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Re: One tragedy of the endless Iraq war...

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  • Susan
    Stan, All, I d not seen this link at any of the several lists to which I subscribe. How tragic that the land which birthed the world s first cities and stood
    Message 1 of 2 , Sep 18 7:18 PM
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      Stan, All,

      I'd not seen this link at any of the several lists to which I
      subscribe. How tragic that the land which birthed the world's first
      cities and stood for millinnea is, in a brief period of time another
      irreparable casualty of war. So many across the world consider this
      sacred ground and its history as belonging to all of civilization.
      Thanks for sending the article.

      --- In ancient_waterways_society@yahoogroups.com, "minnesotastan"
      <minnesotastan@...> wrote:
      >
      > I don't want to start a political rant, but noone who posts on this
      > board can fail to be saddened or angered by the following
      information...
      >
      > It is the death of history
      > Special investigation by Robert Fisk
      > Published: 17 September 2007
      >
      > 2,000-year-old Sumerian cities torn apart and plundered by robbers.
      > The very walls of the mighty Ur of the Chaldees cracking under the
      > strain of massive troop movements, the privatisation of looting as
      > landlords buy up the remaining sites of ancient Mesopotamia to strip
      > them of their artefacts and wealth. The near total destruction of
      > Iraq's historic past – the very cradle of human civilisation – has
      > emerged as one of the most shameful symbols of our disastrous
      occupation.
      >
      > Evidence amassed by archaeologists shows that even those Iraqis who
      > trained as archaeological workers in Saddam Hussein's regime are now
      > using their knowledge to join the looters in digging through the
      > ancient cities, destroying thousands of priceless jars, bottles and
      > other artefacts in their search for gold and other treasures.
      >
      > In the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf War, armies of looters moved in on
      > the desert cities of southern Iraq and at least 13 Iraqi museums
      were
      > plundered. Today, almost every archaeological site in southern Iraq
      is
      > under the control of looters.
      >
      > In a long and devastating appraisal to be published in December,
      > Lebanese archaeologist Joanne Farchakh says that armies of looters
      > have not spared "one metre of these Sumerian capitals that have been
      > buried under the sand for thousands of years.
      >
      > "They systematically destroyed the remains of this civilisation in
      > their tireless search for sellable artefacts: ancient cities,
      covering
      > an estimated surface area of 20 square kilometres, which – if
      properly
      > excavated – could have provided extensive new information concerning
      > the development of the human race.
      >
      > "Humankind is losing its past for a cuneiform tablet or a sculpture
      or
      > piece of jewellery that the dealer buys and pays for in cash in a
      > country devastated by war. Humankind is losing its history for the
      > pleasure of private collectors living safely in their luxurious
      houses
      > and ordering specific objects for their collection."
      >
      > Ms Farchakh, who helped with the original investigation into stolen
      > treasures from the Baghdad Archaeological Museum in the immediate
      > aftermath of the invasion of Iraq, says Iraq may soon end up with no
      > history.
      >
      > "There are 10,000 archaeological sites in the country. In the
      > Nassariyah area alone, there are about 840 Sumerian sites; they have
      > all been systematically looted. Even when Alexander the Great
      > destroyed a city, he would always build another. But now the robbers
      > are destroying everything because they are going down to bedrock.
      > What's new is that the looters are becoming more and more organised
      > with, apparently, lots of money.
      >
      > "Quite apart from this, military operations are damaging these sites
      > forever. There's been a US base in Ur for five years and the walls
      are
      > cracking because of the weight of military vehicles. It's like
      putting
      > an archaeological site under a continuous earthquake."
      >
      > Of all the ancient cities of present-day Iraq, Ur is regarded as the
      > most important in the history of man-kind. Mentioned in the Old
      > Testament – and believed by many to be the home of the Prophet
      Abraham
      > – it also features in the works of Arab historians and geographers
      > where its name is Qamirnah, The City of the Moon.
      >
      > Founded in about 4,000 BC, its Sumerian people established the
      > principles of irrigation, developed agriculture and metal-working.
      > Fifteen hundred years later – in what has become known as "the age
      of
      > the deluge" – Ur produced some of the first examples of writing,
      seal
      > inscriptions and construction. In neighbouring Larsa, baked clay
      > bricks were used as money orders – the world's first cheques – the
      > depth of finger indentations in the clay marking the amount of money
      > to be transferred. The royal tombs of Ur contained jewellery,
      daggers,
      > gold, azurite cylindrical seals and sometimes the remains of slaves.
      >
      > US officers have repeatedly said a large American base built at
      > Babylon was to protect the site but Iraqi archaeologist Zainab
      > Bah-rani, a professor of art history and archaeology at Columbia
      > University, says this "beggars belief". In an analysis of the city,
      > she says: "The damage done to Babylon is both extensive and
      > irreparable, and even if US forces had wanted to protect it, placing
      > guards round the site would have been far more sensible than
      > bulldozing it and setting up the largest coalition military
      > headquarters in the region."
      >
      > Air strikes in 2003 left historical monuments undamaged, but
      Professor
      > Bahrani, says: "The occupation has resulted in a tremendous
      > destruction of history well beyond the museums and libraries looted
      > and destroyed at the fall of Baghdad. At least seven historical
      sites
      > have been used in this way by US and coalition forces since April
      > 2003, one of them being the historical heart of Samarra, where the
      > Askari shrine built by Nasr al Din Shah was bombed in 2006."
      >
      > The use of heritage sites as military bases is a breach of the Hague
      > Convention and Protocol of 1954 (chapter 1, article 5) which covers
