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Re: [ancient_waterways_society] more re: Ho-Chunk History

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  • Chris Patenaude
    On that theme of Universal, interconnecting worldviews of the global, original indigenese populations (and there are a lot of interconnecting views going on
    Message 1 of 5 , Feb 11, 2009
      On that theme of Universal, interconnecting worldviews of the global, original indigenese populations (and there are a lot of interconnecting views going on now and all thru history/HERstory) i would invite the lot of you to read a most mind-opening book.
      "Voices Of the First Day" by Robert Lawlor   1991.
       
      It focuses on the primal Australian model of Aboriginal traditions, as the framework for the great majority of archaic cultures that can be seen mirrored in that Ozzy matrix. A must read in order to understand where the Traditional mind is peering from and why there are so many misunderstandings between First Peoples of almost any continent and the Euro-western psychology or philosophy.
       
      Perhaps there are some among you who are already familiar with those pages. That book alone, being so rich and full of information, could be the basis of a whole 'nuther Yahoogroup by itself!
      -c

      --- On Tue, 2/10/09, Martin Carriere <metismartin@...> wrote:
      From: Martin Carriere <metismartin@...>
      Subject: Re: [ancient_waterways_society] more re: Ho-Chunk History
      To: ancient_waterways_society@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Tuesday, February 10, 2009, 2:06 PM

      Hello all,
       
      The majority of oral traditions all support the diffusion as the fact, with the land bridge as the fantasy of scientists twisted to the theft of land and resources. I am glad to be in the company of elements where their guiding lights are filled with the real humanity springing from the peaceful souls of our shared divine evolution.
       
      Even our cousins who originated from the Pliades and travelled in stone boats or on the wings of chickadees all interwove their trade and benefits with the other families of nations on the back of turtle island. You will find that there are many prehistoric artifacts and other primal sites still hidden and buried behind natural barriers that our elders still speak of and instill hope with in the young minds and hearts of today.
       
      I am extremely glad to be here,
       
      Good wishes to all,
       
      Martin Carriere

      --- On Tue, 2/10/09, Susan <beldingenglish@...> wrote:
      From: Susan <beldingenglish@...>
      Subject: [ancient_waterways_society] more re: Ho-Chunk History
      To: ancient_waterways_society@yahoogroups.com
      Received: Tuesday, February 10, 2009, 1:31 PM

      All,
      Not wanting to stray too far from Vince's weekend Mayan conference, I am interested in knowing more about the oral traditions of some HoChuck tribal groups connecting their ancestry to Mexico...whether it was trade and/or origins, that would mean interrelationships, trade, diffusion.   And be an alternative to the academically accepted NW land bridge theories. 
      Perhaps members Larry Johns, Jim Scherz, viewer Ritchie Brown and others here might want to add further information.  Following the link Steve Steigerwald sent, I was interested in the name HoChunk as did not recall  its more common use a few decades ago.
      I  am personally very interested in the Tisch Mills area of Wisconsin (some of you may recall recent posts, news articles).  I have also considerable time exploring the Door Peninsula SE of Green Bay, WI,   am aware of visible remains of countless numbers of ancient peoples who lived there...very apparently for thousands of years.  Hopefully these Wikepedia references are accurate:  http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Ho-Chunk
      MSE

      --- In ancient_waterways_ society@yahoogro ups.com, "Susan" <beldingenglish@ ...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > All,
      >
      > The following was sent yesterday by member Steve Steigerwald of the
      > Aztalan mounds and museum about twenty miles east of Madison, WI. I
      > believe he was showing a link to what Vince and I had written to the
      > site re: Mexico/MesoAmerican /South American interconnections to and from
      > ancient waterway sites as Cahokia, Aztalan, Poverty Point, and North
      > American moundbuilders and traders. Thanks, Steve!
      >
      > Thought this might interest you. There used to be a Ho-Chunk Historical
      > Time-line on the Web by Dave Smith, Winnebago Tribal Historian, it can
      > still be viewed at:
      >
      > http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/www. winnebagotribe. com/timelin\
      > e.htm
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/www. winnebagotribe. com/timeli\
      > ne.htm>
      >
      > Steve Steigerwald [scanned below]
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > Ho-Chunk Historical Time-line
      >
      > By David Lee Smith
      >
      > Winnebago Tribal Historian
      >
      > This is a very large page so we hope that the following bookmarks may
      > help you navigate.
      >
      > 1000 B.C. - 400 B.C.
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP>
      > A.D. 30 - A.D. 1000
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# A.D. 30 - A.D.1000>
      >
      > 1000 - 1600
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1000's - 1600's>
      >
      > 1600 - 1700
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1600"s - 1700's>
      >
      > 1700 - 1750
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1700's - 1750's>
      >
      > 1750 - 1800
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1750"s - 1800's>
      >
      > 1800 - 1840
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1800's - 1840's>
      >
      > 1840 - 1900
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1840's - 1900's>
      >
      > 1900 - 1990
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1990>
      >
      > [Photo of Bear Clan Warrior]
      >
      > Education, Religion and Contemporary History
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# Education, Religion and Contemporary History>
      > 1830 - 1850
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1830's-1850' s Contemporary>
      >
      > 1850 - 1900
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1850's - 1890's Contemporary>
      >
      > 1900 - 1910
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1900-1910' s Contemporary>
      >
      > 1910 - 1940
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1920-1930' s Contemporary>
      >
      > 1940 - 1950
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1940's-1950' s Contemporary>
      >
      > 1950's
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1950's Contemporary>
      >
      > 1960's
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1960's Contemporary>
      >
      > 1970's
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1970's Contemporary>
      >
      > 1980's
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1970's Contemporary>
      >
      > 1990's
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# 1990>
      > 1000 B.C. Migrated out of Mexico from the Old Olmec civilization.
      > Main religion was Peyote. 500 B.C. Arrived in Northwest Kentucky
      > at the time of the Adena Cultural period. Main religion was Adena Cult
      > of the Dead. 400 B.C. Early Ho-Chunks started the Indian Knoll
      > culture in northwest Kentucky. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> A.D. 30 Legends state there was a holy man
      > walking among the tribes of the woodlands. A.D. 200 People of the
      > Snake (Shawnee), drove out Siouan tribes from Kentucky. Ho-Chunks were
      > one of the people of the Black Tortoise. A.D. 400 Effigy Mound
      > building culture began for Ho-Chunks in Illinois. Siouan tribes went by
      > the name of Hun-ga. A.D. 500 Ho-Chunks arrived in Wisconsin at
      > Green Bay. A.D. 550 Ho-Chunks built the Walking Bear Mounds in
      > northeast Iowa as a ceremonial site. A.D. 700 Ho-Chunks became
      > involved in Woodland Cultural period. Main Religion was Mound building.
