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RE: [All Paralegals Networking etc ] Comprehensive guide to state by state requirements for lawyers

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  • Celia C. Elwell, RP
    There was also an article on the standards for law schools in www.law.com today. It argues that the standards are too tough. Celia C. Elwell, RP ... From:
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 5, 2005
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      There was also an article on the standards for law schools in www.law.com
      today. It argues that the standards are too tough.

      Celia C. Elwell, RP

      -----Original Message-----
      From: allparalegalsnetworkingetc@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:allparalegalsnetworkingetc@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Who
      cares
      Sent: Sunday, September 25, 2005 12:13 PM
      To: ParalegalGateway@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [All Paralegals Networking etc ] Comprehensive guide to state
      by state requirements for lawyers


      Hey all: I am attaching a link to a document that gives a state by state
      breakdown of what you need for a lawyer for lawschool (or not, if you are a
      law reader), internships, hours for CLE's ect.) I strongly recommend
      everyone to look at this report as it has substantial information for all
      paralegals and future attorneys!

      I am giving a text preview in the below section, but the report is a
      cognitive breakdown of what is required to become an attorney in any state,
      including felony convictions, education, LSAT's, ect. I strongly suggest
      looking at the original, as the below text loses a lot of formatting in the
      transition from PDF to a message board.

      http://www.ncbex.org/pubs/pdf/031505_COMPGUIDE2005.pdf

      Michael
      SFLParalegal

      Comprehensive Guide to
      NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF
      BAR EXAMINERS
      AND
      AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION
      SECTION OF LEGAL EDUCATION
      AND ADMISSIONS TO THE BAR
      Bar Admission
      Requirements
      Bar Admission
      Requirements
      2005
      Comprehensive Guide to
      NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF
      BAR EXAMINERS
      AND
      AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION
      SECTION OF LEGAL EDUCATION
      AND ADMISSIONS TO THE BAR
      Bar Admission
      Requirements
      This publication represents the joint work product of the National
      Conference of Bar Examiners and ABA Section of
      Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar. The views expressed herein have
      not been approved by the House of
      Delegates or Board of Governors of the American Bar Association nor has such
      approval been sought. Accordingly, these
      materials should not be construed as representing the policy of the American
      Bar Association.
      2005
      EDITORS
      ERICA MOESER
      MARGARET FULLER CORNEILLE
      2005
      NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BAR EXAMINERS
      402 West Wilson Street, Madison, WI 53703-3614
      (608) 280-8550 . TDD (608) 661-1275 . Fax (608) 280-8552
      www.ncbex.org
      Chair: David R. Boyd, Montgomery, AL
      President: Erica Moeser, Madison, WI
      Immediate Past Chair: Alice E. Richmond, Boston, MA
      Chair-Elect: Marva Jones Brooks, Atlanta, GA
      Secretary: Diane F. Bosse, Buffalo, NY
      Board of Trustees: Donald H. Funk, Springfield, IL
      Hon. Sam Hanson, St. Paul, MN
      Erias A. Hyman, Washington, DC
      Philip M. Madden, Long Beach, CA
      Marcia J. Mengel, Columbus, OH
      John L. Oliver, Jr., Cape Girardeau, MO
      Rebecca S. Thiem, Bismarck, ND
      Frederick Y. Yu, Denver, CO
      ABA House of Delegates Representative: Isidoro Berkman, Oakland, CA
      AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SECTION OF LEGAL EDUCATION AND ADMISSIONS TO THE
      BAR
      321 North Clark Street, Chicago, IL 60610
      (312) 988-6738 . Fax (312) 988-5681
      www.abanet.org/legaled
      Chairperson: Hon. Elizabeth B. Lacy, Richmond, VA
      Chairperson-Elect: Steven R. Smith, San Diego, CA
      Vice Chairperson: William R. Rakes, Roanoke, VA
      Secretary: Hon. Solomon Oliver, Jr., Cleveland, OH
      Immediate Past Chairperson: Pauline A. Schneider, Washington, DC
      Section Delegates, HOD: Jose R. Garcia-Pedrosa, Miami, FL
      Sidney S. Eagles, Jr., Raleigh, NC
      Board of Governors Liaison: Pauline A. Schneider, Washington, DC
      Consultant: John A. Sebert
      Deputy Consultant: Stephen T. Yandle
      Associate Consultant: Camille deJorna
      2004-2005 BAR ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE
      Chairperson: Marcia J. Mengel, Columbus, OH
      Vice Chairperson: Paul F. Teich, Boston, MA
      Hon. Gerry L. Alexander, Olympia, WA
      Isidoro Berkman, Oakland, CA
      Jerome Braun, San Francisco, CA
      Alan Buchmann, St. Petersburg Beach, FL
      Michael J. Churgin, Austin, TX
      Margaret Fuller Corneille, St. Paul, MN
      Hon. Linda S. Dalianis, Concord, NH
      Laurie A. Gibson, Durham, ME
      Erica Moeser, Madison, WI
      Malcolm L. Morris, DeKalb, IL
      Hon. Joseph F. Murphy, Jr., Towson, MD
      Burnele V. Powell, Columbia, SC
      Jan Stiglitz, San Diego, CA
      Rebecca S. Thiem, Bismarck, ND
      Frederic White, San Francisco, CA
      Steven L. Willborn, Lincoln, NE
      Copyright © 2005 National Conference of Bar Examiners and American Bar
      Association
      Copies of this publication may be obtained directly from NCBE or the ABA
      Service Center:
      NCBE: telephone (608-280-8550); fax (608-280-8552); e-mail:
      contact@...; Web: www.ncbex.org
      ABA: telephone (800-285-2221); e-mail abasvcctr@...; fax
      (312-988-5528); Web:www.abanet.org/legaled
      For ABA orders, please reference the product code, #5290087(05ED), when
      placing your order.
      ISBN: 1-57073-959-5
      TABLE OF CONTENTS
      PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
      CODE OF RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR BAR EXAMINERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
      CHART I: BASIC INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
      CHART II: CHARACTER AND FITNESS DETERMINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
      CHART III: PERMITTED MEANS OF LEGAL STUDY (BAR EXAM) . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
      CHART IV: ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
      CHART V: APPLICATION DATES & MBE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
      CHART VI: MPRE, MPT & MEE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
      CHART VII: GRADING & SCORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      CHART VIII: ADMISSION ON MOTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
      CHART IX: RECIPROCITY, COMITY & ATTORNEYS EXAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
      CHART X: FOREIGN LAW SCHOOL GRADUATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
      CHART XI: BAR ADMISSION FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
      CHART XII: OTHER LICENSES AND REGISTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
      CHART XIII: MANDATORY CONTINUING LEGAL EDUCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
      DIRECTORY OF STATE BAR ADMISSION AGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
      v
      PREFACE
      This publication is an updated edition of the Comprehensive
      Guide to Bar Admission Requirements, first published in 1984.
      It replaces the 2004 edition. The National Conference of Bar
      Examiners, the ABA Section of Legal Education and
      Admissions to the Bar, and the Section's Bar Admissions
      Committee wish to thank the state bar admission administrators
      for their cooperation in furnishing the data.
      Special thanks are due to Debra Martin at the NCBE for her
      work on this publication. The text that appears in this booklet
      reflects an editorial decision to leave intact much of the
      information supplied by bar admissions agencies; that is, some
      language consistencies have been foregone in order to preserve
      the words as received from the jurisdictions. Responses reflect
      the court rule, not situations under which waivers are granted.
      We hope that by working closely with the state bar admission
      administrators in compiling and verifying the information
      contained in this publication, we have produced charts that will
      be useful to everyone concerned with the bar admissions
      process.
