our time,
          but rather that attitude of soul whch shows true striving after
          knowledge.

          The world now knows, however, that there are a few men - who will be
          more and more numerous - who recognise this very clearly, and note
          carefully and with interest, that therein lies the main driving force
          of true progress. One must first know what must hjappen and recognise
          clearly and without any illusion,that those who have already covered
          all true effort after knowledge with scorn and ridicule will attempt
          to interfere with everything that still has to enter into the
          spiritual development of mankind. It is now sought to fill mankind
          from childhood with materialistic ideas. This materialistic training
          lords it even over the tender souls of your children; materialistic
          schools are forced upon them, which, less through the content of
          their teaching than through their whole nature, imbue the children's
          souls with materialism.

          In accordance with the illusion of the times, people veil this
          domination by saying: This is demanded by the age of liberty and
          freedom! What people call freedom in the age of materialism is the
          very opposite of all freedom; but things are so arranged that people
          hardly notice it. Those who have some insight into how things are do
          no more than combat this bondage by that which must be forbidden,
          others again cast sheep's eyes at those in power and seize in their
          grasp everything that ought to be as free as the flowers that grow in
          the fields.

          It is necessary that we should possess that really fine attitude of
          mind that can only come from Spiritual Science. Then before all else
          it is clear to us that what should be inculcated during the tender
          years of childhood into the human soul, is not to be found on the
          path followed by the methods of thought of the outer materialism of
          today. We must not allow ourselves to be deceived by words, this we
          must understand. Further, it is necessary that we should free
          ourselves from the whole 'aura' of prejudice met with everywhere;
          that we should feel truly within us that attention of mind which
          springs from Spiritual Science and frequently ask ourselves what is
          within our souls from the whole essence of Spiritual Science and what
          is to be found there merely because we have received those forces of
          thought prevalent in the world today?

          Perhaps as yet we can do nothing in our age to stem the course of the
          unfree materialistic tone of the day. But at least we must learn to
          feel it a bondage . Here it is that a beginning must be made. We must
          not e taken by illusion. For, if the world proceeds in its evolution
          according to the wishes of this materialistic impulse we shall
          gradually enter an evolution in which not only will anyone be
          forbidden to do anything for the health of humanity unless he is
          certificated, but no one will be allowed to say a word regarding
          science of any kind, except one who has taken a vow to speak only of
          such things as are patented with the stamp of the materialistic order
          of thought. At present the constraint of the things forbidden is not
          much felt. But a time is coming when, just as every effort for the
          healing of mankind that is not stamped and certificated will be
          forbidden, so every word will be forbidden that is said otherwise
          than in the form patented and guaranteed by the materialistic powers.

          If people do not perceive the whole course of what is coming about,
          they will enter full-sail into this future 'freedom.' This will
          consist in promulgated laws forbidding people to teach differently
          from what is taught in a recognized school. Everything will be
          forbidden that recalls in the most distant way what, for instance, is
          taking place amongst us here. Because people do not see how the
          course of evolution is tending, they do not realize this.

          It is true very little can be done in our day; but in our thoughts we
          must make a beginning by realising the trend of events - wherever we
          can, we must make a beginning. No matter ow such remarks as these are
          received, I had to give expression to them at this turning point of
          the year; for the Festival of the New Year is a kind of sign marking
          the progress of time generally; and at this season we can best be
          made aware of what is contained in time as it runs its course. It
          cannot be sufficiently, or too frequently impressed on you, how
          dependent man is today on the opinions that whirl around him - what
          whirl about more especially when they are made permanent with foul
          printers' ink in the newspapers, and this printers' ink possesses
          infinitely active magical powers as regards all that is believed by
          people throughout the world. It is interesting to note what takes
          place when these gentlemen are not quite united among themselves. For
          then there occurs what overwhelms all thinking souls, things called
          into being by this black printers' ink which work dreadful magic in
          the masses of mankind today. Naturally there are always some who
          believe hat one paper says, and other again who hold as irrefutable
          what is scribbled in another paper. They are divided among
          themselves. It is thus easy to see where the real fault and blame
          should lie. I will not say much on the subject, myself. You can read
          in Dr. Ed. Engel's book on the "Psychology of Newspaper Readers: what
          he has to say on this matter. He says, 'The reader of newspapers is a
          much muddled person. His countless valuable qualities disappear
          behind two: He believes everything and he forgets everything. On
          these two principal qualities, possessed by all newspaper readers, is
          founded the secret of the daily press as it exists oday. Most people
          read but one paper, and believe what they see there. Their ideas
          regarding the world in the evening are the creation of what they read
          in the morning. When they meet other people who have read other
          papers and who put forward their opinions, they consider them either
          mad or paradoxical. Newspaper editors thoroughly understand the soul
          of their readers, they nurse the beliefs of their readers with tender
          care. A newspaper never brings to the mass of its readers a proof of
          what it has to communicate; even in the not uncommon case of a false
          presentation of facts having led to the publication of something
          completely foolish, they defend themselves, sheltering themselves
          behind the infallibility of their paper. They are, of course, obliged
          to publish the truth a few days later. The second quality of their
          readers, that of forgetfulness, then comes in usefully!'