      > A.D. 700-950 Warfare with Mississippian people developed in northern
      > Illinois. A.D. 950 The Middle Mississippian people arrived on the
      > Rock River. They made peace with the Ho-Chunks. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> A.D. 1000 The city of Aztalan was built at Lake
      > Mills, Wisconsin, and housed a population of ten Thousand. A.D.
      > 1050-1250 Ho-Chunk and Middle Mississippian warriors waged a two hundred
      > year war with the Great Lakes Algonquian Tribes. A.D. 1100
      > Ho-Chunks began offering human sacrifices to the sun. Main Religion was
      > the Sun God. A.D.1250 Ho-Chunks began moving back to Green Bay and
      > Doty Island. The Ioway, Oto, and Missouria bands moved to the
      > Mississippi at Effigy Mounds. A.D. 1500 Ho-Chunks had a
      > pre-European population of 30,000 to 35,000 people. Main Religion was
      > the Medicine Lodge. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> A.D.1600 Ho-Chunks began hearing reports of white
      > men in the Upper Great Lakes area. A.D. 1600 Legends tell of the
      > first epidemic to hit the ho-Chunk people and other Great Lakes Tribes.
      > A.D. 1614 Eight Ho-Chunk hunters met Samual de Champlain on the western
      > borders of Lake Huron. A.D. 1615 Ho-Chunks were referred to as
      > "Tribe of the Men of the Sea" by the French. 1620-30
      > Intertribal war developed with the Potawatomi in northern Wisconsin.
      > Ho-chunks drove them into Canada in 1630. 1631-1634 Ho-Chunks were
      > at war with the Huron nation. 1634 Ho-Chunks met Jean Nicolet at
      > Doty Island, Lake Winnebago. Population was at 25,000. Main religion was
      > War Bundles and Medicine Lodge. 1635 First recorded smallpox
      > epidemic to that the Ho-chunk tribe, reduced their population to 16,000
      > people. 1636 Ho-Chunks were at war with Beaver and Huron nations.
      > Second smallpox epidemic reduced the tribe to ten thousand. 1637
      > Ho-chunks killed five hundred Ottawa traders, and the Algonquian war
      > developed. 1638 Ioway, Oto, and Missouria bands left the main
      > Ho-Chunk group at Doty Island and moved into Iowa. 1638-1639 Third
      > major smallpox epidemic hit the Ho-chunks and reduced them to six
      > thousand people. 1639 Five hundred Ho-Chunk warriors disappeared
      > on Lake Michigan on their way to fight the Mesquakie. 1639
      > Ho-Chunks killed five hundred Illinois traders and fifty sub-chiefs. War
      > developed after Illinois learned that the Ho-Chunks committed the
      > unheard of act of cooking the Illinois people for dinner. 1640
      > Illinois war party of six thousand men caught Ho-Chunks between the Wolf
      > and Embarrass River. Only 150 Ho-Chunk were left. The Illinois burned
      > the old Middle-Mississippia n Fort at Aztalan. 1641 Ho-Chunks
      > elected the warrior called the "Thunder" as their new chief. 1658
      > Next contact with Ho-Chunks was by Peter Raddisson and Medard
      > Groseolliers. They reported that the Ho-Chunks were taking Potawatomi
      > women for wives. 1652-1670 Dakota Santee went to war with
      > the Algonquian tribes in Wisconsin. 1665 Nicolas Perrot reported
      > Ho-Chunks were taking Kickapoo women for wives. 1620-1667 Iroquois
      > League was at war with Wisconsin Tribes in the first Beaver War.
      > 1668 Jesuit Father Claude Allouez built Francis Xavier the first mission
      > among the Ho-Chunks at Green Bay. 1671 Francois Daumont de St.
      > Lusson with Ho-Chunk allies annexed the Great Lakes in the name of King
      > Louie XIV of France. 1676 Jesuit Father Louis Andre reported seven
      > families of Ioway were welcomed back into the tribe after forty years.
      > 1682 Walking Thunder became chief after his father Chief Thunder died.
      > 1682 The Iroquois League started the Second Beaver War over the
      > fur-trade. 1685 Walking Thunder helped the French against the
      > Maskouteck and the Ottawa. 1686 Ho-Chunks met with the Shawnee
      > Nation and referred to them as the people of the "White Wolf".
      > 1687 Ho-Chunks joined the French against the Seneca at Lake Ontario.
      > 1689 (August 4-5) Iroquois killed 320 French men, women, and children at
      > Lachine, Canada. 1689-97 King William's War began. 1689
      > French annexed the Great Lakes the second time at fort Antoine on Lake
      > Pepin, Mississippi. 1690-97 Ho-Chunks joined French against the
      > Iroquoois League in Upper State new York. 1697 Treaty of Ryswick
      > ended the Beaver Wars with the Iroquois league. 1697-1703
      > Ho-Chunks joined Mesquakie, Sauk, and Mascoutan against the Dakota
      > Santee on the Mississippi River. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1703-1716 First Fox War began. The Ho-Chunks
      > joined the Mesquakie, Sauk, and Mascoutan against the French, Illinois,
      > Ottawa, and Ojibwa. Population of Ho-Chunks was between eight hundred
      > and one thousand people. 1707 Ho-Chunks with Fox-Alliance
      > battled the Miami south of Detroit. 1710 Ho-Poe-Kaw, the only
      > child of Chief walking Thunder, was born. 1715 French General
      > Marchard de Lignery led two armies into Ho-Chunk country. Invasion force
      > ended in a fiasco due to an epidemic of measles. 1716 French
      > General La Porta de Louvigny met the Fox Alliance in battle at Little
      > Lake Butte des Morts. Peace Treaty ended First Fox Wars. 1718
      > Ho-Chunks were at war with the Illinois along the Illinois River.
      > 1720 Ho-Chunk and allies wiped out a large Illinois army at LaRocher,
      > Illinois. 1722-37 Second Fox War started. 1726 (August)
      > French Governor Charles Beauharnois wanted the total defeat of the Fox
      > Alliance. 1728 General Marchard de lignery led 450 Frenchmen and
      > 1000 Indian allies against the Fox Alliance in Wisconsin. Ho-Chunks
      > escaped to the Mississippi River. 1728 (July) Ho-Chunks split into
      > two major groups. One group became allies of the French at Green Bay,
      > and the other group moved to Lake Pepin of the Mississippi River.