      Because bar admission rules and practices are subject to change,
      however, this publication should be used only as a general
      guide. Specific, up-to-date answers to questions concerning bar
      admissions should be obtained from the bar admission agency in
      the jurisdiction involved. A directory of bar admission agencies
      begins on page 43.
      Erica Moeser
      President
      National Conference of Bar
      Examiners
      Margaret Fuller Corneille
      Bar Admissions Committee
      ABA Section of Legal Education
      and Admissions to the Bar
      vii
      The American Bar Association, the National
      Conference of Bar Examiners and the Association
      of American Law Schools make the following recommendations
      to the duly constituted authorities in
      the several states who are vested with responsibilities
      and duties in respect to the admission to the
      bar, and to lawyers and the law schools generally.
      The Code of Recommended Standards for Bar
      Examiners has been adopted by the policy-making
      bodies of the ABA, NCBE and AALS. An initial
      Code was adopted in 1959. A revised Code was
      adopted in 1980. Amendments adding the present
      moral character and fitness standards were adopted
      in February 1987; additional amendments bringing
      the Code to its present form were adopted in August
      1987, with ABA adoption by the House of Delegates
      on August 11, 1987. The recommended standards
      represent the results of accumulated study and
      experience of a number of lawyers, examiners, and
      teachers of high standing. They are offered solely in
      the hope that they will afford guidance and assistance
      and will lead toward uniformity of objectives
      and practices in bar admissions throughout the
      United States.
      I. BAR EXAMINERS
      1. Qualifications. A bar examiner should be a person
      with scholarly attainments and an affirmative interest
      in legal education and requirements for admission to
      the bar. A bar examiner should be willing and able to
      devote whatever time is necessary to perform the
      duties of the office. A bar examiner should be
      conscientious, studious, thorough and diligent in
      learning the methods, problems and progress of legal
      education, in preparing bar examinations, and in
      seeking to improve the examination, its administration
      and requirements for admission to the bar. A bar
      examiner should be just and impartial in
      recommending the admission of applicants. A bar
      examiner should exhibit courage, judgment and
      moral stamina in refusing to recommend applicants
      who lack adequate general and professional
      preparation or who lack moral character and fitness.
      2. Tenure. A bar examiner should be appointed by and
      be responsible to the judicial branch of government,
      and should be appointed for a fixed term, but should
      be eligible for reappointment if performing work of
      high quality. Members of bar examining authorities
      should be appointed for staggered terms to ensure
      continuity of policy, but there should be sufficient
      rotation in the personnel of each authority to bring
      new views to the authority and to ensure continuing
      interest in its work.
      3. Conflicts of Interest. A bar examiner should not
      have adverse interests, conflicting duties or
      inconsistent obligations that will in any way interfere
      or appear to interfere with the proper administration
      of the examiner's functions. A bar examiner should
      not participate directly or indirectly in courses for
      the preparation of applicants for bar admission. The
      conduct of a bar examiner should be such that there
      may be no suspicion that the examiner's judgment
      may be swayed by improper considerations.
      II. ELIGIBILITY OF APPLICANTS
      4. Burden of Proof. The burden of establishing
      eligibility to take the bar examination should be on
      the applicant.
      5. College Education. Each applicant should be
      required to have successfully completed at least
      three-fourths of the work acceptable for a
      baccalaureate degree at an accredited college or
      university before beginning the study of law.
      6. Law School Education. Each applicant should be
      required to have completed all requirements for
      graduation with a J.D. or LL.B. degree from a law
      school approved by the American Bar Association
      before being eligible to take a bar examination, and
      to have graduated therefrom before being eligible for
      admission to practice. Neither private study,
      correspondence study or law office training, nor age
      or experience should be substituted for law school
      education.
      III. MORAL CHARACTER AND FITNESS
      7. Purpose. The primary purpose of character and
      fitness screening before admission to the bar is the
      protection of the public and the system of justice.
      The lawyer licensing process is incomplete if only
      testing for minimal competence is undertaken. The
      public is inadequately protected by a system that
      fails to evaluate character and fitness as those
      elements relate to the practice of law. The public
      interest requires that the public be secure in its
      expectation that those who are admitted to
      the bar are worthy of the trust and confidence clients
      may reasonably place in their lawyers.
      8. Organization and Funding. A body appointed by
      and responsible to the judicial branch of government
      (which may be separate from the bar examining
      authority but which will be referred to hereinafter as
      the bar examining authority) should administer
      character and fitness screening. It should perform its
      duties in a manner that assures the protection of the
      CODE OF RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR BAR EXAMINERS
      viii
      public by recommending or admitting only those
      who qualify. Sufficient funding and staffing should
      be provided to permit appropriate investigation of all
      information pertaining to applicants' character and
      fitness.
      9. Development and Publication of Standards.
      Character and fitness standards should be articulated
      and published by each bar examining authority.
      Some variation in rules and interpretations among
      the bar examining authorities may be appropriate, as
      character and fitness screening is the responsibility
      of each individual bar examining authority.
      Standards should be applied in a consistent manner
      and interpretative material should be developed in
      furtherance of this objective.
      10. The Investigative Process. The bar examining
      authority may appropriately place on the applicant
      the burden of producing information. Each
      investigation should be initiated by requiring the
      applicant to execute under oath a thorough
      application and to sign an authorization and release
      form that extends to the bar examining authority and
      to any persons or institutions supplying information
      thereto. The applicant should be informed of the
      consequences of failing to produce information
      requested by the application and of making material
      omissions or misrepresentations. The bar examining
      authority should frame each question on the
      application in a manner that renders the scope of
      inquiry clear and unambiguous. The bar examining
      authority should have the power to cause witnesses
      and documents or other records to be subpoenaed
      and to administer oaths or affirmations.
      11. Confidentiality and Due Process. Each jurisdiction
      should adopt a rule respecting confidentiality of
      records and sources that balances the need to protect
      the applicant, the sources, and the public. Minimally,
      this rule should provide confidentiality of records
      and sources for purposes other than cooperation with
      another bar examining authority. The bar examining
      authority should adopt a rule respecting due process
      that specifies procedures which include notice to
      applicants and an opportunity to appear, with right to
      counsel, before the committee before a final adverse
      determination is made. The bar examining authority
      should adopt a rule respecting a permissible
      reapplication date for applicants who, after being
      afforded due process, are denied admission on
      character and fitness grounds.
      12. Standard of Character and Fitness. A lawyer
      should be one whose record of conduct justifies the
      trust of clients, adversaries, courts and others with
      respect to the professional duties owed to them. A
      record manifesting a significant deficiency in the
      honesty, trustworthiness, diligence or reliability of an
      applicant may constitute a basis for denial of
      admission.
      13. Relevant Conduct. The revelation or discovery of
      any of the following should be treated as cause for
      further inquiry before the bar examining authority
      decides whether the applicant possesses the character
      and fitness to practice law:
      unlawful conduct
      academic misconduct
      making of false statements, including omissions
      misconduct in employment
      acts involving dishonesty, fraud, deceit or
      misrepresentation
      abuse of legal process
      neglect of financial responsibilities
      neglect of professional obligations
      violation of an order of a court
      evidence of mental or emotional instability
      evidence of drug or alcohol dependency
      denial of admission to the bar in another
      jurisdiction on character and fitness grounds
      disciplinary action by a lawyer disciplinary
      agency or other professional disciplinary
      agency of any jurisdiction
      14. Access to Information. Access to bar admission
      character and fitness information, bar disciplinary
      information and criminal justice information is
      particularly essential and should be facilitated by
      legislation, rule making, and inter-jurisdictional
      cooperation.