          When we come to think what a power newspapers have in the 19th
          century and the large share the belief in them has had in the decline
          of our culture, it is quite time the whole wretched business was put
          clearly before you. What often depresses one is, that the method of
          communication what we have chosen, and which should be a very
          different one, has to be preserved by printing. This indeed cannot be
          otherwise, for the Black Art is present there, and the White Art must
          of course reckon with this Black Art which finds expression in
          printed matter. We must have books, and lectures, but we ought to be
          awake to the fact that care must be taken that things which are now
          entrusted to print should not be cast abroad in the world in the same
          way as that which whirls through the minds of mankind on the wings of
          the newspapers of today.

          I wish to make you realise that this is a serious matter. That is why
          I have permitted myself to join these observations to what I said
          today and yesterday in connection with great mysteries of existence,
          such as that of the human Earth-year, and the possibility of
          beholding the Light by man by the Light.

          [FINI]
        • holderlin66
          Nina brought: Those souls which were so intimately associated with the Christ could raise their eyes to this power - who for them was the Christ - and pray
          Message 4 of 4 , May 4, 2008
          • 0 Attachment

            "Nina"  brought:

            "Those souls which were so intimately associated with the Christ could
            raise their eyes to this power - who for them was the Christ - and
            pray Him that it might be possible for them by the light to perceive
            their own light-essence; pray Him to restrain the opposing Powers of
            Ahrimanic nature, that their vision might not be obscured and
            darkened, and that they might see the light-movements of their light-
            body. These things were learnt by the intimate disciples of Jesus
            Christ during the time I have indicated. They were well aware how all
            things I have mentioned were brought about, and were instructed in
            all these matters during the time that Christ held intercourse with
            them after the Mystery of Golgotha.

            Among the fragments that remain of ancient Gnostic wisdom I have
            mentioned the Pistis-Sophia script. I shall now read yu an extract
            from it as follows:

            'I will extol thee, O Light, for I desire to come to thee.'

            'I will extol Thee, for Thou art my Saviour.'

            'Leave me not in chaos (when I am withdrawn from the physical body).
            Leave me

            not in chaos, O Light of Heaven, for it is Thou whom I have
            glorified.'

               
            'Thou hast endowed me with thy Light and saved me; Thou hast led me
            to the upper Gods of Chaol (consciously, when out of the physical
            body). May the offspring of evil now be driven out (of Ahriman, but
            Ahriman is not written there), who follow me, and may they sink down
            among the lower Gods of Chaos; and let them not come near the upper
            Gods, that they may behold me. May great darkness cover them and
            black darkness come over them; and do not let them behold me in the
            Light of Thy Power, which Thou hast sent me to save me, so that they
            may not again have power over me. The determination that they have
            made, to take my strength, let it not take effect nor let them
            gainsay me to take from me my light. Take theirs rather than mine.
            They have desired to take away all my light, and have not been able
            to do so, for Thy Light-force was with me. Because they decreed,
            without Thy command, to take away my light, Thou has not allowed them
            to take it. Because I have believed in the Light I shall not fear.
            The Light is my Saviour, I shall not be afraid.'

            When we fear, we must think of Ahriman as we saw him in one of the
            Mystery Plays.

