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[wikipedia] Curse

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  • N3Xt G-Nation
    A curse (also called execration) is any manner of adversity thought to be inflicted by any supernatural power, such as a spell, a prayer, an imprecation, an
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 10 5:10 AM
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      A curse (also called execration) is any manner of adversity thought to
      be inflicted by any supernatural power, such as a spell, a prayer, an
      imprecation, an execration, magic, witchcraft, a god, a natural force,
      or a spirit.The study of the forms of curses comprise a significant
      proportion of the study of both folk religion and folklore. The
      deliberate attempt to levy curses is often part of the practice of
      magic. In Hindu culture the Fakir is believed to have the power to
      bless and curse[citation needed].Special names for specific types of
      curses can be found in various cultures: * African American voodoo
      presents us with the jinx/haitians and crossed conditions, as well as a
      form of foot track magic, whereby cursed objects are laid in the paths
      of victims and activated when walked over. * Middle Eastern and
      Mediterranean culture is the source of the belief in the evil eye,
      which may be the result of envy but, more rarely, is said to be the
      result of a deliberate curse. In order to be protected from the evil
      eye, a protection item is made from dark blue circular glass, with a
      circle of white around the black dot it the middle, which is reminding
      a human eye. The size of the protective eye item may vary. * German
      people, including the Pennsylvania Dutch speak in terms of hexing (from
      the German word for witchcraft), and a common hex in days past was that
      laid by a stable-witch who caused milk cows to go dry and horses to go
      lame. * Indian people use the word Shaap in Hindi and Marathi; Sabam in
      Tamil.Ancient Greek and Roman cursesGreek and Roman curses were
      somewhat formal and official. Called katadesmoi by the Greeks and
      tabulae defixiones by the Romans, they were written on lead tablets or
      other materials, generally invoked the aid of a spirit (a deity, a
      demon, or one of the dead) to accomplish their aim, and were placed in
      a location considered effective for their activation, such as in a
      tomb, cemetery, or sacred spring or well. In the text of katadesmoi and
      defixiones, the petitioner uttered a prayer or formula that the enemy
      would suffer injury in some specific way, such as theft or loss of
      respect, along with the reason for the curse[citation needed]. The
      Romans, Etruscans, and Greeks in Italy all practiced this custom. They
      buried the curses so well that today we have a body of curse
      inscriptions to tell us how they did it[citation needed]. Celtic
      cursesIn the Celtic world there were also many different forms of
      curses. Some of the most well known from Ireland are Curse stones, Egg
      curses, New Year curses and Milk curses.Curse stones generally involved
      particle stones with the power to curse. One example involved turning a
      stone three times and saying the name of the person you wanted to
      curse.Egg curses are a fertility curse. If you buried/hid eggs on
      someone else's land it was believed you could steal their land's
      fertility and therefore their luck. There are also some well documented
      methods believed to break these curses.New year curses are like egg
      curses. If you took something from someone on the new year you took
      their luck for the year. People used to not clean their house or throw
      out water for this reason. In Munster you can see a similar form in the
      may bush and the stealing of may bushes. Stealing back the item or bush
      is believed to return the luck.Milk curses were curses put on a
      household where the milk from others cows went to yours. Curses in the
      BibleThe first curse in the Bible is put on the serpent by God, "You
      are cursed more than all cattle", (Genesis 3:14). As a result of Adam
      and Eve disobeying God, the ground is also cursed: "Cursed is the
      ground for your sake; in toil you shall eat of it All the days of your
      life." (3:17). Cain is cursed from the earth, "So now you are cursed
      from the earth", (4:11).In the New Testament Paul sees curses as
      central to the meaning of Jesus's crucifixion. In Galatians 3:13 he
      says: "Christ redeems us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse
      for us...". He refers to Deuteronomy: " anyone who is hung on a tree is
      under God's curse." (21:23 RAEDM)Some passages in the Tanakh treat
      curses as being effective techniques; they see a curse as an objective
      reality with real power. However, most sections of the Bible conceive a
      curse to be merely a wish, to be fulfilled by God only when just and
      deserved.According to the Book of Proverbs, an undeserved curse has no
      effect (Proverbs 26:2), but may fall back upon the head of him who
      utters it (Genesis 12:3; Sirach 21:27), or may be turned by God into a
      blessing, as in the case of Balaam (Deuteronomy 23:5).The declaration
      of punishments (Gen. 3:14, 17; 4:11), the utterance of threats
      (Jeremiah 11:3, 17:5; Malachi i. 14), and the proclamation of laws
      (Deut. 11:26-28, 27:15 et seq.) received added solemnity and force when
      conditioned by a curse.In the Bible, cursing is generally
      characteristic of the godless (Ps. 10:7), but may serve as a weapon in
      the mouth of the wronged, the oppressed, and those who are zealous for
      God and righteousness (Judges 9:57; Prov. 11:26, 30:10).A righteous
      curse, especially when uttered by persons in authority, was believed to
      be unfailing in its effect (Gen. 9:25, 27:12; II Kings 2:24; Ecclus.