      15. Use of Information. The bar examining authority
      should determine whether the present character and
      fitness of an applicant qualifies the applicant for
      admission. In making this determination through the
      processes described above, the following factors
      should be considered in assigning weight and
      significance to prior conduct:
      the applicant's age at the time of the conduct
      the recency of the conduct
      the reliability of the information concerning the
      conduct
      the seriousness of the conduct
      the cumulative effect of conduct or information
      the evidence of rehabilitation
      the applicant's positive social contributions since
      the conduct
      the applicant's candor in the admissions process
      the materiality of any omissions or
      misrepresentations.
      ix
      The investigation conducted by the bar examining
      authority should be thorough in every aspect and
      should be concluded expeditiously. It should be
      recognized that information may be developed in the
      course of the investigation that is not germane to the
      question of licensure and should be disregarded.
      Conduct that is merely socially unacceptable or the
      physical disability of the applicant is not relevant to
      character and fitness for law practice and should not
      be considered.
      IV. BAR EXAMINATIONS
      16. Necessity of Written Examination. A person who is
      not a member of the bar of another jurisdiction of the
      United States should not be admitted to practice until
      the person has passed a written bar examination
      administered under terms and conditions equivalent
      to those applicable to all other applicants for
      admission to practice. An applicant may also be
      required to pass a separate examination on the
      subject of professional responsibility, such as the
      Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination.
      17. Opportunity for Examination. Each examination
      should be held at such times as will assure sufficient
      opportunity to the applicants to prepare therefore
      without interfering with the completion of law
      school studies.
      18. Purpose of Examination. The bar examination
      should test the ability of an applicant to identify
      legal issues in a statement of facts, such as may be
      encountered in the practice of law, to engage in a
      reasoned analysis of the issues and to arrive at a
      logical solution by the application of fundamental
      legal principles, in a manner which demonstrates a
      thorough understanding of these principles. The
      examination should not be designed primarily to test
      for information, memory or experience. Its purpose
      is to protect the public, not to limit the number of
      lawyers admitted to practice.
      19. Subjects of Examination. In selection of subjects
      for bar examination questions, the emphasis should
      be upon the basic and fundamental subjects that are
      regularly taught in law schools. However, subjects of
      substantial local importance may be included.
      Reasonable notice of the subject matter to be
      covered by the examination should be made
      available to the law schools and the applicants.
      20. Questions and Format. The bar examination may
      include multiple-choice questions, such as those on
      the Multistate Bar Examination, and should include
      essay questions. Questions should not be based on
      unusual or unique local case or statutory law, except
      in subjects with respect to which local variations are
      highly significant and applicants are informed that
      answers should be based upon local law. An essay
      question should not be repeated except after a
      substantial lapse of time. Questions should not be
      labeled as to subject matter and should not be so
      worded as to be deceptive or misleading. Sufficient
      time should be allowed to permit the applicant to
      make a careful analysis of the questions and to
      prepare well-reasoned answers to essay questions.
      21. Preparation of Questions. The bar examining
      authority may use the services of its members or
      staff or other qualified persons, including out-ofstate
      law teachers, to prepare bar examination
      questions and it may also use the services of the
      National Conference of Bar Examiners. Before an
      essay question is accepted for use, every point of law
      in the question should be thoroughly briefed and the
      question should be analyzed and approved by the
      members of the bar examining authority.
      22. Handicapped Applicants. Without impairing the
      integrity of the examination process, the bar
      examining authority should adopt procedures
      allowing physically handicapped applicants to have
      assistance, equipment or additional time as it
      determines to be reasonably necessary under the
      circumstances to assure their fair and equal
      opportunity to perform on the examination.
      V. GRADING BAR EXAMINATIONS
      23. Non-Identity Grading. Each jurisdiction should
      establish procedures which assure that the identity of
      each applicant in the grading process is not known to
      any person having responsibility for grading or
      determining whether the applicant passes or fails
      until the grades of all applicants have been finally
      determined.
      24. Grading Process. The bar examining authority may
      use the services of its members or staff or other
      qualified persons to grade answers to essay
      questions. If practical, all answers to a particular
      essay question should be graded by the same person.
      If multiple graders are used, the bar examining
      authority should adopt procedures for the calibration
      of the graders to assure uniformity of the grading
      standards. The bar examining authority may adopt
      procedures dispensing with the grading of the
      answers to some of the essay questions of applicants
      who attain high scores on multiple-choice questions,
      but no failing score should be given except upon the
      basis of the grades of the applicant on all questions.
      The grading process and grade distributions should
      be periodically reviewed in order to assure
      uniformity in grading.
      x
      25. Rights of Failing Applicants. The decision of the
      bar examining authority as to whether an applicant
      has passed or failed a bar examination should be
      final. An applicant who fails a bar examination
      should have the right, within a reasonable period of
      time after announcement of the results of the
      examination, to see the applicant's answers to the
      essay questions and the grades assigned thereto, and
      to compare each of these answers with an approved
      answer.
      26. Re-examination. An applicant who has failed to
      pass three or more bar examinations may be required
      to complete additional study prescribed by the bar
      examining authority, or to establish that the reasons
      for previous failures no longer exist, before being
      permitted to take any subsequent examination.
      VI. ADMINISTRATION
      27. Adequacy of Staff. The bar examining authority
      should be provided with adequate administrative and
      clerical staff.
      28. Publication of Results. The bar admission authority
      should announce the numbers of applicants who
      have passed and who have failed the bar
      examination as a whole and by law school.
      29. Periodic Studies. A thorough study should be
      periodically made of the bar examination results to
      determine its effectiveness, to discover defects and
      to suggest possible improvements in the bar
      examination system. Each jurisdiction should make
      the results of these studies available to other
      jurisdictions upon request.
      30. Conferences with Applicants. The bar examining
      authority should make representatives available to
      meet with potential applicants upon invitation at
      least once each year at each of the law schools in the
      jurisdiction. Such representatives should be prepared
      to discuss general purposes, policies, and procedures
      of the examination.
      31. Committee on Cooperation. Each jurisdiction
      should have an active committee on cooperation
      consisting of representatives of the bar examining
      authority, the law schools, the judiciary and the bar
      which meets at least annually to consider issues
      relating to legal education, eligibility and admission
      to the bar.
      Charts
      (CHART I - XIII)
      Charts
      (CHART I - XIII)
      3
      See supplemental remarks.
      Is Is there a residence Is registration May students take
      Rules for admission prelegal education requirement for of law exam prior to
      promulgated by: required? applicants? students required? graduation?
      State or Jurisdiction S. Ct. Leg. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
      Alabama X X X X X
      Alaska X X X X X X
      Arizona X X X X X
      Arkansas X X X X X
      California X X X X X X
      Colorado X X X X X
      Connecticut X X X X X
      Delaware X X X X X
      Dist. of Columbia X X X X X
      Florida X X X X X
      Georgia X X X X X
      Hawaii X X X X X
      Idaho X X X X X
      Illinois X X X X X
      Indiana X X X X X
      Iowa X X X X X
      Kansas X X X X X
      Kentucky X X X X X
      Louisiana X X X X X
      Maine X X X X X
      Maryland X X X X X X
      Massachusetts X X X X X X
      Michigan X X X X X X
      Minnesota X X X X X
      Mississippi X X X X X X
      Missouri X X X X X
      Montana X X X X X
      Nebraska X X X X X
      Nevada X X X X X
      New Hampshire X X X X X
      New Jersey X X X X X
      New Mexico X X X X X
      New York X X X X X
      North Carolina X X X X X
      North Dakota X X X X X
      Ohio X X X X X
      Oklahoma X X X X X
      Oregon X X X X X
      Pennsylvania X X X X X
      Rhode Island X X X X X
      South Carolina X X X X X
      South Dakota X X X X X
      Tennessee X X X X X
      Texas X X X X X
      Utah X X X X X
      Vermont X X X X X
      Virginia X X X X X X
      Washington X X X X X
      West Virginia X X X X X
      Wisconsin X X X X X
      Wyoming X X X X X X
      Guam X X X X X
      Northern Mariana Islands X X X X X X
      Palau X X X X X
      Puerto Rico X X X X X X
      Virgin Islands X X X X X
      CHART I: Basic Information
      C H A R T I
      4
      Are the rules for admission to the practice of law in your
      jurisdiction promulgated by the state supreme court or the
      state legislature?