            Look at this fragment of the Pistis-Sophia. Does it not appear as if
            it had been saved on purpose to enable us to speak somewhat as
            follows: Behold, you opponents of the new Spiritual Science. Does not
            this new Spiritual Science say: that by the light the light-movements
            of the light-body can be seen, when the opposing Ahrimanic demons do
            not prevent it. There was once a time when this was already known;
            and the Pistis-Sophia presents a physical evidence of that time. "

            Bradford comments;

            Age of Pisces

            Nice fishing or phishing Nina, nice catch!  How hard it is to find rich explanations of Memory and the Memory Tableau that is understood from NDE or Near Death Experiences.  So my memory reproduces a series of light movements that I expereinced when I encountered this or that karmic or passing person or event.  There were in my etheric body certain movements and our memory... and I have always been bad with names but good with faces.  I can tell you as a Waldorf Teacher, I get a whole class full of kids and each one set up a sounding board stirring of my etheric body.  Eventually the roots of the name that fit the child or the names of friends and companions sink in along with the impression and light stirrings that I can feel in my etheric body.

            I always marvel, I have a wife who has velcro brain for facts, objects, names and people.  I have always had a much looser connection to my etheric and physical body so that my impressions of people and my definitions of people and events, be it ever so humble, resonate and deepen, just like meditation and the ruckshau had done, one feels, and sees the activity of the shimmering of the light in our etheric body, as impressions scintillated through our being.  These impressions aka Memories, these etheric light movements register temperament, fire ethers, water ethers, earth melancholy, air sanguinuity....capturing ether snapshots in the immediate light of encounters and meetings we have depends also on the rich store of impressions, the store of impressions that tell us of melancholy as a rich etheric reality that resonates out to the twinkling stars and roots itself in the operative temperament and elemental beings enslaved in any given individual.  Plegmatic, sanguine or choleric, the human being is never merely one ether, there are always four different mingled ethers with an etheric light movement that has been acquired via an adaptation to Earthly conditions and a fonder relation to one powerful elemental and etheric being over another.

                 

            Empahty and the light of empathy often makes me listen and sense what makes tears come to my eyes.  Now there is a soul light empathy that verges and intersects with a kind of light in the etheric body that resembles the movement of tragedy...  or news that for the time of the meeting envelopes a soul...  But also deepens the relationship, if you have the sympathy and empathy and see and allow as well as understand the depth and type of light impression that passes through the soul...  Yesterday one of our restarurant servers, a particularly upbeat one, always with a smile, a dimple and never depressed, plus an excellent server or waitress in our employ said she had to leave to take care of both her parents who had just both of them encountered extremes of cancer.  For a moment in listening deeply to her, and giving the space to hear what she had to say.... because there in lies the problem of etheric attention span deficit, that most people skim over contents, and have no resonating light experience to travel in various regions or DETECT deeper currents of light and have interest in them with as much interest as they do with well trained superficials and skimming attitudes that never allow time or space enough to really Listen.

            This was part of the Art of Goethean Conversation by Marjorie Spock.  Listening, active listening to the other really and truly allowed all that was brought up in this essay that Nina brought.  Now I would have to reproduce for you some experience of the Art of Goethean Conversation that Marjorie Spock aimed at, but in fact, it was capturing snapshots of deeper etheric currents and insights when you listened or talked together.  Grasping real etheric and astral forces so that a true buffer and a mutual defense against the Ahrimanic was allowed.  There is no such clause or defense in any given conversation today.  In any given conversation someone has to make a more powerful effort to listen and DECTECT deeper insights and colorings, different strata of etheric memory light effects and have some way to connect what we see as light, soul movements and light ether effects into a vocabulary and wider field of definitions and also, that these light observations are flashes, rich flashes where trained intuitions can dive in,  that is the pineal gland and light sensor intuitive thinking appratus dives in below the surface features of events.... and grasps not only emotional fields, but will fields.

              

            For periods of time any and all of us have circles of karmic encounters and rounds of souls in certain phases of our lives which offer the opportunity for us to review the impressions we get and raise them up to our consciousness.  These intimate light readings or lack of ability to loosen the grip of our Ahrimanic prison keepers.... brought Steiner to gasp how Ahriman sought to keep the Light that Spiritual Science offered from taking root in the etheric bodies around him.  As a true scientist he looked over the memory Tableau and how and what locks it out and what opens it up. 

