Thank you for the enjoyable letter. Thirty years ago, my wife and I started home exchanges, some were car-home exchanges. We did 24 of them, one being near Schleswig-Holstein. The German home owner sealed our interest when he told us he lived in Viking land, artifacts every place; something like Indian artifacts in America. The Viking Museum adjacent to the beautiful village of Schleswig-Holstein was outstanding.
It was there the archaeologists discovered evidence of five different ethnic groups. Their finds probably have been duplicated other places.
You mentioned York, England and its Viking history. We also visited there, and their Viking occupation area was found ten feet below the present surface, and in the center of town .. and now is another outstanding museum ... drawing many visitors who spend many dollars and/or euros. I believe York once was a seaport, accessed by deep River Ouse. The land has risen, and that river now is like a canal with locks.
In conclusion and summary to the Viking thing, I would suggest:
: Not all Norse were Vikings.
: Not all Vikings were Norse.
: All historic facts are subject to change hourly
====== After another week in the archives, again I remind you when writing a date to use all four numerals for the year, and letters for the months. Using like 7 8 22 looses its true meaning within weeks or months.
--- On Mon, 4/27/09, Frode Th. Omdahl <f2@...> wrote:
From: Frode Th. Omdahl <f2@...>
Subject: [ancient_waterways_society] Re: Vikings and things
Date: Monday, April 27, 2009, 2:18 PM
thank you for the information on the Chincoteague Pony. I have always believed that there must have been horses/ponys in America before Columbus came, because of the "Viking" colonies I am convinced were there. According to the book Discovering the Mysteries of Ancient America, edited by Frank Joseph, it is proved that the the Maine Coon-cats are a mixture of an unknown, extinct breed and the Norwegian Forest Cat race. So - where did they come from?
I will not be surprised if it should turn out that DNA tests can confirm a close relationship between this pony race and Icelandic horses.
A few comments to the rest of your information: In 2005 I was one of the speakers at the AAPS (or AAAPF as it was called then) conference on hte UP in Michigan. My wife and I were so fortunate then to have Fred Rydholm as our guide for a whole day in the Marquette area, and were invited
to his and June's home for lunch, before we sat on the beach for some hours, talking, the day before the conference started.
About the Vikings: It is regarded as a fact that the "Viking Age" lasted from the attack on the Lindisfarne Monastry og the east coast of England in 793, and until the Norwegian king Harald Hardråde ("Hard ruler") fell at Stamford Bridge in 1066. The term "viking" is still discussed, and there are several theories of where it comes from and what it means. My opinion is that the word is connected either to the Oslo Fjord, which then carried the name "Viken", or - more possible, to the term -wick, -wic or -wich, the suffix in several city names in Northern Europe - then and now. The English city of York was first named Jorvik by the people that established it - namely the Vikings. The -wick suffix is also said to be connected to the Latin word vicus, meaning trade or trade post. The Norwegian (and also Old Norse) word vik,
meaning cove or inlet, a small bay, is also very probable to have influenced on the viking term. The vikings were not only pirates - they were tradesmen and colonizers by peaceful means also. They colonized parts of Ireland, the Isle of Man, The Orkneys, Faroe Islands, Shetland, Iceland, Greenland, parts of England and Northern France, and great parts of Rusland along the rivers down to the Caspian Sea. The Berbs in Northern Africa are said to have Norse ancestors, as well as the people living on the Canary Islands.
So: Viking is not a race, it was a kind of occupation for some 300 years. Most Americans apparently don't know that. And thanks to Kirk Douglas and guys like him, the world believes that the "Vikings" wore helmets with horns. Only one helmet is found from that period of time, and it did NOT have horns. Horned helmets have indeed been found, and even depicted on Scandinavian rock art, but they are dated to the Bornze Age, 1300 - 3000
years BEFORE the Viking Age.
About the runes, and Barry Fell's theories about this, I will have to come back to that eventually. I am planning to study his works more, and see if it is possible to read other Scandinavian rock art in the way he describes. But I still have things to learn there. Runes were used in Scandinavia - or at last some small parts of Scandinavia - all up to the 1800s, but they mainly went out of use about 1400 - 1500. Another member of this group mentioned the Kensington Stone a couple of days ago, intimating that it was a hoax. It might very well be so, but I doubt it. There are a lot of indications that a Norse expedition was in Vinland and beyond in the 1350s and -60s, looking for the people that had "dissappeared" from Northern (Western) Greenland, still owing taxes to both the king and the archbishop of Norway and Sweden. These, or others, can have chiseled the message into the stone on one of many, many
trips made by Norse on the American continent.
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Frode Th. Omdahl
Andrénbakken 10 A
Telefon 66 90 19 41 / 97 09 32 17