      Alabama Board of Commissioners, with ultimate approval
      in the Supreme Court.
      Connecticut Superior Court.
      District of Columbia Court of Appeals.
      Maryland The statutory requirements are implemented by
      rules adopted by Court of Appeals.
      Massachusetts Rules for admission of attorneys
      promulgated by the Supreme Judicial Court. Board
      of Bar Examiners may make additional rules subject
      to Supreme Judicial Court approval; legislative
      enabling statute.
      Mississippi Board of Bar Examiners, subject to ultimate
      authority in the legislature with Supreme Court
      approval.
      North Carolina Board of Bar Examiners, with ultimate
      approval by the Council of the North Carolina State
      Bar and the Supreme Court.
      Texas Legislature enacts Board's enabling statute;
      Supreme Court adopts rules.
      Virgin Islands Superior Court of the Virgin Islands.
      Virginia Admission by examination: Board of Bar
      Examiners, with ultimate authority in the legislature.
      Admission on motion: Supreme Court of Virginia.
      Do the rules of your jurisdiction require any specific
      period of prelegal education?
      Alabama Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or
      university.
      California Two years of college; total of 60 semester or 90
      quarter units of college credit with an average grade
      at least equal to that required for graduation, or
      attain specific minimum scores on selected general
      exams administered by College Level Examination
      Program (CLEP).
      Delaware Bachelor's degree.
      Georgia Bachelor's degree from an accredited college or
      university.
      Guam Two years college.
      Kansas Baccalaureate degree.
      Maine Two-year degree.
      Maryland Applicant must have completed prelegal
      education necessary to meet the minimum
      requirements for admission to an ABA-approved law
      school.
      Massachusetts Graduation from high school or equivalent
      and completion of work acceptable for a bachelor's
      degree or equivalent.
      Michigan Two years college; total of 60 semester or 90
      quarter hours.
      Mississippi Three years college if on a 3-3 program, or
      bachelor's degree.
      New Hampshire Three years' work required for a
      bachelor's degree.
      North Carolina Completion of academic work required for
      admission to a law school approved by the Council
      of the North Carolina State Bar.
      Ohio Bachelor's degree.
      Oklahoma Bachelor's degree.
      Pennsylvania Bachelor's degree or equivalent education.
      Puerto Rico Bachelor's degree or sufficient education to
      meet entrance requirements for admission to law
      school in Puerto Rico.
      Vermont Three-quarters of work required for bachelor's
      degree.
      Virgin Islands Bachelor's degree.
      West Virginia Bachelor's degree.
      Is there a residence requirement for applicants?
      Iowa Applicant shall demonstrate a bona fide intention to
      practice law in Iowa.
      Minnesota Prior to admission must be a resident or
      maintain an office in the state or designate the clerk
      of the Supreme Court as agent for service of process
      for all purposes.
      Nevada Must be present or available within the state to
      facilitate examination, investigation, or interview
      related to application.
      Virginia An applicant must intend, promptly after being
      admitted to practice in Virginia without examination,
      to establish his or her office in Virginia and to
      practice full time from such Virginia office.
      CHART I: Basic Information
      C H A R T I
      5
      Does your jurisdiction have any registration requirements
      for law students?
      Alabama Within 60 days of starting law school.
      California Within 90 days of starting law school.
      Florida Law students are encouraged to register within
      180 days of starting law school.
      Illinois By the first day of March following applicant's
      commencement of law school (first day of July for
      spring semester matriculants).
      Iowa Filed by November 1 of the year the student
      commences the study of law in an accredited law
      school.
      Maryland At the beginning of law school if early
      determination of character is desired; by January 16
      for a July examination and by September 15 for a
      February examination.
      Mississippi Law students must file a registration
      application by October 1 of applicant's second year
      of law school.
      Missouri Law students are permitted to seek an early
      character and fitness determination and may file an
      application upon beginning law school.
      North Dakota Law students must file a registration
      application by October 1 of applicant's second year
      of law school, or 14 months after the first day of the
      first year of law school.
      Ohio By November 15 in the applicant's second year of
      law school.
      Oklahoma By March 15 of the year following the year in
      which law study was commenced.
      Texas Within approximately 60 days after entry into an
      approved Texas law school. Does not apply to
      graduates from approved law schools in other states.
      Are law students eligible to take the bar examination prior
      to graduation from law school?
      District of Columbia By filing deadline, must be certified by
      dean of the law school as having completed all
      requirements for graduation.
      Indiana Applicants who have fewer than five credit hours
      to complete, are within 100 days of graduation, have
      completed two hours of professional responsibility
      and have completed all requirements for admission
      to the bar may sit.
      Iowa Must receive degree within 45 days after the first
      day of the July examination or by the first day of the
      February examination.
      Kansas Must graduate within 30 days after last day of the
      bar examination.
      Mississippi Must complete all work required for degree
      within 60 days of the examination.
      Nebraska Must receive degree within 60 days of
      examination.
      New York Must have completed all work required for
      graduation, although degree may not have been
      conferred.
      North Carolina Must graduate within 30 days after exam.
      Texas Must be within four semester hours of completing
      all requirements for graduation.
      Vermont Must have completed all work required for
      graduation, although degree may not have been
      conferred.
      Virginia Must have completed all requirements for
      graduation prior to taking bar examination, although
      degree may not have been conferred.
      Wisconsin Must receive degree within 60 days after
      examination.
      C H A R T I
      6
      State or Jurisdiction YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO Substance Abuse Mental
      Disability Debt Criminal History Other Yes No
      Alabama X X X X X
      Alaska X X X X X
      Arizona X X X X X X X X X X
      Arkansas X X X X X
      California X X X X X
      Colorado X X X X X
      Connecticut X X X X X X X
      Delaware X X X X X
      Dist. of Columbia X X X X X
      Florida X X X X X X X
      Georgia X X X X X
      Hawaii X X X X X
      Idaho X X X X X X X X X X
      Illinois X X X X X
      Indiana X X X X X X X X X X
      Iowa X X X X X
      Kansas X X X X X
      Kentucky X X X X X X X X X X
      Louisiana X X X X X
      Maine X X X X X
      Maryland X X X X X
      Massachusetts X X X X X
      Michigan X X X X X
      Minnesota X X X X X X X X X X
      Mississippi X X X X X
      Missouri X X X X X
      Montana X X X X X X X X X X
      Nebraska X X X X X X X X X X
      Nevada X X X X X X X X X X
      New Hampshire X X X X X
      New Jersey X X X X X X X X X X
      New Mexico X X X X X X X X X
      New York X X X X X
      North Carolina X X X X X
      Indicate the categories of conditional admission your rules permit.
      Does your
      jurisdiction have
      a structured
      program for
      deferring
      admission?
      CHART II: Character and Fitness Determinations
      Does your
      jurisdiction
      have
      published
      character and
      fitness
      standards?
      Will a felony
      conviction
      bar applicant
      from
      admission?
      Does a
      separate
      agency
      evaluate
      character and
      fitness?
      Do your rules
      provide for
      conditional
      admission,
      other than by
      waiver?
      C H A R T I I
      7
      Indicate the categories of conditional admission your rules permit.
      Does your
      jurisdiction have
      a structured
      program for
      deferring
      admission?