      > 1728 (July) Chief Walking Thunder died.
      >
      > 1728 (August) Ho-poe-Kaw was elected first chieftess of the Green Bay
      > Ho-Chunk Tribe. The Mississippi Ho-Chunks withdrew from the Grand
      > National Council. 1729 (February) Ho-Poe_Kaw's warriors joined the
      > French, Ottawa, and Ojibwa against the Mesquakie. Ho-Poe-Kaw married
      > Sabrevoir De Karee. 1729 Ho-Poe-Kaw's first boy Cho-ke-ka (Spoon)
      > was born. 1730 Mesquakie caught Ho-Poe-Kaw and her group at Little
      > Butte des Morts Lake. 1730 (November) Ho-Poe-Kaw's warriors and
      > the French army defeated the Mesquakie army in northern Illinois.
      > 1730 Ho-Poe-Kaw's second boy was born. His name was Cha-monk-ska- ga
      > (White Breast Deer). 1732 Ho-Poe-Kaw's only girl, Oak Leaf, was
      > born. 1736 Sabrevoir De Karee left Ho-Poe-Kaw and moved back to
      > Quebec. 1737 Second Fox War ended and the Ho-Chunks on the
      > Mississippi moved to the Rock River. 1737-41 Chief LeGrelot and
      > his Rock River Ho-Chunks were at war against the Dakota along the
      > Wisconsin River. 1752 Rock River Ho-Chunks attacked and defeated
      > the Michigamia and Cahokians on the Illinois River. 1752 Young
      > War-chiefs, Cho-ke-ka and Cha-monk-ska- ga, joined Charles Langlade in
      > battle against the Miami and British at Pickawillany. 1753
      > Ho-Poe-Kaw met in council with the Shawnee in Indiana and decided to
      > become allies. 1755-63 French and Indian War broke out. Both
      > Ho-Chunk groups backed the French. 1755 Ho-Chunks and other Great
      > Lakes Tribes defeated General Edward Braddock and George Washington and
      > killed over one thousand British troops. 1755 Ho-Poe-Kaw's
      > Ho-Chunks joined French General Montcalm at the Battle of Fort William
      > Henry on Lake George in Upper State New York. Ho-Chunk War Chiefs
      > Cho-ke-ka (spoon) and Cha-monk-ska- ga led the Lake Winnebago contingent.
      > 1757 Cha-monk-ska- ga and fifty warriors joined Shawnee at the Battle of
      > Point Pleasant on the Ohio and Kanawka River in the state of Ohio.
      >
      > 1757 (Summer) Cha-monk-ska- ga joined Shawnee brothers in raids against
      > British settlers in the Tennessee and Kentucky area. 1757
      > (Fall) Cha-monk-ska- ga returned with over two hundred scalps and four
      > white women to Niagara. 1728 (July) Ho-chunks joined an army of
      > 4000 French and Indians at Fort Ticonderoga. Against them were 6367
      > British troops and 400 Mohawk warriors under Sir William Johnson. The
      > British lost the battle with 1610 killed, 15000 wounded, and over 1000
      > missing. The French and Indian force lost 377 warriors. This was the
      > greatest battle yet fought on American soil. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1759 (September) Cho-ke-ka, Cha-monk-ska- ga, and
      > other Ho-Chunk warriors participated in the battle of Quebec. 1759
      > (October) Rock River Ho-Chunks joined the French army at the Battle of
      > Niagara. 1760 Cha-monk-ska- ga (White Breast Deer) and others
      > joined Shawnee an raids deep into Virginia. 1762 (May 23)
      > Cho-ke-ka (Spoon) met in council with Lt. James Gorell, a British
      > Officer at Green Bay. 1763 The Treaty of Paris ended the French and
      > Indian War. 1763 Pontiac's Rebellion broke out. 1763 (June
      > 11) Ho-Chunks under Rock River leaders helped capture Fort
      > Michilimackinac. 1763 (July) Ho-Chunks with Pontiac defeated
      > British army at the battle of Bloody Run; they killed over 247 British
      > troops. 1763 (August) George Washington ordered Jeffrey Amherst
      > and Simon Ecuyer to give smallpox blankets to the Indians surrounding
      > Fort Pitt. This was the first mention of Germ warfare used by a U.S.
      > President. 1765 (August) Peace was made at Detroit. 1770
      > Chieftess Ho-Poe-Kaw passed into the Spirit World. 1776 The
      > Revolutionary War broke out. Both Ho-Chunk groups backed the British.
      > 1776 Ho-Chunks joined the British Army under General John Burgoyne at
      > Quebec. 1778 George Rogers Clark captured British posts of
      > Vincennes and Kaskaskia and forced Rock River Ho-Chunk Chief Caramounee
      > to sign a treaty. 1780 Cha-monk-ska- ga and his Ho-chunk warriors
      > joined Charles Langlade and Charles Gautier When they attacked Fort St.
      > Louis on September 20. 1781 Cha-monk-ska- ga and his warriors again
      > joined the Shawnee in raids along the Monongahela River.
      > 1783 (September 2) Treaty ended Revolutionary War. 1783 Both
      > Ho-Chunk groups fought intertribal war with the Lake Superior Chippewa.
      > 1788 Chief White Dog was reported to be head chief among the Rock River
      > Ho-Chunks. Chief Cha-monk-ska- ga was killed at La-Crosse. 1789
      > Both Ho-Chunk groups sent warriors east into Ohio to join the Miami
      > Confederacy led by Miami Chef Little Turtle. 1791 Ho-Chunks and
      > ally Indians under Little turtle defeated large army of Joshiah Harmer
      > in central Ohio. 1791 (October) The same group of Indians stopped
      > the 3000 man army of General Arthur St. Claire. The Americans lost the
      > battle with 913 killed, 100 wounded., and 500 missing. The Indian
      > casualties listed only 150 killed. This was the worst defeat ever
      > suffered by an American army in proportion to the numbers engaged.
      > 1794 Ho-Chunks under Sar-cel and Wild Cat attacked Fort Recovery in
      > Ohio. 1794 (August 20) Mad Anthony Wayne and his three thousand
      > man army stopped Miami Chief Little Turtle at the Battle of Fallen
      > Timbers. 1794 (August 25) Ho-Chunks Chiefs White Dog, Caramounee,
      > Wild cat and the Teal were ordered to return home. 1795 Treaty of
      > Greenville was signed. 1796 Cha-monk-ska- ga's second son, Big
      > Canoe or One-Eyed DeCora became head chief at LaCross, and his younger
      > brother Waukon Haga became war-chief for the band of Ho-Chunks in
      > western Wisconsin. 1799 British reported the winter hunts with the
      > Santee Dakota were still being carried on, and that both tribes were
      > exchanging women for wives. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1807 (June) Ho-chunks learned of the
      > Shawnee Prophet's teachings from the Potawatomi at Crow Prairie on the
      > Illinois River. 1807 (July) Kara-mani-ga (Naw-Kaw) sent a
      > delegation to Greenville, Ohio led by Smoke Walker and Dog Head.