      Sirach 3:11). One who had received exemplary punishment at the hands of
      God was frequently held up, in cursing, as a terrifying object-lesson
      (Jer. 23: 22), and such a person was said to be, or to have become, a
      curse (II Kings 22:19; Jer. 24:9, 25: 18; Zechariah 8:13). An elaborate
      trial by ordeal for a woman suspected by her husband of adultery is set
      forth in Numbers 5:11-30; this involved drinking a "bitter water that
      brings a curse"; if the woman were guilty, she would suffer miscarriage
      and infertility.It is especially forbidden to curse God (Exodus 22:28),
      parents (Ex. 21:17; Leviticus 20:9; Prov. 20:20, 30: 11), the
      authorities (Ex. 22:28; Eccl. 10:20), and the helpless deaf (Lev.
      19:14). Curses in Rabbinic literatureA number of sections of the Talmud
      show a belief in the power of curses (Berachot 19a, 56a.) In some
      cases, a curse is described as related to the nature of a prayer
      (Ta'an. 23b); an undeserved curse is described as ineffective (Makkot
      11a) and falls back upon the head of him who utters it (Sanhedrin
      49a).Not only is a curse uttered by a scholar unfailing in its effect,
      even if undeserved (Mak. 11a), but one should not regard lightly even
      the curse uttered by an ignorant man (Meg. 15a).The Biblical
      prohibitions of cursing are legally elaborated, and extended to
      self-cursing (Shebu. 35a). A woman that curses her husband's parents in
      his presence is divorced and loses her dowry (Ket. 72a).Cursing may be
      permissible when prompted by religious motives. For instance, a curse
      is uttered against those who mislead the people by calculating, on the
      basis of Biblical passages, when the Messiah will come (Sanhedrin 97b).
      Cursed are those who are guilty of actions which, though not forbidden,
      are considered reprehensible.According to legend, some rabbinic
      scholars cursed sometimes not only with their mouths, but also with an
      angry, fixed look. The consequence of such a look was either immediate
      death or poverty (Sotah 46b, and parallel passages). (See Evil eye)
      Cursed placesCertain landmarks or locales are said to be cursed.