      Does your
      jurisdiction
      have
      published
      character and
      fitness
      standards?
      Will a felony
      conviction
      bar applicant
      from
      admission?
      Does a
      separate
      agency
      evaluate
      character and
      fitness?
      Do your rules
      provide for
      conditional
      admission,
      other than by
      waiver?
      See supplemental remarks.
      CHART II: Character and Fitness Determinations
      State or Jurisdiction YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO Substance Abuse Mental
      Disability Debt Criminal History Other Yes No
      North Dakota X X X X X X X X X X
      Ohio X X X X X
      Oklahoma X X X X X
      Oregon X X X X X X X X X
      Pennsylvania X X X X X
      Rhode Island X X X X X
      South Carolina X X X X X
      South Dakota X X X X X
      Tennessee X X X X X
      Texas X X X X X X X X X X
      Utah X X X X X
      Vermont X X X X X
      Virginia X X X X X
      Washington X X X X X
      West Virginia X X X X X X X X X
      Wisconsin X X X X X
      Wyoming X X X X X
      Guam X X X X X
      N. Mariana Islands X X X X X
      Palau X X X X X
      Puerto Rico X X X X X
      Virgin Islands X X X X X
      C H A R T I I
      8
      CHART II: Character and Fitness Determinations
      Will a felony conviction bar applicant from admission?
      Alabama Applicant must be granted a full pardon and civil
      rights restored before considering the bar applicant
      for admission.
      Arkansas A felony conviction weighs heavily in admission
      decision.
      Connecticut Rebuttable presumption of lack of good moral
      character.
      Delaware Not an automatic bar, but felony conviction may
      affect finding of good moral character.
      Florida Not an automatic bar, but restoration of civil
      rights is required.
      Georgia Not an automatic bar, but a pardon or restoration
      of civil rights is necessary.
      Guam Conviction of a felony or crime involving moral
      turpitude is not an automatic bar but may affect
      finding of good moral character.
      Idaho Not an automatic bar, but felony conviction may
      affect finding of good moral character.
      Indiana Conviction of felony is prima facie evidence of
      lack of requisite good moral character.
      Kentucky Felony conviction does not prohibit admission,
      but may affect character and fitness recommendation.
      Maine Conviction of a felony would not result in an
      automatic denial of admission, but applicant bears
      the burden of establishing good moral character.
      Maryland Conviction of felony would not result in
      automatic denial of admission, but applicant would
      bear heavy burden of producing clear and
      convincing evidence of full and complete
      rehabilitation and present good moral character.
      Massachusetts Not automatic bar, but applicant must
      establish present good moral character.
      Mississippi Persons convicted of a felony except
      manslaughter or a violation of the Internal Revenue
      Code are ineligible.
      Missouri Persons convicted of a felony are ineligible to
      apply for admission until five years after the date of
      successful completion of sentence or period of
      probation.
      Montana An applicant found guilty of a felony is
      conclusively presumed not to have present good
      moral character and fitness. The presumption ceases
      upon completion of the sentence and/or period of
      probation.
      Nebraska Conviction of felony would not result in an
      automatic denial of admission, but applicant would
      bear the heavy burden of producing clear and
      concise evidence of full and complete rehabilitation
      and present good moral character.
      North Dakota If offense is determined to have a direct
      bearing on applicant's ability to serve the public as
      an attorney or if applicant is not sufficiently
      rehabilitated.
      Northern Marina Islands Ineligible unless applicant has been
      granted full pardon.
      Ohio Applicants convicted of a felony must meet specific
      conditions and undergo additional review before they
      can be approved.
      Oregon An applicant shall not be eligible for admission
      after having been convicted of a crime, the
      commission of which would have led to disbarment
      in all the circumstances present, had the person been
      an Oregon attorney at the time of conviction.
      Palau Applicant must have received a full pardon.
      Pennsylvania A felony conviction is viewed as a serious
      impediment to qualification.
      Puerto Rico Not an automatic bar, but felony conviction
      may affect finding of good moral character.
      Rhode Island Conviction of a felony would not result in
      automatic denial, but applicant must establish good
      moral character.
      South Carolina Although not an automatic bar, felony
      conviction may affect finding of good moral
      character.
      Texas Felony conviction is an absolute bar to application
      and admission for five years after completion of
      sentence/probation; thereafter, the applicant must
      demonstrate present good moral character.
      Utah Conviction of a felony is prima facie evidence of
      lack of good moral character.
      Virginia Conviction of a felony or crime involving moral
      turpitude is not an automatic bar but may affect
      finding of good moral character.
      Wisconsin Not an automatic bar, applicant must establish
      present good character and fitness.
      C H A R T I I
      9
      Does a separate agency evaluate character and fitness?
      Georgia The Board to Determine Fitness of Bar
      Applicants is separate and distinct from the Board of
      Bar Examiners. The Fitness Board makes character
      and fitness determinations. The Office of Bar
      Admissions reports to both Boards, and both Boards
      must certify an applicant to the Supreme Court.
      New York Character and fitness applications are processed
      by one of four appellate departments.
      Ohio Local bar association admissions committees make
      recommendations to the Board of Commissioners on
      Character and Fitness, which makes final
      determinations. This Board is separate from the
      Board of Bar Examiners.
      West Virginia District Character Committee conducts
      character and fitness investigation and interviews
      each applicant, then submits report and
      recommendation to the Board of Law Examiners.
      Do your rules provide for conditional admission, other
      than by waiver?
      Texas Rule provides for probationary licensing for
      chemical dependency and other circumstances in
      which the Board determines that the protection of
      the public requires temporary monitoring.
      Does your jurisdiction have a structured program for
      deferring admission?
      Arkansas Issuance of license may be deferred for up to
      two years pending further evaluation, drug tests, etc.
      California California has an abeyance program where an
      applicant enters into an agreement with the
      Committee of Bar Examiners for a set period of
      time. If an applicant successfully completes the
      program, it is likely he or she will receive a positive
      moral character determination without further
      hearings.
      Minnesota Applicants with alcohol, drug, or financial
      responsibility problems who cannot show
      rehabilitation, and who would otherwise be issued a
      letter of adverse determination based upon
      misconduct, may postpone Board's determination for
      a period of 12 to 24 months. The Board will
      reconsider the application after that period of time.
      C H A R T I I
      10
      State or Jurisdiction Yes No
      Alabama X X X X X
      Alaska X X X
      Arizona X
      Arkansas X
      California X X X X X
      Colorado X X
      Connecticut X X X X X
      Delaware X
      Dist. of Columbia X X X X X X
      Florida X
      Georgia X
      Hawaii X X X
      Idaho X
      Illinois X X
      Indiana X
      Iowa X
      Kansas X
      Kentucky X X X X
      Louisiana X X
      Maine X X X X X X
      Maryland X
      Massachusetts X X X
      Michigan X X X
      Minnesota X
      Mississippi X
      Missouri X X X
      Montana X
      Nebraska X
      Nevada X X X X X
      If not, what other means of legal study do your rules permit for bar exam
      applicants?
      CHART III: Permitted Means of Legal Study (Bar Exam)
      Is eligibility to take
      the bar exam
      limited to J.D. or
      LL.B. graduates of
      ABA-approved law
      schools under your
      rules?
