Re: [ancient_waterways_society] More pictures at the MVAC Website
- Due to flood recovery, preoccupation with many side projects and concerns about an upcoming surgery in less than a week, i've fallen woefully behind my posts. Good golly, although i've chipped and picked here and there, in my actual chronological, methodical skimming of the flow, here i find my inbox still harboring March entries yet unread and full of delightful discoveries.And yet, it's with a wry smile that i give a patient sigh when i read articles like this whose authors still talk about the dramatic DE-population of the Native Americans right around the 1000 - 1050CE mark as being "mysterious". They squirm their data this way and that, as if to writhe and twist their way out of the main point sticking in their faces. There are enough artifacts, traditional rites, symbology, epigraphy, petroglyphs and pictographic evidence to show that there was literate contact with Old World cultures, trading nets and colonies here in the Americas from the Bronze Ages forward. Since this is so, why is it anything but straight line logic that the same ships that brought Plague-infested rats from the Levant to Europe were also traveling here to N.American ports and the populations here? There wasn't an over-hunting of anything. The people dissappeared here for the same reasons nearly 50% of Europeans also perished in the same timeframe.There are scientists who have ascertained that the "Plague" is an indigenous disease among American rodentia and other vermin. They base that assumption on the Columbus paradigm. What if the rodents are carrying Plague along the Rio Grande today because it was brought there by Mediterranean carriers in the 1000's CE? Just because the disease has been there before Euro's came 'this' time in the 1700's, there can be no assumption that it was there BCE and didn't come along at the same time it hit Medieval Europe. We have both BCE and CE Arabic and Celtic scripts at The Equinox Project site in E.Central CA written on the dolomite there. 1000BCE - 1300 CE. The sailors were trading everywhere and bringing their items inland many miles... infested with who knows what fleas.So why speculate obtuse excuses from hunting scenes when the possible reality is easier than the concocted one? (hmmm, isn't there a collary or 'rule' of argument about that somewhere? )-chris
--- On Sat, 3/14/09, Ted Sojka <tedsojka@...> wrote:
From: Ted Sojka <tedsojka@...>
Subject: [ancient_waterways_society] More pictures at the MVAC Website
Date: Saturday, March 14, 2009, 11:00 AMThere are pictures on the MVAC[Back] [Email to a Friend] [Printer Friendly Version]
Finding A Lost SocietyUw-lacrosse Archaeologists Research The Demise Of The Effigy Mounds Culture.
Wisconsin State Journal :: LOCAL :: C1
Wednesday, September 13, 2006
RON SEELY rseely@... 608-252-6131On a summer afternoon in 1998, UW-La Crosse archaeologist Robert "Ernie" Boszhardt descended into the darkness of a southwestern Wisconsin cave rumored to harbor paintings and artifacts left by people of the ancient Effigy Mounds culture.Boszhardt was not expecting much. Such whispered stories of archaeological treasure are common but often turn out to be modern-day graffiti, the "artifacts" actually debris from teenage parties. With the light from the cave's low and narrow entrance fading to dusk behind him, Boszhardt saw plenty of that: doused campfires, scattered beer cans.But as he went deeper, into larger and completely darkened rooms, he saw in the beam of his flashlight half-burned birch bark torches scattered on the floor and ghostly images of animals migrating across the stone walls. Eventually he found himself facing a wall upon which was drawn an entire herd of deer -- many of the females pregnant, with tiny fawns drawn carefully inside of them -- being hunted by figures wielding bows and arrows.Boszhardt had little idea then that the painting he found in Tainter Cave would help solve a long-standing archaeological mystery. Its story of a long-ago deer hunt would help explain the relatively sudden disappearance of the Effigy Mound peoples from their Mississippi River valley haunts sometime after 1000 A.D.Disappearing foodIn an article published late this summer in the American Antiquities journal, Boszhardt and fellow UW-La Crosse archaeologist James Theler offered an eye-opening explanation for the demise of the Effigy Mound culture. Archaeological evidence, they theorized, shows the Effigy Mound people arrived at their fate because they overhunted the white-tailed deer, their primary food source.Boszhardt, 51, and Theler, 60, have spent their entire careers studying the ancient people who once lived in the Mississippi River valley and on the adjacent landscapes of the Driftless Area. But -- as with everyone else who has studied the Late Woodland period when the Effigy Mound cultures thrived -- an explanation for the demise of the mound builders remained elusive. They were in the historical record, Theler said, and then they were not."Within the Effigy Mound culture," Theler said, "there were very distinct pottery types. These were signature ceramics. And they were found everywhere up to A.D. 1050 and then they stop. It has been a tremendous mystery, a tremendous problem for archaeology."But over the past decade, archaeological sleuthing by Theler and Boszhardt and their study of existing information allowed them to write the story of how the Effigy Mound cultures probably disappeared from southwest Wisconsin. The evidence, as is usually true in science, came together over years and in sometimes surprising ways.For example, in the years immediately prior to the disappearance of the Effigy Mound people from the archaeological record, enormous piles, or middens, of mussel shells show up in their camps along the Mississippi. Though interesting, the large size of the middens after 1000 A.D. didn't really click with Theler and Boszhardt until they were having lunch together one day. Boszhardt, Theler said, was talking about how curious it was that the Effigy Mound people were, late in their existence, eating so many mussels, not the most appetizing of foods.Theler recalled realizing, suddenly, that Boszhardt had hit on something. "I said, You mean they were reduced to eating mussels.'"It became an important part of the theory -- faced with the dwindling supply of deer, the people of the Effigy Mound culture had to find other sources of food.Other pieces of the puzzleOther pieces of the puzzle came together. Theler had done extensive studies of Effigy Mound camps in the Bad Axe River Valley in southwestern Wisconsin, marked by an unusual number of mounds. Theler speculated that they likely marked clan hunting territories and there were so many of them because the valleys were becoming filled with people; both deer and another essential, firewood, were becoming scarce.But the art from Tainter Cave seems the most poignant evidence. Boszhardt said archaeological studies of campsites reveal that very few deer were killed during the winter months. Also, their studies showed it was rare to find fetal deer at any time because they weren't hunted. The hunt of pregnant deer depicted on the wall of Tainter Cave was the act of a people desperate for food, Boszhardt said.That theory is echoed by Robert Birmingham, former state archaeologist who also has studied the Effigy Mound culture. Birmingham, who praised the American Antiquities article, said the cave painting -- deep in the cave where no natural light would have aided the artist -- may have been painted by a shaman, a spiritual leader who was, in effect, offering up a prayer.The drawing of fertile deer, Birmingham said, was likely a plea to the spirits to bring the deer back to a starving people.