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Heart is not a Pump- article {2 of 4}

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    Here is the 2nd of 4 parts of Ralph Marinelli s article. PART 2 The Problem and Its Proposed Solution The problematic situation in cardiovascular physiology
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 20 6:13 PM
      Here is the 2nd of 4 parts of Ralph Marinelli's article.

      PART 2

      The Problem and Its Proposed Solution

      The problematic situation in cardiovascular physiology was
      expressed by Berne and Levy3 who wrote: "The problem of treating
      pulsatile flow through the cardiovascular system in precise
      mathematical terms is virtually insuperable." A fundamental aspect
      of this problem relates to the fact that the major portion of our
      knowledge of cardiac dynamics has been deduced from pressure
      curves. In fact our knowledge of the system has two independent
      sources: experimentally determined facts and logically deduced
      concepts from the pressure propulsion premise. The situation is so
      confusing that some life scientists are considering chaos theory
      and mathematics to try to find the order in the system. It will be
      shown that the chaos derives from a mix of facts and conjectures
      and not from the nature of the phenomenon itself.

      It is our purpose to demonstrate that Borelli's premise is
      incorrect and to propose the concept that the blood is propelled by
      a unique form of momentum. First, the aortic arch does not respond
      as expected if the blood in it were under pressure. The aorta is
      a curved tube; as such it has the basic form of the widely used
      pressure sensitive element of the Bourdon tube gage*. When the
      curved tube of the Bourdon gage is subject to positive pressure, it
      is forced to straighten out as one sees in a garden hose. When
      subject to a negative pressure, the tube's curvature is increased.
      During the systolic ejection (period when blood is ejected from
      ventricle), the aorta's curvature is seen to increase, signifying
      that the aorta is not undergoing a positive pressure, but rather is
      undergoing a negative pressure4. We demonstrate that this negative
      pressure is that associated with the vacuum center of traveling
      vortices of blood. Thus the motion of the aorta, when considered
      as nature's own pressure sensor, contradicts the pressure
      propulsion premise. Of course, the swirling streams of the vortex
      have potential pressure, so any attempt to measure pressure will
      result in a positive pressure reading due to interrupted momenta.
      Movement without applied pressure is movement with momentum, as we
      observe so dramatically in the long leaps of racing cats. It is
      also manifest in nature in flowing water in open streams, traveling
      tornadoes, and jet streams which are actually horizontal spirals of
      air and moisture that can be thousands of miles long and move
      around like meandering rivers in the upper atmosphere. A thrown
      ball in its trajectory also moves without pressure.

      What about the measured blood pressure? The concept under
      consideration here is the well known ratio of force to area:

      pressure = force/area (force per unit area)

      The pressure is an arithmetical ratio derived from the average
      force of the moving blood, and as such, indicates the phenomenon
      of the moving blood indirectly. In a momentum system the pressure
      is a potential while the object is in motion and becomes manifest
      when the velocity is impeded:

      momentum (mass x velocity) = impulse (force x time)

      The blood moves with various velocities in its vortex streams. At
      the moment of impact of an object moving with momentum, the
      velocity decreases while the pressure of a certain magnitude
      appears. Rudolf Steiner, scientist and philosopher, pointed out on
      several occasions that the blood moves autonomously5, and that
      the pressure is not the cause of blood flow but the result of it6.
      The clinicians of old used elaborate methods of describing the
      nature of the arterial pulse and the ictus cordis or the apex beat,
      which is the impulse of the heart against the chest wall. Many
      descriptive terms such as thready pulse of hypovolemic shock,
      collapsing or water-hammer pulse of aortic incompetence and
      `heaving' apical impulse of left ventricular hypertrophy, convey
      the intuitive understanding of the real mechanism of the heart's
      action. An attempt to characterize left ventricular function by
      indices such as the maximal velocity of contraction (Vmax) and the
      maximum change of left ventricular pressure with time (dP/dtmax )
      suggests the felt inadequacy of the simple pressure propulsion

      Flow and Pressure Considerations

      When fluid mass is subject to force in the form of a pressure,
      it will first resist movement because of its inertia and viscosity.
      In a pressure driven system the pressure rises faster than the
      fluid moves; the pressure will peak before the fluid velocity
      peaks. However, when one simultaneously measures pressure and flow
      in the aorta, the peak flow markedly precedes the peak pressure.
      This phenomenon was observed as early as 1860 by Chauveau and
      Lortet and, as reported by McDonald7, it contradicts the law of
      inertia in the pressure propulsion concept. (See Fig. 2.) While
      this phase relationship actually confirms the momentum propulsion
      principle, it nevertheless remained a source of conjecture for a
      considerable period of time in the 1950s until it was `rescued'
      with the help of elaborate mathematical modeling for oscillating

      An observation in favor of the concept of the blood having its
      own momentum was reported by Noble8 in 1968. By simultaneous
      pressure measurements in the left ventricle and the root of the
      aorta of a dog, he demonstrated that the pressure in the left
      ventricle exceeds the aortic pressure only during the first half of
      the systole and that the aortic pressure is actually higher during
      the second half. He found it paradoxical that the ejected blood
      from the ventricle continues into the aorta despite the positive
      pressure gradient. The erroneous concept of left ventricular
      pressure exceeding the aortic pressure during entire systole
      proposed by Wiggers in 1928 is still depicted in many modern texts
      of physiology. (See Fig. 3A and B.) Noble proposed that this type
      of pressure pattern could be a result of momentum flow; however,
      this idea was overshadowed by the edifice of pressure propulsion.

      The concept of pressure propulsion sent physiologists and
      scientists from diverse fields on a crusade that resulted in
      numerous hypotheses and theories about the cardiovascular system
      mechanics. The saying that, "fluid dynamists in the nineteenth
      century were divided into hydraulic engineers who observed what
      could not be explained and mathematicians who explained things that
      could not be observed," still stands true to this very day.
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