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  • Rick Osmon
    Investigating pre-Columbian contact, lost races, ancient astronomy, navigation, and migration, cultural oddities, associated diffusion evidence and the truly
    Message 1 of 1 , Nov 25, 2008
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      Investigating pre-Columbian contact, lost races, ancient astronomy, navigation, and migration, cultural oddities, associated diffusion evidence and the truly unexplainable. Oh, and the odd musician, band, or comedian may stop by. Some are really odd…

       

      Hello Loopers, Yoopers, and Scoopers                    

       

       

      In this issue:

       

      This Week's Show:  

       

      Op/Ed:  See Possum Holler News, A Chink in the Armor

       

      This Day in History27 November,  8 B.C. - Roman poet Horace died.

       

      Possum Holler News 

       

      Other news:  Video A Tribute to Fred Rydholm

       

      Events: Send your organization's events to  oz@...

       

       

      Last week's show:   Scott Marlowe & Lloyd Pye, Giants, Pygmies, & Hobbits, Oh My!

       

       

      Next week's show: Crystal Trickle, Alignments and Inscriptions in the Heartland

       

      Jan. 15:  Jerry Smith, Secrets of the The Holy Lance

       

      Site of the week    http://www.scientificmethod.com/

       

       

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      This Week's Show:   


       

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      Op/Ed:   See Possum Holler News, below

       

       

      This section is for you, the audience. You are welcome to contribute to it. Submit your "stuff" to

       oz@...

       

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      Today in History - Nov. 20

       

       8 B.C. - Roman poet Horace died.

       

      1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

       

       

       
      1863 - American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio Penitentiary and return safely to the South.

       

      1868 - Indian Wars: Battle of Washita River - United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.

       

       

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      Possum Holler News

      It's been a beautiful day here.

      I began by winterizing the lawn mower, cleaned gutters, and other sundry outdoor tasks today. Pat helped a lot, but was cooking most of the day. Thanksgiving dinner for her family is like feeding an army. Or maybe a herd.
       
      We went to Louisville Sunday and attended the Ancient Kentucky Historical Association meeting, where Lee Pennington reported on our visit to Welsh Caves and the AAPS Conference. I wanted to keep him honest. Actually, Lee does a wonderful job at such things. I really just wanted to see the images from Welsh Caves and fill in some things if needed. He didn't really need me, but we had fun. I want to ghostwrite his autobiography...and write the screenplay.
       
       

      The View from Possum Holler,

      A Chink in the Armor

       

      When, in the overall process known as "the scientific method", a paper is submitted for peer review, it is dissected to the nth degree. A misspelling or mistaken word usage will be noted simply. But an error in planning, data collection, data reduction, or a farfetched conclusion, no matter how well supported by the data, will be met with resistance at best and derision in the middle, with character assassination held as an ace in the hole. Any paper that doesn't provide the first parts, i.e., hypothesis, observations, tests, data, methods of verification, alternatives, and predictive conclusions will be met with derision or be completely ignored. Credence of an idea in these settings depends entirely on having each and every duckling marching smartly in its place.

       

      Einstein stated, "A problem properly defined is often half solved."

       

      I am investigating a site on a tall, steep, and very rocky hill. I'm pretty sure it is the former site of on over-shot wheel mill. All that remains, however, is most of the dry-laid stone mill pond dam. The landowner brought it to my attention in March of 2007 because of an article I did about old walls and fortresses. Well, this site certainly appears to be old. The stonework is mostly naturally surfaced with only the notch for the sluice and a few of the larger stones showing signs of having been hewn. The local histories have no mention of a mill here, though, and "history" and "settlement" in this particular area is not much older than about 1820 and earliest recorded exploration in 1792. Sites of other, "historic" mills in the area have been researched and verified.
       
      A fast flowing, clear, and cold spring erupts from a small cave in the hillside at the right level to fill the mill pond and the stream from it matches the size of the aqueduct or "sluice" notch very well. Other wall segments are also on this property and a mound is very close by. Natural features with names like "Devil's Elbow", "Old Man's Nose", and "Norman's Bend" (named for an early settler family) are also close by as notable features on the navigable river a half mile from the site. But this hill, as I mentioned is very rocky, tall, and steep, so it wouldn't be easy to haul grain up it to be milled. This bothered me for the better part of 18 months. Why would anybody build a grist mill up there? It's too hard to get to it and the good farmland is too far from it. If not a grist mill, then what?

       

      So I started researching mills.

