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Preparing for battle - how to ready a sword?

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  • Diana Cosby
    I have a warrior heading for battle in my book. It s September in Scotland. How would he ready his claymore? Would he oil it? Sharpen it? Prepare his
    Message 1 of 10 , Aug 11 11:15 AM
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      I have a warrior heading for battle in my book. It's September in
      Scotland. How would he ready his claymore? Would he oil it? Sharpen
      it? Prepare his daggers the same way? It's 1297, if so, what would he
      use? Any other ideas of what he'd do to prepare for war? My sincere
      thanks for any insight.

      Diana
      www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
      His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
      His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
      Booksellers Best Finalist
      His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • cathal@mindspring.com
      Chances are in 1297 he wouldn t be using a claymore. That is a two handed weapon that is from a later period. I won t say that two handers were not used;
      Message 2 of 10 , Aug 11 11:16 AM
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        Chances are in 1297 he wouldn't be using a claymore. That is a two handed weapon that is from a later period. I won't say that two handers were not used; however they would not be of the style that 'Braveheart' popularized.

        If you go to Ewert Oakeshott's _Archaeology of Weapons_ or _The Sword in the Age of Chivalry_ he has a system on the chronological development of sword styles that you can use to see what types were generally available in Europe.

        The matter of sword care would vary with the user. Removal of rust and sharpening of the blade are, however, regular tasks for any sword owner. And even more so if one depends on them to keep one's skin intact. Consider it in the same manner that a dedicated gun owner cares of his weapons today.

        Likewise, there is the social status to consider. A noble might be just as concerned with the condition of the weapon as a more common soldier; however he would be more likely to have retainers/servants to do the actual labor while he would inspect the results.

        JPratt.


        -----Original Message-----
        >From: Diana Cosby <diana@...>
        >Sent: Aug 11, 2010 2:15 PM
        >To: albanach@yahoogroups.com
        >Subject: [albanach] Preparing for battle - how to ready a sword?
        >
        >I have a warrior heading for battle in my book. It's September in
        >Scotland. How would he ready his claymore? Would he oil it? Sharpen
        >it? Prepare his daggers the same way? It's 1297, if so, what would he
        >use? Any other ideas of what he'd do to prepare for war? My sincere
        >thanks for any insight.
        >
        >Diana
        >www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
        >His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
        >His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
        >Booksellers Best Finalist
        >His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
        >
        >
        >------------------------------------
        >
        >This is Albanach, a group devoted to the study and re-enactment of
        >Scotland c. 503-1603 AD. Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >


        You will be assimilated; obedience is feudal.
      • Diana Cosby
        ... ~Thank you very much for your insight. This helps a ton. :) Have a great day! Diana www.dianacosby.com His
        Message 3 of 10 , Aug 11 11:39 AM
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          cathal@... wrote:

          >Chances are in 1297 he wouldn't be using a claymore. That is a two handed weapon that is from a later period. I won't say that two handers were not used; however they would not be of the style that 'Braveheart' popularized.
          >
          >If you go to Ewert Oakeshott's _Archaeology of Weapons_ or _The Sword in the Age of Chivalry_ he has a system on the chronological development of sword styles that you can use to see what types were generally available in Europe.
          >
          >The matter of sword care would vary with the user. Removal of rust and sharpening of the blade are, however, regular tasks for any sword owner. And even more so if one depends on them to keep one's skin intact. Consider it in the same manner that a dedicated gun owner cares of his weapons today.
          >
          >Likewise, there is the social status to consider. A noble might be just as concerned with the condition of the weapon as a more common soldier; however he would be more likely to have retainers/servants to do the actual labor while he would inspect the results.
          >
          >
          ~Thank you very much for your insight. This helps a ton. :) Have a
          great day!

          Diana
          www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
          His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
          His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
          Booksellers Best Finalist
          His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
        • Shel Browder
          The word claymore comes from the Gaelic claidheamh mor and normally refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for thegreat two handed sword
          Message 4 of 10 , Aug 11 3:27 PM
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            The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and normally
            refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for thegreat
            two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
            sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
            both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
            check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone fueled
            nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
            time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to underlings,
            but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their personal
            weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming fray. The
            underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to attend to.