      > 1809 (April) Ho-Chunks met with Tecumseh on the Mississippi River.
      > 1809 (May) chiefs Kara-mani-ga (Naw-Kaw), Hu-jop-ga (Four Legs), and
      > White War Eagle accompanied Tecumseh back to Indiana. 1811
      > (August) Tecumseh, Kara-mani-ga, Hu-jop-ga, and Waukon Haga met with
      > General Henry Harrison at Vincennes, Indiana. 1811 (November 6)
      > Ho-Chunks fought in the Battle of Tippecanoe. Of the 700 warriors
      > present, 350 were Ho-Chunks. The Ho-Chunks comprised 40 of the 50
      > killed, and 40 0f the 80 wounded. 1812 (January 1) Chiefs Rolling
      > Thunder and Man eater raided lead mines of George Hunt and attacked Fort
      > Madison on the Mississippi River. 1812 (February 10) Ho-chunks
      > raided into Missouri and sent twenty settlers to the Spirit World.
      > 1812 (May 15) Ho-Chunks met in Council with other Great Lakes Tribes on
      > the Mississinewa River. 1812 (June 12) War of 1812 broke out.
      > 1812 (July17) Ho-Chunks under Waukon Haga and One-eyed DeCora helped
      > capture Fort Michilimackinac. 1812 (August 6) Tecumseh,
      > Kara-mani-ga, Hu-jop-ga, and Waukon Haga led an Indian force and
      > defeated an American army at Brownstown, Michigan. 1812
      >
      > (August 9) Tecumseh, Waukon Haga, Kara-mani-ga, and Hu-jop-ga led three
      > hundred Warriors into battle, but they were beaten by six hundred
      > Americans at Monuagon, Michigan. 1812 (August 15) One hundred
      > Ho-Chunks and four hundred Potawatomi attacked and defeated William
      > Aells and the Miami at Fort Dearborn (Chicago). 1812 (August 15)
      > Tecumseh and his Ho-Chunk officers attacked and defeated General William
      > Hull at Detroit. 1812 (September 3) Ho-Chunks and Kickapoo
      > attacked Fort Harrison on the Wabash. Chiefs Smoke Water and Rolling
      > Thunder led the Ho-Chunk forces. 1812 (September 5) Ho-Chunks
      > under Chiefs Iron Walker and Man Eater joined Sauk Chief Black Hawk and
      > attacked Fort Madison on the Mississippi. 1813
      >
      > (January) Waukon Haga, Kara-mani-ga, Hu-jop-ga and White War Eagle
      > joined the British at the Battle of Frenchtown on the Raisin River in
      > southeastern Michigan, and defeated one thousand Kentuckian militiamen
      > under General James Winchester and killed 934 of them. 1813
      >
      > (May 1) Old DeCora (Carip-ga), Naw-Kaw (Kara-mani-ga) , Win-no-sheik,
      > Pe-Shen, Zaza-mani-ga, Black Wolf (Sik-caksep- ga), Four Legs
      > (Hu-jop-ga), and the Teal attacked Fort Meigs, Ohio, but were beaten
      > back. 1813
      >
      > (June 10) Waukon Haga, and One-eyed DeCora arrived from Wisconsin with
      > more Ho-Chunks and attacked Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson, but they
      > were repelled and suffered heavy causalities. 1813
      >
      > (October) Kara-mani-ga, Hu-jop-ga, Waukon Haga, and White War Eagle
      > (Schachep-ka- ka) fought with Tecumseh at the battle of Moraviantown
      > where the Shawnee leader was killed. The Ho-Chunks carried his body from
      > the field and buried it. 1814 (June 2) William Clark killed twelve
      > Ho-Chunk and the wife of Dakota Chief LeFeuille at Prairie du Chein
      > 1814 (July 17) Pe0shen, Win-no-shiek, hu-jop-ga, Black Wolf, Dogs Head
      > and the Teal helps recapture Prairie du Chein for the Americans.
      > 1814 (August) one-Eyed DeCora and Waukon Haga assisted the British at
      > the defense of Mackinac Island. 1814
      >
      > (September 5 ) Ho-Chunk warriors from the Rock River are under Iron
      > Walker, Storm Walker, Smoke Walker, and Rolling Thunder joined the Sacs,
      > Foxes, Kickapoo, and Dakota and beat back Zachary Taylor at the mouth of
      > the Rock River. 1814 (December 28) Peace treaty signed at Ghent
      > ended the war of 1812. 1816
      >
      > (June) Eighty-six year old Spoon DeCora (Cho-ke-ka), last surviving
      > son of Chieftess Ho-Poe-Kaw; Kara-mani-g, and Dogs Head signed a
      > friendship treaty with the Americans. Chiefs rolling Thunder
      > (Waka-ja-horu- pini-ga), Man Eater (Wak-rec-ge- ga), Iron walker and Smoke
      > Walker refused to sign any treaty with the United States.
      > 1820 Census reported there were 5,800 Ho0Chunk people; 900 warriors;
      > 1300 women, and 3600 children. 1821 Ho-chunk and the Meniminee
      > tribes granted the Oneida land east of the Fox River in Eastern
      > Wisconsin. 1825 (August 19) Ho-Chunks signed their first boundary
      > treaty with the United States government at Prairie du Chein.
      > 1826 (March) Wau-koo-kah, Mah-naa-ta-pakah, and four others killed five
      > members of the Methode family. 1827
      >
      > (June 6) Chief Red Bird (Wau-nig-sootsk) , the Sun (We-Kau), and the
      > Little Buffalo (Chick-honsic) , shot and killed Registre Gagnier and
      > Soloman Lipcap at Prairie du Chein to start the Red Bird War of 1827.
