Map of the world in the year 1000 B.C.
- An interesting map, on Wiki -
I can't vouch for its accuracy and/or biases, but it appears useful. I
wanted to copy it to our group's photo files, but those files take
only JPEG, and this one is PNG, and when I try to JPEG it, it comes
out too small to view the details, whereas on the original Wiki site
it can be enlarged with additional clicks.
- An A to Z guide to Native history
Another in an occasional series highlighting the people and events of American Indian historyBy John Christian Hopkins
Diné BureauAmerican Indian history is often ignored or glossed over in school, so here is a quick ABC guide to Native history:A: The Articles of Confederation that Benjamin Franklin crafted to help guide the new American colonies toward democracy borrowed heavily from Iroquois law.B: Chief Bender was an early baseball star for the Philadelphia As. He was the first native elected to baseballs Hall of Fame.C: The Code Talkers hold a special place in American history, playing a pivotal role in the winning of the Pacific Theater in World War II. Though associated mainly with the Navajo, several other tribes also contributed their own code talkers.D: The Dawes Act of 1887 began as a misguided attempt to civilize the Indian and ended up being one of the biggest land grabs in history. Deciding that Indians needed to become farmers, the Act divided Indian reservations into individual allotments and after everyone in the tribe had an acre or two, the rest of the reservation was opened to white settlement.E: Charles Alexander Eastman, a member of the Lakota Nation, was the first native to graduate from medical school.F: Born a slave, Henry O. Flipper was the first black officer to graduate from West Point. Baseless charges were leveled against him and he was dishonorably discharged. President Clinton pardoned Flipper in 1999.G: Geronimo, perhaps the most feared Indian leader, died at Fort Sill in 1909.H: Gen. William Henry Harrison became a hero for destroying an Indian encampment at Tippecanoe during the War of 1812. His slogan for his successful White House bid was Tippecanoe and Tyler, too!I: The Cleveland baseball team has taken heat in modern times for calling themselves Indians and using the Chief Wahoo logo. Originally, when the issue first came to light, the team claimed it named itself in honor of Louis Sockalexis, a popular native star in the late 19th century. However old newspaper accounts of the team adopting its new name dont mention Sockalexis at all.J: Chief Josephs skilled oratory put a human face on the struggles of American Indians and won much sympathy from the public. He tried to lead the Nez Perce to Canada , but was captured within sight of the border when he stopped to let his people spend one last night in their homeland.K: King Philips War (1675-76) devastates New England but also leads to the end of Indian power in the region.L: Abraham Lincoln reviewed the case of nearly 400 Sioux Indian men charged in the Little Crow uprising of 1862. All had been sentenced to hang, but Lincoln pardoned most still the 38 hanged constituted the largest mass hanging in U.S. history.M: Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall decided in favor of the Cherokees, who claimed that the state of Georgia was illegally trying to steal their lands. However, President Andrew Jackson reportedly said John Marshall has made his ruling, now lets see him enforce it. Thus began the Trail of Tears.N: For the Inuit, Nanook is the bear god of hunting. To be successful, hunters must not anger him.O: Osceola was a young Seminole leader that the U.S. was never able to defeat in battle. Inviting him to a peace conference, the soldiers captured him under a flag of truce and imprisoned him until he died.P: Gen. Ely Parker, a member of the Iroquois, was an engineer and became the first native to head the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Political foes outmaneuvered Parker and brought charges against him. Though acquitted of the charges, Parker soon resigned.Q: Quanah Parker was half Comanche and half white. He was one of the last of the tribes great war chiefs and then settled down to become a wealthy and influential person for many decades.R: Red Cloud led the Sioux in their uprising of 1866-68. It is the only time that the U.S. officially surrendered to an Indian tribe.S: Technically, the Third Seminole War has never ended. The remaining Seminoles slipped into the Everglades and attempts to capture them proved too costly, so the U.S. just ignored them.T: Jim Thorpe, a Sauk and Fox Indian, has been considered the greatest all-around athlete in history following an unsurpassed performance in the 1912 Olympics.U: Uncas was sachem of the Mohegans, and a plotter who fanned the flames of war in colonial New England by spreading false rumors of impending attacks by Pequots and Narragansetts.V: Veeho was a Cheyenne trickster who tried to steal the sunlight.W: Stand Watie was a Cherokee and the last Confederate general to surrender.X: Xelas was an Indian god of the northwest who tried to improve upon the world. Eventually he turned himself into a mountain.Y: Juan Chief Yellowhorse was a Navy airman. He flew 69 missions to supply people in West Germany as the Berlin Wall was erected.Z: Hermann Zeigner was one of two dozen members of the 7th Cavalry to win the medal of honor for conspicuous bravery during the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee.John Christian Hopkins can be reached at hopkins1960@...
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