      Non ABAapproved
      instate
      school
      approved by
      state
      authority
      Non ABAapproved
      out-of-state
      school
      approved by
      state
      authority
      Unapproved
      law school
      (not state or
      ABA)
      wherever
      located
      Grad. from
      unapproved
      law school
      plus specified
      # of years of
      practice
      Law office
      study
      Correspondence
      Study
      Foreign law
      degree (Also
      see Chart X for
      add'l details)
      U.S. LL.M or
      other grad
      degree from
      ABA law
      school
      Grad. from
      unapproved law
      school plus
      specified # of
      hours at ABAapproved
      law
      school
      C H A R T I I I
      11
      CHART III: Permitted Means of Legal Study (Bar Exam)
      State or Jurisdiction Yes No
      New Hampshire X X X
      New Jersey X
      New Mexico X X X X
      New York X X X X
      North Carolina X X
      North Dakota X
      Ohio X X
      Oklahoma X
      Oregon X X
      Pennsylvania X X X
      Rhode Island X X
      South Carolina X
      South Dakota X
      Tennessee X X
      Texas X X X
      Utah X X
      Vermont X X X
      Virginia X X X
      Washington X X X
      West Virginia X X
      Wisconsin X X
      Wyoming X X
      Guam X X
      N. Mariana Islands X
      Palau X X X
      Puerto Rico X X
      Virgin Islands X
      See supplemental remarks.
      Is eligibility to take If not, what other means of legal study do your rules
      permit for bar exam applicants?
      the bar exam
      limited to J.D. or
      LL.B. graduates of
      ABA-approved law
      schools under your
      rules?
      Non ABAapproved
      instate
      school
      approved by
      state
      authority
      Non ABAapproved
      out-of-state
      school
      approved by
      state
      authority
      Unapproved
      law school
      (not state or
      ABA)
      wherever
      located
      Grad. from
      unapproved
      law school
      plus specified
      # of years of
      practice
      Law office
      study
      Correspondence
      Study
      Foreign law
      degree (Also
      see Chart X for
      add'l details)
      U.S. LL.M or
      other grad
      degree from
      ABA law
      school
      Grad. from
      unapproved law
      school plus
      specified # of
      hours at ABAapproved
      law
      school
      C H A R T I I I
      12
      CHART III: Permitted Means of Legal Study
      Is eligibility to take the Bar Exam limited to J.D. or LL.B.
      graduates of ABA-approved law schools under your rules?
      Alabama Graduates of non-ABA-approved law schools
      who wish to sit for the bar exam must be licensed
      and in good standing for the past 5 years in the state
      where the unaccredited law school from which they
      graduated is located and that state must have a
      reciprocal agreement with the state of Alabama
      allowing graduates of Alabama's unaccredited law
      schools to sit for that state's bar examination. At this
      time no state or jurisdiction has such a reciprocal
      agreement with Alabama.
      Arizona Graduates of non-ABA-approved law schools can
      write the examination if they have at least 5 years of
      active and continuous practice within the last 7 years
      in some other state or states.
      California Applicants who obtain legal education by
      attending unaccredited and correspondence law
      schools registered in California, or by law office
      study, must have four years of law study and take an
      examination after their first year. Applicants who
      pass the examination within three consecutive
      administrations of first becoming eligible to take it
      will receive credit for all law study completed to the
      date of the administration of the examination passed.
      Applicants who pass it on a subsequent attempt will
      receive credit for only one year of study. Applicants
      attending law schools accredited by the Committee
      of Bar Examiners qualify to take the bar exam upon
      graduation.
      Colorado Must have practiced 5 of previous 7 years in
      order to sit for bar exam.
      District of Columbia Graduates of non-ABA-approved law
      schools can write the exam if they have successfully
      completed at least 26 semester hours in subjects
      tested on the DC bar exam from an ABA-approved
      law school.
      Illinois Graduates of foreign law schools, who are licensed
      and in good standing in country conferring law
      degree or in a U.S. jurisdiction, who have actively
      and continuously practiced under such license(s) for
      5 of the 7 preceding years, and the quality of whose
      legal and other education has been determined
      acceptable by the Board, may apply.
      Kentucky Non-ABA-approved law school graduates and
      foreign attorneys can apply to take the bar exam, but
      must first have an education equivalency evaluation
      conducted, must have been actively and substantially
      engaged in the practice of law as principal
      occupation for 3 of last 5 years, and must meet other
      standards set by the Board.
      Louisiana Foreign attorneys can apply to take the bar
      exam, but must first have an educational equivalency
      evaluation conducted.
      Maine Applicants may have either graduated from a law
      school accredited by the jurisdiction where it is
      located and have been admitted to practice by exam
      within the U.S. and have been in the active practice
      of law in a jurisdiction in which they are admitted
      for at least 3 years; or have completed 2/3 of
      graduation requirements from an ABA-approved law
      school and within 12 months after successful
      completion pursued the study of law in the law
      office of an attorney in active practice of law in
      Maine on a full-time basis for at least one year.
      Foreign law graduates may qualify for exam after
      determination of educational equivalency.
      Massachusetts Foreign law graduates may be permitted to
      take the bar exam after taking further legal studies
      designated by the Board of Bar Examiners at an
      ABA approved law school.
      Michigan Applicant must have a J.D. from a reputable and
      qualified law school. Law schools fully or
      provisionally approved by the ABA on the date the
      applicant's degree is conferred are considered to be
      reputable and qualified. No law school in recent
      memory has requested the Board to independently
      approve it as reputable and qualified.
      Missouri Determination of educational equivalency of
      foreign legal education may be requested.
      Nevada An attorney who is not a graduate of an ABAapproved
      law school and has at least 10 years of
      active and continuous practice in some other state(s)
      must first have an education equivalency evaluation
      conducted. No practice rule required of foreign
      applicants, but they are also required to have an
      education evaluation.
      New Hampshire Currently, graduates of two non-ABAapproved
      law schools in Massachusetts are permitted
      to sit if they have first been admitted in
      Massachusetts. Graduates of foreign law schools
      who meet other requirements are also eligible for
      admission.
      New Mexico Graduates of non-ABA-approved law schools,
      correspondence law schools, and foreign law schools
      may write the examination if they are licensed and in
      good standing in another state and have engaged in
      the practice of law for 4 of the 6 years prior to
      application.
      C H A R T I I I
      13
      New York Law office study permitted after successful
      completion of one year at an ABA-approved law
      school. Graduates of non-ABA-approved law
      schools can write the examination if they have at
      least five years active and continuous practice within
      the last seven years in some other state or states.
      Ohio Determination of educational equivalency made for
      foreign law degrees.
      Pennsylvania Pennsylvania applicant must have graduated
      from an ABA-approved law school or, if the
      applicant has graduated from a non-ABA-approved
      law school, the applicant must be admitted and in
      good standing in a reciprocal jurisdiction and have
      practiced five (5) out of last seven (7) years in a
      reciprocal jurisdiction, immediately preceding the
      date of filing of the application.
      Puerto Rico The general rule requires that the applicant
      must have studied law and obtained the
      corresponding law degree from an ABA-approved
      law school or a law school approved by the Court.
      Texas Generally, Texas requires an applicant to have a
      J.D. from an ABA-approved law school. Texas has
      no provision for admitting an applicant whose law
      degree was obtained through correspondence study
      (which includes "distance learning" or "external
      programs"). An attorney licensed in another U.S.
      jurisdiction may be eligible for exemption from the
      ABA-approved J.D. requirement to take the Texas
      bar exam if he or she has been actively and
      substantially engaged in the lawful practice of law in
      a U.S. jurisdiction for at least 3 out of 5 years before
      the application if filed.
      Utah Foreign lawyers graduating from schools in
      jurisdictions where the legal system is predominately
      based on English common law may sit after
      practicing law for 2 years in a common law
      jurisdiction and completing 24 semester hours at an
      ABA-approved law school.
      Vermont Four-year law office study program; must have
      completed three-fourths of work accepted for a
      bachelor's degree in a college approved by the Court
      before commencing the study of law. Non-ABA or
      AALS law school can be approved by the Supreme
      Court.