      > 1827 (August 11) Ho-Chunks signed another boundary treaty with the
      > United States government at Butte des Morts on the Fox River. 1827
      > (September 3) Red Bird and We-Kau surrendered and were imprisoned at
      > Fort Crawford. 1828 (February 16) Red Bird died of dysentery in
      > prison. 1828 (August 25) Ho-Chunks signed a treaty of
      > provisional tribal boundaries at Green Bay. 1829
      >
      > (August 1) Ho-Chunks signed first cession treaty, relinquishing further
      > claims to lands in Illinois and Wisconsin, south of the Fox and
      > Wisconsin Rivers. To show a sign of good faith, President John Quincy
      > Adams pardoned both Chick-honsic and We-Kau. 1832 Black Hawk War
      > broke out. The Ho-Chunk Prophet White Cloud backed the Sauk Chief in the
      > War. 1832 (August 22) Winnebago chief Blackhawk sent the Wave
      > (Chas-ja-ka) to bring in Sauk Chief Blackhawk and White Cloud. They
      > surrendered to the government at Prairie du Chein. 1832 (September
      > 15) Ho-Chunks signed another treaty of cessions at Fort Armstrong, Rock
      > Island, Illinois. The Tribe ceded land between the Wisconsin and the
      > Rock River to Lake Winnebago. In addition to an annuity, the Ho-Chunks
      > were given land in Northeastern Iowa called, "The Neutral ground."
      > 1834 (May) Smallpox epidemic killed 1500 Ho-Chunks. 1837
      > (November 1) Ho-Chunk sub-chiefs were tricked into signing away the last
      > of their Wisconsin land in Washington, DC. This was their last Wisconsin
      > cession. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1840 (February 10) General Henry Atkinson was
      > ordered to move all the Ho-Chunks to the Neutral Ground in Iowa. Fort
      > Atkinson was built on the Turkey River. 1846 (October 13)
      > Ho-Chunks signed another treaty of cessions, giving up their land in
      > Northeast Iowa for land along the Long Prairie, Watab and Crow Wing
      > Rivers, north of the St. Cloud, Minnesota. The treaty was signed in
      > Washington. 1855 (February 27) The Ho-Chunks signed their
      > fifth cession treaty giving up their Long Prairie land for a tract
      > eighteen miles square on the Blue Earth River. This was the first time
      > the phase "permanent home" was used in their treaties. 1859 (April
      > 15) Winnebago sold half of the Blue Earth land by treaty. Half- breed
      > Winnebago's, as they liked to be called, refused to listen to chief
      > Little Hill and wanted to be more like the white people in the
      > surrounding area. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1861 (December) Dakota Chief Wabasha met with
      > Medicine Man, war-Chief Little Priest, on the Yellow Medicine
      > Reservation and asked for his help.
      >
      > 1862 (Winter) Santee outbreak started depopulating southern Minnesota of
      > white people. 1862 Summer) Knights of the Forest was organized to
      > remove Sioux and Ho-chunks from southern Minnesota. 1863 (May
      > 9-10) Army moved Ho-Chunks to Fort Smelling on the Mississippi River.
      > 1863 (May 13-June 14) Ho-Chunks moved down the Mississippi and up the
      > Missouri River by steamboat to Crow Creek. Some 1,945 Ho-Chunks made the
      > journey. Half-breed Winnebago's stayed in Blue Earth and became
      > "White-people. " 1863 (February 21) By an act of Congress, the Blue
      > Earth Reservation was sold. 1863 (June) General Alfred Sully
      > recruited Ho-Chunks as scouts in the war against the Lakota. Sioux. Six
      > hundred Ho-Chunks left for the Omaha Reservation during the next year.
      > 1863 (July) Chief Little Priest and 46 other warriors enlisted in a
      > Nebraska Cavalry Regiment and fought with General Alfred Sully against
      > the Teton Lakota at the battle of Heart River in North Dakota.
      > 1863 Ho-Chunks joined the Union and the Confederacy in the Civil War.
      > 1864 (August 10) Chief Little Priest and his Scouts led the charge
      > against the Miniconjou Lakota at the battle of Killdeer Mountains in
      > North Dakota. 1864 (August 15) Chief Little Priest and Scouts
      > battled bands of the Tetonwas and Northern Cheyenne at the battle of the
      > Missouri River in Eastern Montana. 1864 (October) The War Chief
      > fought the Tetonwan, Ihanktoneanna, and Wahpetonwan bands of Sioux at
      > the Battle of Whitestone Hill, North Dakota. 1864 (October)
      > Little DeCora joined the Omaha and battled with the Miniconjou and
      > Sicanga at the Battle of Homer Hills. (present day beer can Hill).
      > 1864 (November) Little DeCora and Young Prophet with Omaha Allies
      > stopped the Miniconjou near Monadmin, Iowa. 1865 (January 5) Chief
      > Little Priest led the charge against the Oglala and Miniconjou Lakota
      > near the site of the present town of Winnebago. 1865 (January 7)
      > The War Chief stopped the Oglala and Miniconjou at the Battle of
      > Winnebago Hills. 1865 (March) Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
      > William P. Dole authorized Winnebago agent Saint Andre Durand Balcombe
      > to move all Winnebago belongings to Nebraska. The Ho-Chunks lost 610
      > people at Crow Creek due to starvation and the cold. Ninety more died in
      > 1866. 1865 (March 8) A treaty of land cessions in the territory of
      > Dakota with additional land grant in the territory of Nebraska,
      > concluded in Washington, DC and was signed by Abraham Lincoln. 1865
      > (May 1) Chief Little Priest battled bands of Oglala and Miniconjou at
      > Honey Creek on the Missouri. 1865 (May 15) Chief Little
      > Priest and Scouts annihilated a war party of nineteen Oglala near George
      > Snake's old residence on the Winnebago and Omaha Reservation border.
      > 1866 (March) Chief Little Priest, his brother Greywolf, his sons,
      > Walking Priest, John Priest and seventy other Ho-Chunks enlisted in
      > Company A of the Fort Omaha Scouts at Decatur, Nebraska. 1866
      > (June) Company A scouts fought Red Cloud's band of Oglala, Northern
      > Cheyenne, Northern Arapaho, and Itazipo Lakota at the Battle of Tongue
      > River. 1866 (August) Chief Little Priest, his sons, Walking
      > Priest, John Priest, and James Bird were caught on the Powder River by
      > the Oglala and the War chief was mortally wounded. He died on the
      > Winnebago Reservation on September 12. 1866 (September) First
      > Annual Homecoming Celebration was held at Flag Pole Hill in Honor of
      > Chief Little Priest and the brave warriors of Company A. 1866
      > (October) Omaha Chiefs drew up eight bylaws for the Ho-Chunks to follow.