       
      And I learned just how ignorant I really was regarding water powered mills. Overshot, undershot, and turbine drives (thank you Archemedes), rotating, reciprocating, and valve and piston "hydraulic" transmissions (that one was downright ingenious and the forerunner to both steam and internal combustion engines) are all documented at various times in history.  A horizontal wheel with a vertical shaft is called a Greco wheel and a vertical wheel with a horizontal shaft is called a Roman wheel (regardless of whether it is overshot or undershot). The power generated by any of these mill designs could be used for a multitude of industrial processes, not just grinding grain. Most water powered sawmills used reciprocating transmissions and an industrial sized crosscut saw to rip logs into dimension (rough sawn) lumber and the more sophisticated ones had a rotational power takeoff to finish (mill) the boards. One type of grist mill used reciprocating action to "stamp mill" grain rather than grinding it on a millstone. Another reciprocating design and the piston design were used as hammer mills (very similar in principle to the "stamp" grain mills, but presumably much stronger) to break up ore bearing rock.
       
      Hmmm.
       
      The Romans used a number of "reverse" overshot wheels to de-water mines. Examples have been found in  Spain (silver mines, started by Hannibal), in Wales (gold mine dated to at least 120 years before Claudius claimed Britain), possibly a coal mine in Germany and, reportedly, a very rich gold mine in Romania.
       
      Water-powered wheels driving millstones were used for grinding grain by the ancient Romans in places where ever their aqueducts delivered the water. And they had a lot of aqueducts. They apparently doubled as a power grid.
       
       
       Reconstruction of a Roman water lifting machine found during excavations in Aldersgate Street, London
       
       
       

      Back at the mill site.

       
      Old maps of the area show a nearby (seven or eight miles overland), long abandoned town or place name of "Ironton", but no town (not even a foundation) exists there now. Nor does any obvious iron ore bearing rock appear there. There are many large pieces of native, light-colored sandstone that have a vein of dark, reddish-black material running through them at the mille site, however. I'll be collecting a sample for assay this weekend.
       
      I will send the sample, wait for the results, then start forming a hypothesis based on repeatable tests. Then I will devise tests to gauge the worth of the hypothesis. If the hypothesis holds up to the tests and no other possible explanations are found, I will make predictions and test the predictions. If the predictions bear out, I'll have a working theory. Until then, I have questions. March on, my ducklings.

       

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      Lee introduces "Secrets of the Stones" 

       

      Click on the thumbnail to see Lee Pennington introduce "Secrets of the Stones"




       

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      Other news: 

      Video A Tribute to Fred Rydholm

       

      Did Asteroid Cause Ancient N.Y. Tsunami?

       

       

      Amateurs' prehistoric find draws top award - 2 days ago An amateur archaeological team from Datchet (Berkshire, England) have been presented with a Highly Commended award at the British Museum for uncovering a prehistoric settlement at Southlea Farm. For t... Ancient 'treasures' unearthed in Scotland - 2 days ago A 5,000-year-old axe head, a Bronze Age sword and mysterious carved stone balls form part of Scotland's annual Treasure Trove, items found by archaeologists or enthusiasts which have been handed..... Suffolk 'best for buried treasure' - 2 days ago Suffolk and Norfolk are among the best places to find buried treasure in England, a new report has revealed. Hundreds of ancient objects have been unearthed by metal detecting enthusiasts... 3,500-year-old weapon found in a Scottish burn - 2 days ago A Bronze Age spearhead which lay submerged in a burn for 3,500 years has been discovered and handed to a museum. The spearhead was found wedged in a rock crevice... Further details on the massive Welsh fort - 2 days ago

      Cloaked by time's leafy shroud, the prehistoric settlement of Gaer Fawr lies all but invisible beneath a forest in the lush Welsh countryside. Now the 2,900-year-old structure lives again...

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      Events: Send your organization's events to  oz@...

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      Ancient Kentucke Historical Association

      Newsletter

      Thank you members of AKHA! Thank you Marylin for being such a gracious hostess. Pat and I attended the Nov.23 meeting and enjoyed it immensely.

       Nov. 29th, 2:00 PM  Falls of Ohio

                Africa

       It is one of the great ironies of archaeology that the country thought now to be the very place where human history began would for many years be considered  to have no real history of its ownFrom medieval times on, the spectacular ruins of the southern African kingdom of great Zimbabwe could not be accepted by European settlers as having been built by Africa’s native people. 

       European “experts” proposed instead that Zimbabwe was built by everyone from wandering Phoenicians to the biblical Queen of Sheba, but certainly not Africans.

        A different story has now emerged not only of the fabulous “lost city” of Great Zimbabwe, but also of the amazing Swahili Coast, which was a thriving trade center of  gold and ivory until the 16th century.

       After centuries of racial prejudice and neglect, the world has come to realize the extraordinary achievements of Africa’s indigenous people

       


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