      Virginia Applicant for examination who has received a
      portion of legal education in a foreign law school
      and has received a degree from an ABA-approved
      law school other than an LL.B. or J.D. must furnish
      proof by certificate from the dean of an ABAapproved
      law school in Virginia that the foreign
      legal education together with the approved law
      school degree is equivalent to that required for an
      LL.B. or J.D. in such dean's law school.
      West Virginia Non-ABA-approved law school graduates
      must show that legal education is equivalent to
      ABA-approved law school.
      Wisconsin Must have received first professional degree in
      law from a law school whose graduates are eligible
      to take the bar exam of the jurisdiction in which the
      school is located, and must have taken and passed
      the bar examination and been admitted to that or
      another U.S. jurisdiction.
      Wyoming Law office study permitted as a structured
      course comparable to 2 years at an ABA-approved
      law school. Prior approval of independent study
      required.
      C H A R T I I I
      14
      CHART IV: Additional Requirements
      If applicant, a graduate of
      If you approve For initial admission to For initial admission
      non-ABA-approved school,
      schools not the bar, do you require to the bar do you require passes a bar
      exam in another
      approved by the ABA, completion of certain completion of certain courses
      state, is the applicant eligible to
      do you conduct courses or skills training or skills training take your exam
      without
      on-site inspections? during law school? after law school? additional legal
      education?
      State or Jurisdiction Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
      Alabama X X X X
      Alaska X X X
      Arizona X X X
      Arkansas X X X
      California X X X X
      Colorado X X X
      Connecticut X X X X
      Delaware X X X
      Dist. of Columbia X X X
      Florida X X X
      Georgia X X X
      Hawaii X X X X
      Idaho X X X
      Illinois X X X X
      Indiana X X X
      Iowa X X X
      Kansas X X X
      Kentucky X X X X
      Louisiana X X X
      Maine X X X X
      Maryland X X X
      Massachusetts X X X X
      Michigan X X X X
      Minnesota X X X
      Mississippi X X X
      Missouri X X X
      Montana X X X
      Nebraska X X X
      Nevada X X X
      New Hampshire X X X X
      New Jersey X X X
      New Mexico X X X
      New York X X X
      North Carolina X X X
      North Dakota X X X
      Ohio X X X
      Oklahoma X X X
      Oregon X X X
      Pennsylvania X X X
      Rhode Island X X X
      South Carolina X X X
      South Dakota X X X
      Tennessee X X X X
      Texas X X X
      Utah X X X
      Vermont X X X X
      Virginia X X X X
      Washington X X X
      West Virginia X X X X
      Wisconsin X X X X
      Wyoming X X X
      Guam X X X X
      N. Mariana Islands X X X X
      Palau X X X X
      Puerto Rico X X X
      Virgin Islands X X X
      See supplemental remarks.
      C H A R T I V
      15
      CHART IV: Additional Requirements
      If you approve schools not approved by the ABA, do you
      conduct on-site inspections?
      California Schools seeking accreditation must meet the
      requirements as specified in the Rules Regulating
      Accreditation of Law Schools in California.
      Virginia Report of ABA inspection team required before
      any law school is considered for approval.
      For initial admission to the bar, do you require completion
      of certain courses or skills training during law school?
      Indiana Rule requires completion of two semester hours of
      legal ethics or professional responsibility in an
      approved law school.
      New Jersey Applicants must present evidence of
      satisfactory performance in a law school course on
      ethics. In lieu thereof, New Jersey will accept a score
      of 75 or better on the MPRE.
      Ohio Applicants seeking admission by exam must receive
      at least 10 classroom hours of instruction on legal
      ethics and at least one hour of instruction on
      substance abuse.
      For initial admission to the bar, do you require completion
      of certain courses or skills training after law school?
      Alaska Applicant must attend presentation on attorney
      ethics as prescribed by the Board, currently a onehour
      video course offered by the bar association.
      Arizona Completion of state bar's professionalism course
      within the first year of admission.
      Colorado Exam applicants must complete required course
      on professionalism before being sworn in.
      Delaware Five-month clerkship and pre-admission session
      conducted by the Supreme Court and Board of Bar
      Examiners.
      District of Columbia Completion of course on D.C. Rules of
      Conduct and D.C. practice within 12 months of
      admission.
      Florida Mandatory basic skills course, including
      instruction on discipline, ethics, and responsibility to
      the public, must be completed within twelve months
      of admission, and may be completed eight months
      prior to admission.
      Georgia Mandatory bridge-the-gap course must be
      completed prior to the first anniversary of admission.
      Hawaii Completion of state bar's professionalism course
      within the first year of admission.
      Idaho Within 12 months of admission, each lawyer is
      required to complete a practical skills seminar
      approved for that purpose. Exemption for lawyers
      with 5 years of continuous practice. All reciprocal
      admission applicants must take this course.
      Indiana Within 3 years of admission new lawyers must
      complete a minimum of 36 credit hours appropriate
      for new lawyers.
      Maryland Rule requires a course in professionalism
      presented by the Maryland State Bar Association
      between the time applicants pass exam and when
      they are admitted.
      Nevada Mandatory bridge-the-gap course.
      New Hampshire Practical skills course given by the New
      Hampshire Bar Association must be completed
      during first two years of practice.
      New Jersey Skills training course to be completed over a
      three-year period.
      Rhode Island Completion of training course sponsored by
      Rhode Island Bar Association and approved by
      Board of Bar Examiners prior to admission or within
      one year of admission.
      South Carolina Must complete a bridge-the-gap program
      prior to being admitted.
      Texas Mandatory seminar within one year of admission.
      Utah New admittees to the bar must complete, within two
      years of admission, a New Lawyer Continuing Legal
      Education program.
      Vermont Three-month law office study or three-month law
      office study if practiced in another jurisdiction.
      West Virginia Within one year of admission, must complete
      bridge-the-gap seminar.
      Wyoming New admittees must complete the state bar's
      four-hour professionalism course within 12 months
      of admission.
      If applicant, a graduate of a non-ABA-approved school,
      passes a bar examination in another state, is the applicant
      eligible to take your examination without additional legal
      education?
      Alaska After five years' active practice in another
      jurisdiction in which applicant has been admitted.
      Arizona After five years' active practice out of seven
      preceding application in Arizona.
      California Yes, if admitted in another state.
      C H A R T I V
      16
      Colorado Graduates of state-approved schools who have
      practiced five of the preceding seven years in a
      jurisdiction where admitted may sit for the bar
      examination.
      Florida After ten years' active practice in another
      jurisdiction in which applicant has been duly
      admitted, the applicant may file a representative
      compilation of work product for evaluation by the
      Board.
      Hawaii Yes, if applicant has actively practiced law for
      five of the six years immediately prior to application.
      Kentucky After three years' active practice out of five
      years preceding application.
      Maine After three years' active practice in one or more
      U.S. jurisdictions in which licensed.
      Missouri After five years' active practice, at the discretion
      of the Board.
      New Hampshire Only graduates of two non-ABAapproved
      law schools in Massachusetts and
      graduates of foreign law schools who meet other
      requirements are eligible.
      New Mexico After four years' practice in another
      jurisdiction.
      New York After five years of practice.
      Oregon If applicant has been admitted to practice before
      the highest tribunal in another state, the District of
      Columbia, or a federal territory, has graduated from
      a law school equivalent to a law school approved by
      the American Bar Association and where
      requirements for admission are substantially
      equivalent to those of Oregon, and if applicant has
      been actively, substantially and continually engaged
      in the practice of law for at least three of the five
      years immediately preceding the taking of exam.
      Pennsylvania If applicant graduated from a non-ABAapproved
      law school, the applicant must be
      admitted and in good standing in a reciprocal
      jurisdiction and have been engaged in the
      practice of law in a reciprocal jurisdiction for 5
      out of the last 7 years immediately preceding
      the date of filing of the application.