            Beannachd leibh,
            Shel

            On 8/11/10 2:39 PM, Diana Cosby wrote:
            >
            > cathal@... <mailto:cathal%40mindspring.com> wrote:
            >
            > >Chances are in 1297 he wouldn't be using a claymore. That is a two
            > handed weapon that is from a later period. I won't say that two
            > handers were not used; however they would not be of the style that
            > 'Braveheart' popularized.
            > >
            > >If you go to Ewert Oakeshott's _Archaeology of Weapons_ or _The Sword
            > in the Age of Chivalry_ he has a system on the chronological
            > development of sword styles that you can use to see what types were
            > generally available in Europe.
            > >
            > >The matter of sword care would vary with the user. Removal of rust
            > and sharpening of the blade are, however, regular tasks for any sword
            > owner. And even more so if one depends on them to keep one's skin
            > intact. Consider it in the same manner that a dedicated gun owner
            > cares of his weapons today.
            > >
            > >Likewise, there is the social status to consider. A noble might be
            > just as concerned with the condition of the weapon as a more common
            > soldier; however he would be more likely to have retainers/servants to
            > do the actual labor while he would inspect the results.
            > >
            > >
            > ~Thank you very much for your insight. This helps a ton. :) Have a
            > great day!
            >
            > Diana
            > www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
            > His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
            > His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
            > Booksellers Best Finalist
            > His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
            >
            >


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Diana Cosby
            ... ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you re enjoying your summer! Diana www.dianacosby.com His
            Message 5 of 10 , Aug 12 2:02 PM
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              Shel Browder wrote:

              >The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and normally
              >refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for thegreat
              >two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
              >sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
              >both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
              >check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone fueled
              >nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
              >time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to underlings,
              >but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their personal
              >weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming fray. The
              >underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to attend to.
              >
              >
              ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you're enjoying
              your summer!

              Diana
              www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
              His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
              His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
              Booksellers Best Finalist
              His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011



              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Shel Browder
              Hi Diana, It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop but having
              Message 6 of 10 , Aug 12 2:57 PM
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                Hi Diana,

                It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made
                it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop but
                having two good interns as well as having archaeology going on around
                the blacksmith shop have made it fun. I'll end it with a trip to
                England (wish that it were Scotland) to attend an iron making conference
                and hopefully up to the Royal Armouries at Leeds to look at old, sharp
                stuff. I hope that you have had a good summer. How is your new book coming?

                Shel

                On 8/12/10 5:02 PM, Diana Cosby wrote:
                >
                > Shel Browder wrote:
                >
                > >The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and normally
                > >refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for thegreat
                > >two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
                > >sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
                > >both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
                > >check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone fueled
                > >nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
                > >time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to underlings,
                > >but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their personal
                > >weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming fray. The
                > >underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to attend to.
                > >
                > >
                > ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you're enjoying
                > your summer!
                >
                > Diana
                > www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
                > His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
                > His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
                > Booksellers Best Finalist
                > His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >


                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Diana Cosby
                ... ~I bet. We ve been swimming over the 100F s for a few days now. Yesterday it was 105F. Yikes! ... ~:) ... ~Sounds like a blast. No way to slip up to
                Message 7 of 10 , Aug 12 3:09 PM
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                  Shel Browder wrote:

                  >Hi Diana,
                  >
                  >It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop
                  >
                  ~I bet. We've been swimming over the 100F's for a few days now.
                  Yesterday it was 105F. Yikes!

                  >but having two good interns as well as having archaeology going on around the blacksmith shop have made it fun.
                  >
                  ~:)

                  >I'll end it with a trip to England (wish that it were Scotland) to attend an iron making conference and hopefully up to the Royal Armouries at Leeds to look at old, sharp stuff.
                  >
                  ~Sounds like a blast. No way to slip up to Scotland for a couple of
                  days as you're so close?

                  > I hope that you have had a good summer. How is your new book coming?
                  >
                  >
                  ~Doing well. I'm gearing up for the Nov 1st release. A very exciting
                  time. Take care and I appreciate your help. Have a fabulous trip!

                  Diana
                  www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
                  His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
                  His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
                  Booksellers Best Finalist
                  His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Jody Allen
                  Shel May I ask a question. As a blacksmith, in the period of the early 1300 s in Scotland what would be the difference between an armourer and a blacksmith?
                  Message 8 of 10 , Aug 29 8:07 AM
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                    Shel
                    May I ask a question. As a blacksmith, in the period of the early 1300's in
                    Scotland what would be the difference between an armourer and a blacksmith?
                    What types of equipment would an armourer be repairing for a group of
                    knights and men at arms?

                    Where would an armourer learn the skills needed to make armour as well as
                    chainmail? And could this be a skill a knight might have learned as he
                    served a Lord during his training to be a knight?