            But Steiner also presented what came to pass in Germany as control of thoughts and ideas, but Steiner wasn't just standing on Ahriman's efforts where he stood but on Ahriman's efforts on into our future.  And Orwell's book had not been published which established, in "1984", in George Orwell's outline of Ahrimanic intentions and the further enveloping political forces of the PNAC  Project for a New Ahrimanic Century and of course the prize, the hollywoodization of the great Ahrimanic Intent, the full Ahrimanic crushing and suffocation of THE LIGHT, the very LIGHT, that Steiner described intimately,  Orwell, the PNAC and The Matrix as well as V for Vendetta and countless other packages, including the idiot Terminator series, all advertised the future Ahrimanic intentions that humanity seems able to skip along and tra la la towards and fail to realize that not even the simplist rich depths of Goethean Conversation can be maintined in the orgy of cowardice and prejudice.

            Here on this list we have written about the AMERO in contrast to the EURO and how the intent is to bankrupt and shrink, and crush the dollar, but also move closer and closer to the control of the slavery of the impulses and desires and economy of everyone by shrinking to desperation the whole world and isolating a 1% who will hold the power to do Ahriman's bidding.  To study Orwell's text and project the robbery of the light and the fall of the intuitions we attain through penetrating the etheric light, the layers of etheric light and nuances, they are called nuances.  Nuances of color, light, depth, quality, accent, gesture, language and ability to express and Speak... all nuances that contain shades of how our etheric bodies capture and remember the richest and minor moments of life we have been drenched in.

            To not understand or avoid knowing that most of humanity are unconscious hidden icebergs, under the surface, like the iceberg that hit the Titanic.  The icebergs are the deceptions, the lies and the popular opinions that strangle the free intuitive light muscles, the ability to be mobile and think through various layers and qualities of light without squirming, lying or fleeing from what things we encounter or rejoice in a celebration of nourishment and light in other things we encounter... means that we sail treacherous seas of human beings who refuse to understand that the tip of the iceberg is certainly not as dangerous as the sub-hidden strata, locked into Ahrimanic and demonic clutches that already lock out vast strata and use of the soul.

            How many, many times have I, on this list railed against an education that infects the child from the outset with horrific and failed insights and suffocates the soul in numb materialism.  I have brought it up a dozen, dozen times.  From 1st grade and earlier to university degree our children might as well have been put in the cellar with the daughter of the Austrian father who was just arrested at a full life cycle of 73 years old.  No, I speak not of the tintillation, but of the image arising in the news and the image of actually promoting our own children to be raped and denied the light, denied the light of day, the light of the Christ and that we, as parents and guardians, well we just let this rape and imprisionment happen.  Hell we openly now let torture happen without blinking an eye.   Steiner saw more of this coming and more cowards just like us growing up unable to press back the horrific Ahrimanic sucking of all life down into a basement hole.

            A 73-year-old man has been arrested in Vienna, Austria after his 42 year-old daughter told police that he kept her locked in a cellar room, repeatedly raped her, and fathered her children.

            The woman told police her father started abusing her when she was 11. Her father kept her locked in a cellar room since August 28, 1984. In the next 24 years, she was continually abused and gave birth to 7 of her father's children, though one died.

            Police have assured the woman that her remaining 3 girls and 3 boys, ranging in age between 5 and 20, will be taken care of. The father has not confessed, but DNA tests will determine his paternity of the children.

            Oh and then Tarjei, our neighbor understands as I understand that certain forces who hate Waldorf Education, Tarjei calls them hole dwellers.  But I had rich arguments about the fact of the Etheric Life Tableau as a fact of spiritual training and actual life experience against the rage that the critics of Steiner imagine and trumphet that there is no spiritual world.

            Tarjei has always to be given credit for having been and remaining a long term warrior to stand up for Michael...and I pull just one little note out of the vast collection of insights that Tarjei has put in the time to resist the various critics that wish to suck the light right out of an orange.

            http://uncletaz.com/at/janfeb04/tablarosa.html

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