Re: Reconquista continued
Jacques Presseault wrote:
Britain created Kuwait? Hardly. Sounds like somebody who's rationalizing Saddam's claims against the country.
Post-WWI Britain in the 1920s was exhausted and hardly likely to undertake large colonial expansion beyond the easy picking up of pieces under the guise of SDN mandates. Arabia desertic interior was not a very tempting target; they did seize Kuwait, creating the place (calling it a country is streatching realities more than a bit) in the process.
Here's how historian William L. Ochsenwald summarized Kuwait's history up to the mid-1960's, writing in Encyclopaedia Britannica:
The origin of the city of Kuwait -- and of the State of Kuwait -- is usually placed at about the beginning of the 18th century, when the Banu 'Utub, a group of families of the 'Anizah tribe in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula, migrated to the area that is now Kuwait. The foundation of the autonomous sheikhdom of Kuwait is dated from 1756, when the settlers decided to appoint a sheikh from the Sabah family. During the 19th century Kuwait developed as a thriving, independent trading community. Toward the end of the century one ruler, 'Abd Allah II (reigned 1866-92), began moving Kuwait closer to the Ottoman Empire, although never placing his country under Ottoman rule.Thus, Kuwait as an independent state existed for almost a century and a half -- arguably nearly two centuries -- before its first treaty with Britain. Continuing Ochsenwald's narrative:
This trend was reversed with the accession of Mubarak the Great, who came to power by assassinating his brother 'Abd Allah -- an act of uncustomary political violence in Kuwait. Mubarak cultivated a close relationship with Britain in order to keep both other European powers and the Ottomans at bay. An 1899 treaty granted Britain control of Kuwait's foreign affairs. Following the outbreak of World War I, Kuwait became a British
At the 1922 Conference of Al- 'Uqayr, Britain negotiated the Kuwait-Saudi border, with substantial territorial loss to Kuwait. A 1923 memorandum set out the border with Iraq based on an unratified 1913 convention.
The first Iraqi claim to Kuwait surfaced in 1938 -- the year oil was discovered in the sheikhdom. Although neither Iraq nor the Ottoman Empire had ever actually ruled Kuwait, Iraq asserted a vague historical title. That year it also offered some rhetorical support to a merchant uprising against the emir. Following the failure of the uprising, called the Majlis Movement, Iraq continued to put forth a claim to at least part of Kuwait, notably the strategic islands of Bubiyan and Al-Warbah.
On June 19, 1961, Britain recognized Kuwait's independence. Six days later, however, Iraq renewed its claim, which was now rebuffed by first British, then Arab League forces. It was not until 1963 that a new Iraqi regime formally recognized both Kuwait's independence and, subsequently, its borders, while continuing to press for access to the islands.
- Granada turned over coastal towns to the Marinids at later stages to act as
basing areas for their armies. Ill dig up the reference when I return home.
>From: Michael Edward McNeil <MEMcNeil@...>_________________________________________________________________
>I found my source in this regard: Juan Vernet Ginés (Emeritus Professor of
>Arabic, University of Barcelona) and María J. Viguera (Professor of Islamic
>History, Complutensian University of Madrid), "Muslim Spain," Encyclopaedia
>Britannica, 1997 CD Edition:
>"... While they permitted the influx of volunteers from Africa to enroll in
>their army to fight against the Christians, they never permitted the
>crossing of the Strait of Gibraltar by massive organized contingents."
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