      > periods of occupation; although the US did not ratify the
      Convention,
      > Italy, Poland, Australia and Holland, all of whom sent forces to
      Iraq,
      > are contracting parties.
      >
      > Ms Farchakh notes that as religious parties gain influence in all
      the
      > Iraqi pro-vinces, archaeological sites are also falling under their
      > control. She tells of Abdulamir Hamdani, the director of antiquities
      > for Di Qar province in the south who desperately – but vainly –
      tried
      > to prevent the destruction of the buried cities during the
      occupation.
      > Dr Hamdani himself wrote that he can do little to prevent "the
      > disaster we are all witnessing and observing".
      >
      > In 2006, he says: "We recruited 200 police officers because we were
      > trying to stop the looting by patrolling the sites as often as
      > possible. Our equipment was not enough for this mission because we
      > only had eight cars, some guns and other weapons and a few radio
      > transmitters for the entire province where 800 archaeological sites
      > have been inventoried.
      >
      > "Of course, this is not enough but we were trying to establish some
      > order until money restrictions within the government meant that we
      > could no longer pay for the fuel to patrol the sites. So we ended up
      > in our offices trying to fight the looting, but that was also before
      > the religious parties took over southern Iraq."
      >
      > Last year, Dr Hamdani's antiquities department received notice from
      > the local authorities, approving the creation of mud-brick factories
      > in areas surrounding Sumerian archaeological sites. But it quickly
      > became apparent that the factory owners intended to buy the land
      from
      > the Iraqi government because it covered several Sumerian capitals
      and
      > other archaeological sites. The new landlord would "dig" the
      > archaeological site, dissolve the "old mud brick" to form the new
      one
      > for the market and sell the unearthed finds to antiquity traders.
      >
      > Dr Hamdani bravely refused to sign the dossier. Ms Farchakh
      says: "His
      > rejection had rapid consequences. The religious parties controlling
      > Nassariyah sent the police to see him with orders to jail him on
      > corruption charges. He was imprisoned for three months, awaiting
      > trial. The State Board of Antiquities and Heritage defended him
      during
      > his trial, as did his powerful tribe. He was released and regained
      his
      > position. The mud-brick factories are 'frozen projects', but reports
      > have surfaced of a similar strategy being employed in other cities
      and
      > in nearby archaeological sites such as the Aqarakouf Ziggarat near
      > Baghdad. For how long can Iraqi archaeologists maintain order? This
      is
      > a question only Iraqi politicians affiliated to the different
      > religious parties can answer, since they approve these projects."
      >
      > Police efforts to break the power of the looters, now with a
      > well-organised support structure helped by tribal leaders, have
      proved
      > lethal. In 2005, the Iraqi customs arrested – with the help of
      Western
      > troops – several antiquities dealers in the town of Al Fajr, near
      > Nasseriyah. They seized hundreds of artefacts and decided to take
      them
      > to the museum in Baghdad. It was a fatal mistake.
      >
      > The convoy was stopped a few miles from Baghdad, eight of the
      customs
      > agents were murdered, and their bodies burnt and left to rot in the
      > desert. The artefacts disappeared. "It was a clear message from the
      > antiquities dealers to the world," Ms Farchakh says.
      >
      > The legions of antiquities looters work within a smooth mass-
      smuggling
      > organisation. Trucks, cars, planes and boats take Iraq's historical
      > plunder to Europe, the US, to the United Arab Emirates and to Japan.
      > The archaeologists say an ever-growing number of internet websites
      > offer Mesopotamian artefacts, objects anywhere up to 7,000 years
      old.
      >
      > The farmers of southern Iraq are now professional looters, knowing
      how
      > to outline the walls of buried buildings and able to break directly
      > into rooms and tombs. The archaeologists' report says: "They have
      been
      > trained in how to rob the world of its past and they have been
      making
      > significant profit from it. They know the value of each object and
      it
      > is difficult to see why they would stop looting."
      >
      > After the 1991 Gulf War, archaeologists hired the previous looters
      as
      > workers and promised them government salaries. This system worked as
      > long as the archaeologists remained on the sites, but it was one of
      > the main reasons for the later destruction; people now knew how to
      > excavate and what they could find.
      >
      > Ms Farchakh adds: "The longer Iraq finds itself in a state of war,
      the
      > more the cradle of civilisation is threatened. It may not even last
      > for our grandchildren to learn from."
      >
      > A land with fields of ancient pottery
      >
      > By Joanne Farchakh, archaeologist
      >
      > Iraq's rural societies are very different to our own. Their concept
      of
      > ancient civilisations and heritage does not match the standards set
      by
      > our own scholars. History is limited to the stories and glories of
      > your direct ancestors and your tribe. So for them, the "cradle of
      > civilisation" is nothing more than desert land with "fields" of
      > pottery that they have the right to take advantage of because, after
      > all, they are the lords of the land and, as a result, the owners of
      > its possessions. In the same way, if they had been able, these
      people
      > would not have hesitated to take control of the oil fields, because
      > this is "their land". Because life in the desert is hard and because
      > they have been "forgotten" by all the governments, their "revenge"
      for
      > this reality is to monitor, and take, every single money-making
      > opportunity. A cylinder seal, a sculpture or a cuneiform tablet
      earns
      > $50 (£25) and that's half the monthly salary of an average
      government
      > employee in Iraq. The looters have been told by the traders that if
      an
      > object is worth anything at all, it must have an inscription on it.
      In
      > Iraq, the farmers consider their "looting" activities to be part of
      a
      > normal working day.
      >
      >
      > http://news.independent.co.uk/fisk/article2970762.ece
      >
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