      Texas If licensed by another U.S. jurisdiction, a J.D.
      graduate of a non-ABA-approved school (not a
      correspondence school) may be eligible to take
      the Texas Bar Exam if (s)he has 3 out of last 5
      years of lawful practice in a U.S. jurisdiction.
      An attorney licensed by another U.S. jurisdiction
      who does not hold a J.D., but who holds a
      foreign law degree, must in addition demonstrate
      that the law degree is from a noncorrespondence
      law school is accredited in the
      jurisdiction where it exists and that is equivalent
      to a J.D..
      Vermont If admitted in another jurisdiction.
      Washington Admission to the practice of law by
      examination, together with current good
      standing, in any state or territory of the U.S. or
      District of Columbia or any jurisdiction where
      the common law of England is the basis of its
      jurisprudence, and active legal experience for at
      least 3 of 5 years immediately preceding filing
      of application.
      West Virginia If admitted in another jurisdiction.
      Wisconsin Must have received first professional
      degree in law from a law school whose
      graduates are eligible to take the bar exam of
      the jurisdiction in which the school is located,
      must have taken and passed the bar examination
      and been admitted to that or another U.S.
      jurisdiction.
      C H A R T I V
      17
      CHART V: Application Dates & MBE Requirements
      How soon prior to the first day
      of the bar exam must applicant submit
      a completed application?
      Do you
      administer the
      Multistate Bar
      Examination
      (MBE)?
      Do you accept MBE
      scores transferred
      from other
      jurisdictions?
      Do you admit an applicant solely
      on the basis of an MBE score from
      an exam taken in another
      jurisdiction?
      How many
      times may
      exam be taken
      without special
      permission?
      State or Jurisdiction February July Yes No Yes No Yes No
      Alabama Oct. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Alaska Dec. 1 May 1 X X X no limit
      Arizona Sept. 1 Feb. 1 X X X 3
      Arkansas Nov. 15 April 1 X X X no limit
      California Nov. 1 April 1 X X X no limit
      Colorado Dec. 1 May 1 X X X no limit
      Connecticut Dec. 31 May 31 X X X no limit
      Delaware April 15 X X X no limit
      Dist. of Columbia Dec. 15 May 3 X X X no limit
      Florida Nov. 15 May 1 X X X no limit
      Georgia by first Friday by first Friday X X X 3
      in Jan. in June
      Hawaii 90 days 90 days X X X no limit
      Idaho March 1 Oct. 1 X X X 3
      Illinois Sept. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Indiana Nov. 15 April 1 X X X no limit
      Iowa Oct. 1 March 1 X X X 2
      Kansas Oct. 15 March 15 X X X 4
      Kentucky Oct. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Louisiana Nov. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Maine Dec. 20 May 20 X X X no limit
      Maryland Dec. 20 May 20 X X X 3
      Massachusetts 75 days 75 days X X X no limit
      Michigan Nov. 1 March 1 X X X no limit
      Minnesota Oct. 15 March 15 X X X no limit
      Mississippi Sept. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Missouri Oct. 15 March 15 X X X no limit
      Montana Oct. 1 March 1 X X X 3
      Nebraska Nov. 1 April 1 X X X no limit
      Nevada Dec.1 May 1 X X X no limit
      New Hampshire Dec. 1 May 1 X X X 2
      New Jersey Nov. 1 April 1 X X X no limit
      New Mexico Sept. 10 Jan. 10 X X X no limit
      New York 90 days 90 days X X X no limit
      North Carolina by first Tuesday by first Tuesday X X X no limit
      in Nov. in March
      North Dakota See remarks 90 days X X X no limit
      Ohio Nov. 1 April 1 X X X no limit
      Oklahoma Sept. 1 Feb. 1 X X X no limit
      Oregon Oct. 31 March 31 X X X no limit
      Pennsylvania Oct. 30 April 15 X X X no limit
      Rhode Island Dec. 1 May 1 X X X 5
      South Carolina Aug. 1 Dec. 1 X X X 3
      South Dakota Nov. 1 April 1 X X X 3
      Tennessee Nov. 15 April 15 X X X 3
      Texas Aug. 30 Jan. 30 X X X 5
      Utah Oct. 1 March 1 X X X 6
      Vermont Jan. 15 June 15 X X X no limit
      Virginia Dec. 15 May 10 X X X 5
      Washington Student applicant, 90 days X X X no limit
      Attorney applicant, 120 days
      West Virginia Nov. 1 April 1 X X X 4
      Wisconsin Dec. 1 May 2 X X X 3
      Wyoming Nov. 15 April 15 X X X 4
      Guam 90 days 90 days X X X no limit
      N. Mariana Islands 60 days 60 days X X X no limit
      Palau 45 days 45 days X X X no limit
      Puerto Rico 45 days 45 days X X X 6
      Virgin Islands 30 days 30 days X X X 3
      See supplemental remarks.
      C H A R T V
      18
      How soon prior to the first day of the bar examination
      must an applicant submit a completed application?
      Alaska Late filing allowed up to January 15 and June 15
      with additional fee.
      Arizona Applicants may file beyond set deadlines by
      payment of late filing fee.
      California Applications may be filed late with an
      additional fee, but no later than January 15 and June
      15.
      Colorado Late filing allowed (up to 30 days after
      deadline) but with an additional fee.
      Delaware No applications are accepted after April 15.
      District of Columbia Late filing allowed up to December 30
      and May 18 but with additional fee.
      Florida Late filing allowed but with an additional
      escalating fee ($100-$1,000).
      Georgia In no event may one apply prior to having
      received certification of fitness to practice law from
      the Board to Determine Fitness of Bar Applicants.
      Late filing allowed on payment of $200 late fee.
      Guam Late filing allowed (up to 60 days prior to exam)
      with an additional $250 fee.
      Idaho Late filing allowed up to May 1 and December 1
      with an additional fee.
      Illinois Late filing allowed with an additional escalating
      fee, but no later than a May 31 postmark for the July
      examination and a December 31 postmark for the
      February examination.
      Indiana Late filing for first time takers is permitted until
      November 30 and April 15. Re-exam takers have
      separate deadlines.
      Kansas Late applications are allowed until April 15 and
      November 15.
      Kentucky Late filing allowed up to November 10 and
      March 10, but with late fee. There is an extended
      late filing permitted up to December 10 and May 10
      upon filing of additional fees.
      Maine Applications are accepted up to 14 days after
      deadline with added late fee.
      Maryland Applicants may take advantage of lower
      registration filing fee by submitting application for
      exam to be held in July no later than January 16 in
      that year. If applicant intends to sit for exam in
      February, application shall be filed no later than
      September 15 in the year preceding such exam.
      Dates given are late filing deadlines and require
      payment of a late fee.
      CHART V: Application Dates & MBE Requirements
      Minnesota Late applications with added late fee accepted
      until December 1 for February exam and May 1 for
      July exam.
      Missouri Late filing with added fee.
      Nevada Late applications with added penalty fees are
      accepted until May 1 and December 1.
      New Jersey Specific fee and time schedules, including
      those for late filings, are dependent on when
      materials downloaded from the Internet or requested
      by mail. Limits are set by the Board of Bar
      Examiners and the Supreme Court for each
      administration of the examination.
      New Mexico Deadlines apply to first-time applicants.
      New York Applications must be postmarked between 90-
      120 days prior to the first day of the exam.
      North Carolina For February exam, application must be
      received by first Tuesday in November; for July exam,
      by first Tuesday in March. These are final deadlines.
      North Dakota Applications for the July exam must be
      postmarked no later than 90 days before the first day
      of the exam. Check to determine February deadlines.
      Oklahoma Late filing permitted for two months after
      initial deadline bu
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