      Various lakes, rivers and mountains have been called cursed, as has the
      Sargasso Sea. However even when there is a tradition of a place "taking
      someone" every number of years it is not always considered cursed. For
      example, someone is said to drown in Lough Gur in Limerick, Ireland
      every seven years but the lake is not considered "cursed" by the
      locals. The alleged Bermuda Triangle effect is believed by some to be
      some form of curse (and by others to be some unexplained natural
      phenomena).Babinda's Boulders, Babinda township, near Cairns,
      Queensland on Australia's mid-north coast, is a place known for the
      Devil's Pool, a group of waterholes known to be dangerous to young male
      travellers, but never claiming the lives of locals or females. There is
      some dispute about the dangers, that the geography of the place is
      naturally risky with the rocks and fast moving currents &em; yet an
      Aboriginal legend exists giving it the context of a historic curse. [1]
      Curse to the United States presidencyTecumseh's curse was reputed to
      cause the deaths in office of Presidents of the United States elected
      in years divisible by 20, beginning in 1840. This alleged curse appears
      to have fallen dormant, since Ronald Reagan, (elected in 1980) survived
      an assassination attempt. Sports-related curses Main article:
      Sports-related cursesA number of curses are used to explain the
      failures or misfortunes of specific sports teams, players, or even
      cities. For example: * The Curse of the Billy Goat is used to explain
      the failures of the Chicago Cubs baseball team, who have not won a
      World Series championship since 1908, and a National League pennant
      since 1945. * There was the Curse of the Bambino, on the Boston Red Sox
      major league baseball team, who had not won a World Series since 1918
      until the 2004 World Series, when the Sox defeated the St. Louis
      Cardinals, 4 games to 0. * The "Krukow Kurse" is used to explain the
      San Francisco Giants' failure to ever win the World Series. It is
      attributed to Mike Krukow (a former pitcher for the Giants and a
      current broadcaster for the team) based upon his yearly pre-season
      predictions that the Giants "have a chance" to win the World Series.
      Once Krukow stops making such predictions- says the legend- the Giants
      will, in fact, win the World Series. * Japanese baseball team Hanshin
      Tigers is said to suffer from the Curse of the Colonel. * All of the
      sports teams of Philadelphia have been characterized as being under a
      curse since the mid 1980s; fans blame this on the Curse of Billy Penn.
      The Curse of 27The Curse of 27 is the belief that 27 is an unlucky
      number due to the number of famous musicians and entertainers who have
      died at the age. Robert Johnson, Jim Morrison, Brian Jones, Jimi
      Hendrix, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Janis Joplin, Jonathan Brandis and Kurt
      Cobain are all believed to have been affected by the curse of 27. This
      is also known as the 27 Club. Cursed objectsCursed objects are
      generally supposed to have been stolen from their rightful owners or
      looted from a sanctuary. The Hope Diamond is supposed to bear such a
      curse, and bring misfortune to its owner. The stories behind why these
      items are cursed vary, but they usually are said to bring bad luck or
      to manifest unusual phenomena related to their presence. The television
      show Friday the 13th: The Series dealt with a hoard of cursed antiques
      sold by an evil man that gave their owners various powers in return for
      killing. Once cursed, the objects were indestructible and had to be
      stored in a special vault. Egyptian curses and mummiesLimestone
      donation-stele from Mendes, 3rd Intermediate Period, Dynasty XXII. The
      inscription celebrates a donation of land to an Egyptian temple, and
      places a curse on anyone who would misuse or appropriate the land.There
      is a broad popular belief in curses being associated with the violation
      of the tombs of mummified corpses, or of the mummies themselves. The
      idea became so widespread as to become a pop-culture mainstay,
      especially in horror films (though originally the curse was invisible,
      a series of mysterious deaths, rather than the walking-dead mummies of
      later fiction). The "Curse of the Pharaohs" is supposed to have haunted
      the archaeologists who excavated the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun,
      whereby an imprecation was supposedly pronounced from the grave by the
      ancient Egyptian priests, on anyone who violated its precincts. Similar
      dubious suspicions have surrounded the excavation and examination of
      the (natural, not embalmed) Alpine mummy, "Ötzi the Iceman". While such
      curses are generally considered to have been popularized and
      sensationalized by British journalists of the 19th century, ancient
      Egyptians were in fact known to place curse inscriptions on markers
      protecting temple or tomb goods or property.

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      Posting oleh N3Xt G-Nation ke wikipedia pada 2/10/2009 07:38:00 PM

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