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Concerning loanwords from other languages into English....

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  • Dale A. Wood
    Loanwords from 12+ Unexpected Languages     Posted by: robert-blau@webtv.net robert-blau@webtv.net rb2717     Date: Thu Apr 28, 2011 8:26 pm ((PDT))
    Message 1 of 1 , May 6, 2011

      Loanwords from 12+ Unexpected Languages
          Posted by: "robert-blau@..." robert-blau@... rb2717
          Date: Thu Apr 28, 2011 8:26 pm ((PDT))

      From: info@... (Daily Writing Tips) Date: Thu, April 28, 2011, 12:37pm (CDT+5) To: robert-blau@...
      Subject: Loanwords
      from 12+ Unexpected Languages - DailyWritingTips 
      Unfortunately, this article did not even mention the most simple and obvious loanwords:
      From Danish, Old Norse, whatever the Vikings were speaking at the time: all of the third-person plural pronouns in English:
      { they, them, their, theirs }. English is very unusual in this: even when an area (such as parts of China) have been repeatedly overrun by invaders, all of the personal pronouns are among the least-likely words to be changed. In other words, lots of the nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, etc., can be replaced by new words, but the personal pronouns usually remain the same.
      This could also be true subordinating pronouns and interrogatory pronouns:
      Just compare the interrogatory pronouns in English with those in modern German:
      { who, what, when, where, how, why ?}, with
      { wer, was, wann, wo, wie, warum ?}
      German also has a lot of compound pronouns that sound somewhat archaic in English because they mean things like
      { whereby, wherefore, where from, where to, wherein, how come, and some others that are translated as just "why"}
      Note: "woher" means "where from" and "wohin" means "where to", and the second part of these is frequently separable and they show up at the end of the sentence.
      Hence, we can see how the English and German pronouns are related via the Anglo-Saxon-Jute language.
      If someone asks me "Wo kommen Sie her?" or "Woher kommen Sie?", this means "Where do you come from?", and I answer either, "Ich komme aus Amerika," or "Ich komme aus Tennessee," (my birthplace), or "Ich komme aus Alabama"  (my current residence).
      [Sorry, but I have never resided in the Carolinas in my life, though I have visited there extensively.]  
      German speakers KNOW where places like these are located, and there is no need to explain further -- quite unlike the foolish people of www.ImdB.com, who persist in such balderdash as "California, USA", "New York, USA", and "Texas, USA". My response to this is that for people who do not know that New York is part of the USA, they don't need to know, and likewise, England, Scotland, and Wales are part of the United Kingdom -- and it is foolish to tell people so.
      Likewise for Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, British Columbia, Manitoba, etc. People who do not know that these are parts of Canada do not deserve to be told.  
      Also, there is the Scandinavian word "sky" in English.
      In German, this word is "der Himmel", which is more closely related to the word "heaven" or "the heavens" in English.
      Also, there was no mention of word in English that came from modern German, such as "angst" and "kindergarten".
      Modern German has borrowed a lot more English words than vice-versa. Part of this is the strong influence of hundreds of thousands of soldiers and airmen stationed in West Germany for decades, and these men and women were Americans, Britons, and Canadians. As for one notable word in this regard: my teachers had told me that the native German word "Rechnenautomat" is practically archaic because beginning in about 1948 - 49, it has been replaced by "computer" !
      As for the numerous Irish Gaelic (Erse) words that have been adopted into English, no mention was made of the word "donnybrook". This is a word for a big fistfight or a loud argument among a good number of people -- such as in a saloon, at a football game, a baseball game, or a soccer game.
      By the way, yesterday was the celebration of "Cinco de Mayo", a national holiday in Mexico**.
      The article made no mention of the words in English that come from Spanish. There are scores of geographic name, and also words like "vamoose", which comes from the Spanish verb "vamose". Then, there are Spanish words like {mesa, taco, tortilla, enchilada, guacamole, etc.} and the geographic names like {California, Colorado, Florida, Pasadena, Texas, Rio Grande, Verde River, and scores more}. Likewise:
      Vista del Mar means "view of the sea"
      Buena Vista means "good view"
      Palo Alto means "tall tree", though "palo alto" is also the name of a species of a tree.
      Palo Verde means "green tree"
      Verde River means "green river"
      Rio Negro means "black river"
      Rio Colorado means "red river"
      Mesa Verde means "green mesa"  
      Oddly, the word "Palomar" seems to have come from a native language of southern California, then into Spanish, then into English. It has something to go with pigeons or pigeons nests, so it seems that the "palo" doesn't have anything to to with trees, and the "mar" doesn't have anything to do with the ocean. So, Mount Palomar in San Diego County seems to be a place where, centuries ago, lots of pigeons lived.
      Now, there are not many pigeons, but rather the very large Hale Telescope.
      **On May 5, 1862, the Mexicans had a major victory over the invading French Army and it allies. Nevertheless, the French and their Austrian Emperor of Mexico, Maximilian, held out while they hoped for recognition by the Confederate states and a Confederate victory over the Yankees.
      Maximilian and his army held out in around Mexico City, and other important cities, until President Juarez of Mexico and his army won the final victory in 1867. At that point, Juarez decided that he had no choice by to have Maximilian sent before the firing squad and shot to death.
      Juarez was an unusual man in Mexican politics in that he was completely or nearly from a Native American descent.
      Usually, politics and big businesses in Mexico have been dominated by those who are as purely Spanish as possible.
      Another exception was President Vincent Fox, whose father was from a German or Austrian family. Their family name was "Fuchs" ("fox" in German), and while the family lived in the United States, they changed this to "Fox".
      Then, when Fox's father moved to Mexico, he did not change it again to the Spanish word "Zorro" for "fox".
      To me, that would have been wacky: "Presidente Zorro" ??
      Of course, back in the late 1950s and early 1960s, I LOVED the Zorro TV show -- starring Guy Williams as Zorro.

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