      > 1866 (October 10) Omaha agent Robert Furnas ordered a wooden blockhouse
      > be built where the town of Winnebago now stands. It was two-stories high
      > and held a six pound brass cannon in the upper story. 1866
      > (October 11) Charles Mathewson was appointed as new agent. 1867
      > Half-breeds in Minnesota agreed to have their Tribal relations as
      > Indians be dissolved and merged themselves in the community where they
      > lived. Ho-Chunks in Nebraska felt great sorrow for them. 1869
      > (August 15) Census was held on the Winnebago Reservation and listed 1343
      > people; 408 men, 448 woman, and 487 children. 1870 (Winter) Former
      > Company A, Nebraska Scouts men White Spirit, James White Breast, John
      > Caramoney, James McCloskey and Blackhawk were sent to prison without
      > trial after shooting Oscar Munsen, a white man, in self-defense.
      > 1870 (June 18) Chiefs Little DeCora, Samual King, Big Bear,
      > Coo-Noo-Nutta- Kaw, good Thunder, One Horn, Little Thunder, greywolf,
      > Young Prophet, Young French, Old Lougher, Whirling Thunder, White
      > Breast, and Young Rougue resigned as Chiefs because of white man's
      > justice. 1870 (June 19) Olds chiefs appointed twelve new chiefs:
      > B.L. Porter, Big Head, No-so-ho-kaw, Lieutenant Dan Uptail of the
      > police, Charles English, Otter Smith, James Race, Charles Mallory,
      > Robert Lincoln, Henry Rice, and Alf St.Cyr. 1870 First Allotment
      > of land on the Winnebago Reservation began. 1871 Omaha
      > Chiefs introduced Ho-Chunks to "Hog Head" soup at their annual council
      > meeting. The soup became the main dish for Ho-Chunk veterans. 1874
      > (Winter) Over four hundred Ho-Chunks moved back to Wisconsin. 1876
      > Over Half of the Ho-Chunk Tribe was moved out of the river bottom.
      > Besides the wooden blockhouse erected in 1866, the new town has a
      > trading post and several other buildings. 1876 The Secretary of
      > the Interior brought up the idea to move all the Indians in the five
      > state area to western Oklahoma. 1878 The Commissioner of Indian
      > Affairs reported that a bill was drawn up to move Indians from ten
      > states to western Oklahoma; the bill failed in 1879. 1887 General
      > Allotment Act was passed and the Ho-Chunks began to lose three-fourths
      > of their reservation to white people. 1892 (September) Civil
      > Service Commissioner Teddy Roosevelt toured the Winnebago and Omaha
      > Reservations and remarked that, "…the Omaha women were all entirely
      > virtuous, and the Winnebago Indians were heathens…". 1892
      > (December) The Census for 1892 reported that there were 11198 Ho-Chunks
      > living on the Nebraska Reservation, and that tuberculosis was causing
      > many deaths among the Winnebago people. 1897 It was reported that
      > 420 of the Nebraska Ho-Chunks could read and 600 of them could talk
      > English. 1898 The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad
      > connected the reservation to the outside world. The town of Winnebago
      > continued to grow. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP>
      > Education, Religion and Contemporary History
      > 1832 In treaty of 1832, education was mentioned for the first time.
      > 1834 The Yellow River School was built and opened in the winter of 1835.
      > The Reverend David Lowry and his wife Mary Ann were hired to teach. The
      > Reverend Lowry's teachings were wholly Presbyterian. 1837 The
      > schoolroster listed 41 students; 15 boys and 26 girls. 1839 The
      > enrollment rose to 79 srudents, 43 boys, and 36 girls. David Lowry
      > became sub-agent. 1841 (September) The school moved to the Turkey
      > River, four miles Southwest of Fort Atkinson, Iowa. 1841 Catholic
      > Priest, father Samual Charles Mazzuchelli, and one hundred other
      > Catholic Priests demanded David Lowry's expulsion from office.
      > 1841 There were 95 students enrolled, 50 boys and 45 girls. 1844
      > David Lowry was replaced by Catholic James MacGregor who hired Father
      > Joseph Cretin as head school master, and discharged all other staff.
      > 1844 Commissioner of Indian affairs, Hartley Crawford related that
      > MacGregor's actions smacked of religious nepotism, so Governor John
      > Cambers fired James MacGregor June 3, 1845 1846 The Reverend David
      > Lowry returned as Superintendent. 1849 David Lowry opened
      > new school at Long Prairie on January 29, but it was closed on May 26.
      > David Lowry finally left in 1850. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1853 (January 1) Reverend Joseph Cretin, now
      > Bishop of St. Paul, concluded a contract with the Ho-Chunks. He
      > appointed Reverend Canan Francis de Vivaldi and three sisters of St.
      > Joseph as teachers: Sister Scholatica, Sister Philomene and Sister
      > Ursula Murphy. 1855 The Catholic Church gave up its school at Long
      > Prairie as a financial failure. 1860 The Government made no
      > provision for the Ho-Chunks. 1864 A new school was opened at Crow
      > Creek under the direction of two full-blooded Indians Bradford Porter
      > and Elizabeth Humphrey. 1866 Bradford Porter and Charles Prophet
      > opened a small school for Ho-Chunk students on the reservation.
      > 1866 Moravian missionaries among the Ho-Chunk people. 1869 A
      > second school is opened with 150 students in attendance. 1871 A
      > third school opened at the Winnebago Agency. 1873 Winnebago Indian
      > agent Howard White opened a new Industrial School on the reservation,
      > but it closed its doors on March 4,1876. 1878 Government re-opened
      > boarding schools. 1878 Hampton Boarding School opened from
      > 1878-1923 in Hampton, Virginia. Sixty-three Winnebagos attended until
      > the doors were closed in 1923. 1879 Carlisle Indian School opened
      > 1879-1918 in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 1883 Angel DeCora began her
      > education at Hampton. 1884 Genoa Indian School opened in Genoa,
      > Nebraska and lasted until 1934. Stanford Whitewater was one of the last
      > Ho-Chunks to attend. 1885 Julia St.Cyr graduated from Hampton in
      > May. 1891 Angel DeCora graduated from Hampton with honors.
      > 1893 Fire destroyed the Winnebago school. It killed forty students.
      > 1894 John Rave returned from Oklahoma with the Peyote religion - a
      > religion they were practicing in Mexico three thousand years before.
      > 1896 Angel DeCora received her degree from Smith College in June, and
      > became the first Ho-chunk to receive this honor. 1898 Fire
      > destroyed Winnebago school a second time. It killed two teachers.
      > Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1906 Angel DeCora was hired as an art instructor
      > at the Carlisle Indian School. 1908 Carlisle beat the famous
      > Nebraska Bugeaters (Cornhuskers) in Lincoln 31-7. 1908 The Peyote
      > religion began its triumphant sweep through the Nebraska Reservation.
      > 1908 The Dutch Reform Church opened on the Reservation. 1909
      > Mother Katherine Drexel, founder of the Sisters of the blessed
      > Sacrament, met with Ho-Chunk people and Father Jeremiah Griese and made
      > plans to open up a school for girls on the reservation. 1910
      > Henry Roe Cloud graduated from Yale on September 1, 1910. 1911
      > Saint Augustine school opened for girls with Father Jeremiah Griese in
      > charge. The Society of American Indians was founded in Columbus, Ohio.
      > Charter members included Angel DeCora and Oliver LaMere. 1912
      > Peyote Church split into two factions. One was led by John Rave and the
      > other by Jesse Clay. 1912 The public school opened in Winnebago.
      > Boys sports program began and continues until the present day.
      > 1913 Around fifteen different Christian Churches began preaching on the
      > reservation. 1914-18 Many young ho-Chunk men signed up in the
      > Armed forces during World War 1. Lyman Lowry served in Rainbow Division.
      > 1918 Women sports program opened up at the public school and continued
      > until 1933. 1919 (February 6) Angel DeCora died of pneumonia at
      > North Hampton, Massachusetts. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1920 The Dutch Reformed Mission reported that
      > there were 105 students in their Sunday School and 92 in their boarding
      > School. 1921 The Peyote church became incorporated and chartered
      > itself as the Native American Church of Nebraska. 1928 The average
      > per-capita annual income for the Ho-Chunks was $194.00. 1934
      > Indian Reorganization Act passed in February. First Tribal Council
      > formed with Frank Beaver as Chairman. 1936 (February) The
      > Winnebago Tribal Council received its charter and incorporated itself
      > as, the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska. 1938 The Winnebago basketball
      > team, led by Chris Snow, Andy Baker, Ben Chamberlain, Red McClune,
      > Wilbur Whitebeaver, and others won the State Basketball Championship in
      > the National Tournament in Kansas City, Kansas. 1938-39 Louis and
      > Gene St.Cyr took the Winnebago Indians to a Class D State Championship
      > in track and field. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1941-46 Young Ho-Chunk Warriors enlisted in the
      > Armed Forces and saw action in both the European Theater and the Pacific
      > Theater. 1942 Father Frank Hulsman arrived at St.Augustine' s and
      > took over as Director. The school opened its doors for the boys from the
      > surrounding reservations. 1944 The Sisters of the blessed
      > Sacrament sold their property to the Archdioceses of Omaha and moved
      > back east. 1944 Chris "Ku-nu" Snow, a tail gunner on a B-17 Flying
      > Fortress, survived his last raid into Germany. 1944 (December)
      > Gustave Smith, tank driver with General George Patton's Third army, 4th
      > Armored Division, was shot four times near Basogne, Belgium. 1945
      > Martin J. Lowry survived the battle of Okinawa in the South Pacific.
      > 1946 (September) Boys from the Omaha and Winnebago Reservations began to
      > board at St.Augustine' s. 1946-1954 The Notre Dame Sisters from
      > Covington, Kentucky arrived at St. Augustine's and helped Father Frank
      > run the mission. 1949 Paul DeCora composed the song "Okinawa" in
      > honor of Martin J. Lowry, a warrior from the South Pacific Theater.
      > Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1950 The Winnebago reservation was home to 563
      > families living in 338 houses with an average income of $950.00.
      > 1950 The armies of North Korea invaded South Korea to start the Korean
      > War on June 24. Many Ho-Chunk warriors enlisted, including: Cpl.
      > Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr., and Sgt. John Rice, who would later be killed
      > in action for a country that did not like Indians. 1952-53 Liquor
      > was sold to Indians in bars, and a tavern was opened on the reservation.
      > 1952 Dutch Reform church built a new building to house a home for
      > homeless children on the site where forty Indian students died in 1893.
      > 1954 Reuben Snake joined the Green Berets under the Berlin Command.
      > 1956 The United States government brought the Relocation Program to the
      > Reservation. 1956 Paul DeCora, last leader of the Thunder Clan
      > Medicine Lodge died in Winnebago. Paul was an army veteran. 1956
      > Gayland Rave won the Class C State mile. 1957 Missionary
      > Benedictine Sisters arrived at St.Augustine' s Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1961 Winnebago, led by All State Quarterback
      > Charles Sharpback; John Wilcox; Charles O'Gorman; Robert Stansberry;
      > Jerry Walker; Cleve Harden; Dwight Morgan; Eugene Payer; and others won
      > the State championship in 8-man football. 1962 Winnebago, led by
      > halfback Cleve Harden; guard, Jerry Walkeer; center, Don Stout; halfback
      > Charles O'Gorman; and end, Frank White; ended their season with a 6-1-1
      > record and a 13-13 tie with archrival Walthill. 1963 Winnebago
      > went undefeated, winning the Logan Valley Championship and ranking third
      > in class A, 8-man football. The team was lead by All Staters halfback,
      > Lloyd Hamilton; end, Frank White, and all Conference Larry Payer,
      > Everett Moore, and coached by Keith Rickey. 1964 Many warriors,
      > such as Matt Cleveland, Edward Logan, Ronald Painter, James Snow, Gerban
      > Earth, Louie Houghton, Alan Walker, Anthony LaMere, and others saw
      > action in Vietnam. Young Anthony LaMere was shot and killed, walking
      > point in a war nobody loved. 1964 Winnebago led by half-miler John
      > Smith, miler Mike Smith, and fieldsman Everett Moore won the Logan
      > Valley Championship. 1964 The Winnebago football team led by All
      > State Quarterback Delbert Stansberry, Mike and John Smith, Everett
      > Moore, Don Stout, Carroll Webddter, Louis Houghton, and Richard Walker
      > went undefeated. This was a four-year record of 32 wins, one loss, one
      > tie, another third place finish in 8-man football, and the end of a
      > football dynasty. Sophomore John Smith went over 100 yards in every game
      > except one. 1965 Miler Mike Smith and fieldman Everett Moore made
      > it to the State Track Meet in Kearney, Nebraska. 1965-66 Winnebago
      > led by John Smith and Daryl LaPointe won the Logan Valley in Basketball,
      > the first time since 1947. 1967-68 Vince Bass, Al Stout, Anthony
      > Earth, Alphonso Blackhawk, and Daryl LaPointe went 14-6 in Basketball
      > and won the Logan Valley. 1969 David Lee Smith and Vince Bass made
      > it to the State Track meet in Kearney, Nebraska. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1969-71 David Lee Smith ran Cross Country and
      > Track for Black Hills in South Dakota. His team finished second in the
      > National AAU Meet in Mendora, North Dakota. 1972 The women's sport
      > program returned to Winnebago, and Cheryl "Bootie" Smith brought two
      > medals home from the State Track and Field meet. 1973 Cheryl
      > "Bootie" Smith placed fourth in the Discus, and sixth in the shot at the
      > State Track Meet in North Platte, Nebraska. Georgia Gomez won All
      > American Honors in Fast Pitch Softball at John F. Kennedy College in
      > Wahoo, Nebraska. 1974 Cheryl "Bootie" Smith won the State Shot and
      > Discus Championships, setting records in both. This was the first time
      > Winnebago won two Class D gold since the days of Louie and Gene St.Cyr
      > of 1938-39. 1975 Cheryl "Bootie" Smith placed second in the State
      > Shot and Discus losing out to 6'6', Jeanie Boller of Dorchster.
      > 1978 Nebraska Indian community College opened its doors for the first
      > time in Winnebago, Santee, and Macy. Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1981 Cheryl "Bootie" Smith won All American
      > Honors as Pitcher, as she took her Winn-Power Slow Pitch softball team
      > to five national tournaments in eight years. 1982 St. Augustine's
      > Boarding School closed its doors to boarders and opened up a day
      > school. 1984-85 The Winnebago football team led by Darwin "Flip"
      > Snyder, Frank Smith, and others made it to the State Play-offs in 8-man
      > football for two years. Darwin won All State Honors and captured state
      > track titles in track and field. 1985 The Winnebago Tribe of
      > Nebraska opened its Winna-Bingo Enterprise in Sloan, Iowa. 1985
      > The Winnebago Tribe retrocede its criminal jurisdiction back to the
      > federal government. 1986 David Lee Smith graduated at the top of
      > his class at UCLA in June. 1988 Teresa Marie Smith was selected
      > High School Athlete of the year at Winnebago and made it to the State
      > Track and Field Meet for the fourth year in a row. 1988 The
      > Winnebago Girls Volleyball team of Trish Smith, Darla LaPointe, Rona
      > Stealer, Patrice Levering, and Dawn Snow made it to the State Tournament
      > in Lincoln. 1989 For the second year in a row, the Winnebago Girls
      > Volleyball team consisting of Trish Smith, Dawn Snow, and Monica Hunter
      > made it to the State Tournament in Lincoln. 1988-89 Teresa Smith,
      > running Cross Country for Midland College, helped her team place in the
      > National NAIA Division II Cross Country meet two straight years.
      > Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP> 1990 The Winnebago Girls Basketball team
      > consisting of Trish Smith, Darla LaPointe, Dawn Snow, Liz Bayer, and
      > Tony Earth made it to the Semi-Finals in the State Basketball Tournament
      > in Lincoln. 1990 The United States government passed the Native
      > American Protection and Repatriation Act. 1990 Young Ho-Chunk
      > warriors such as Emmett Walker, Jr., Jeff Thomas, and Harold Cleveland,
      > Jr. saw action in Desert Storm against Iraq in the middle East.
      > 1992-93 Point Guard Teresa Smith helped her Midland college basketball
      > team reach the NAIA Division II National Basketball tournament for two
      > straight years. Teresa finished out her athletic career at Midland
      > College as a three letter-woman, winning honors in Cross- Country,
      > Track, and Basketball. 1992 The Winnebago Tribal council under the
      > leadership of John Blackhawk and Norma Stealer, opened the Winner-Vegas
      > Casino in Sloan, Iowa. 1992 Neola Walker, former Tribal Council
      > member, died in Winnebago. 1993 Reuben Snake, former Tribal
      > chairman, religious Leader, and Green Geret veteran died in Winnebago in
      > June. 1994 (September) Ho-Chunk Incorporated was founded by the
      > Winnebago Tribe with Lance Morgan, a Harvard law graduate, as CEO and
      > President. 1994 (March) Winnebago boys basketball team made it to
      > the State Basketball Tournament. The team was led by Travis Mallory,
      > Jerome Ghostdog, Wakon Petite, Danny Houghton, Tyrone LaRose, Blue
      > Frenchman, Delshay Webster, and Ha-ga Cleveland. 1994 (October)
      > Winnebago, led by halfback Travis Mallory, quarterback Danny Houghton,
      > End Jerome Ghostdog, beat Macy 46-40 in Winnebago to win the annual
      > All-Reservation title. 1994 (December) Ho-Chunk Historical Society
      > was founded by David Lee Smith, Regina Littlebeaver, and Brenda Merrick
      > in Winnebago. 1996 (May) The Winnebago Tribe withdrew from the
      > Nebraska Indian Community College. 1996 (July 25-28) The Winnebago
      > tribe held its 130th Annual homecoming Celebration in honor of Chief
      > Little Priest and the warriors of Company A, Omaha Scouts. 1996
      > (July) The Winnebago Tribe opened its own Tribal College, Little Priest
      > Tribal College, named after the last War Chief of the Winnebago Tribe.
      > 1996 (December) The Winnebago Tribe opened a new Bingo Hall at the
      > Winna-Vegas Casino. 1996 Winnebago Mini-mall began construction.
      > 1997 Little Priest Tribal College began its second semester on January
      > 13. 1997 (January) Ho-Chunk Historical Society honored Gustave
      > Smith (WWII) and Jim Snow (Vietnam) at its annual winter meeting.
      > Back to Top
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /timeline.htm# TOP>
      >
      >
      > For more information please click on the links below. Detailed
      > History:
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm> Winnebago Location
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Winnebago Location> Population
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Population> Names
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Names> Language
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Language> Villages
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Villages> Culture
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#Culture> History
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /detailed_history. htm#History> . Cultural Center/Museum
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /Cultural_Center. htm> Cultural Statement
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /cultural_statement .htm> Little Priest
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /little_priest. htm> Tribal Historian: David Lee Smith
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /Tribal_Historian. htm>
      >
      >
      >
      > How to find us
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /location.htm> History
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /history.htm> Government
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /government. htm> Education
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /education.htm> Tribal News
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /tribal_news. htm> Attractions
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /attractions. htm> Enterprise
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /enterprise. htm> Notice Board
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /public_notice_ board.htm>
      > Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /winnebago_tribe_ of_nebraska. htm> Useful Links
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /useful_links. htm> Contact us <mailto:info@ ...
      > Staff Email
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //webmail. registeredsite\
      > .com/> Confidential Notice Board
      > <http://web.archive. org/web/20020616 015107/http: //www.winnebagot ribe.com\
      > /conf/>
      >


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