                    Jody
                    On Thu, Aug 12, 2010 at 4:57 PM, Shel Browder <ebrowder@...>wrote:

                    > Hi Diana,
                    >
                    > It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made
                    > it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop but
                    > having two good interns as well as having archaeology going on around
                    > the blacksmith shop have made it fun. I'll end it with a trip to
                    > England (wish that it were Scotland) to attend an iron making conference
                    > and hopefully up to the Royal Armouries at Leeds to look at old, sharp
                    > stuff. I hope that you have had a good summer. How is your new book
                    > coming?
                    >
                    > Shel
                    >
                    > On 8/12/10 5:02 PM, Diana Cosby wrote:
                    > >
                    > > Shel Browder wrote:
                    > >
                    > > >The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and normally
                    > > >refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for thegreat
                    > > >two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
                    > > >sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
                    > > >both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
                    > > >check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone fueled
                    > > >nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
                    > > >time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to underlings,
                    > > >but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their personal
                    > > >weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming fray. The
                    > > >underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to attend to.
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you're enjoying
                    > > your summer!
                    > >
                    > > Diana
                    > > www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
                    > > His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
                    > > His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
                    > > Booksellers Best Finalist
                    > > His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
                    > >
                    > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    > >
                    > >
                    >
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > ------------------------------------
                    >
                    > This is Albanach, a group devoted to the study and re-enactment of
                    > Scotland c. 503-1603 AD. Yahoo! Groups Links
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >


                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Shel Browder
                    Hi Jody, My apologies for the late reply. I just got back from England and I didn thave the opportunity to check my email there. First, the boundaries between
                    Message 9 of 10 , Sep 17, 2010
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                      Hi Jody,

                      My apologies for the late reply. I just got back from England and I
                      didn'thave the opportunity to check my email there.

                      First, the boundaries between iron working trades can blur and certainly
                      ironworkers will stray into the territories of one another. That said,
                      blacksmiths are pretty much generalists who work on farm tools, tools
                      for other tradesmen, household equipment and hardware, and spend a lot
                      of time as well doing repairs on all sorts of things. An armourer is
                      trained to make and repair arms and armour. In the 13th century they
                      could be making weapons as well as armour, or not. Sword making is
                      often a trade unto itself. DThey would certainly need to repair weapons.

                      Repairs to armour and weapons would encompass a wide variety of work.
                      Dents in armour would need to be taken out and re-polished. Buckles and
                      straps break and need to be repaired and riveted back. Chain mail links
                      may need to be repaired and "sewn" back. Bent and broken swords,
                      lances, etc. need to be straightened or rew-elded (broken swords can be
                      re-welded), hardened and tempered and polished. Sword hilts and lance
                      tips can loosen and require tightening. Battles are hard on equipment.

                      Since there is a fairly extensive set of tools required and a set of
                      highly developed shills as well, I doubt if most knights could do more
                      than the simplest field expedient repairs.

                      Skills in all trades have been learned through apprenticeships for a
                      very long time, certainly earlier than the 13th century, though I don't
                      know anything about those early apprenticeships. Some guilds in Britain
                      go back to the 12th century and perhaps earlier. They would set the
                      terms of apprenticeship.

                      I hope this helps. It would be fun to research trades from that time.

                      I was at an ironmaking conference in the south of England and also had
                      time to help with some archaeology on a recently discovered iron making
                      site--probably 12th century.

                      Beannachd leat,
                      Shel

                      On 8/29/10 11:07 AM, Jody Allen wrote:
                      >
                      > Shel
                      > May I ask a question. As a blacksmith, in the period of the early
                      > 1300's in
                      > Scotland what would be the difference between an armourer and a
                      > blacksmith?
                      > What types of equipment would an armourer be repairing for a group of
                      > knights and men at arms?
                      >
                      > Where would an armourer learn the skills needed to make armour as well as
                      > chainmail? And could this be a skill a knight might have learned as he
                      > served a Lord during his training to be a knight?
                      >
                      > Jody
                      > On Thu, Aug 12, 2010 at 4:57 PM, Shel Browder <ebrowder@...
                      > <mailto:ebrowder%40widomaker.com>>wrote:
                      >
                      > > Hi Diana,
                      > >
                      > > It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made
                      > > it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop but
                      > > having two good interns as well as having archaeology going on around
                      > > the blacksmith shop have made it fun. I'll end it with a trip to
                      > > England (wish that it were Scotland) to attend an iron making conference
                      > > and hopefully up to the Royal Armouries at Leeds to look at old, sharp
                      > > stuff. I hope that you have had a good summer. How is your new book
                      > > coming?
                      > >
                      > > Shel
                      > >
                      > > On 8/12/10 5:02 PM, Diana Cosby wrote:
                      > > >
                      > > > Shel Browder wrote:
                      > > >
                      > > > >The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and normally
                      > > > >refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for
                      > thegreat
                      > > > >two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
                      > > > >sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
                      > > > >both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
                      > > > >check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone
                      > fueled
                      > > > >nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
                      > > > >time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to underlings,
                      > > > >but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their
                      > personal
                      > > > >weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming
                      > fray. The
                      > > > >underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to
                      > attend to.
                      > > > >
                      > > > >
                      > > > ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you're enjoying
                      > > > your summer!
                      > > >
                      > > > Diana
                      > > > www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
                      > > > His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
                      > > > His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
                      > > > Booksellers Best Finalist
                      > > > His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
                      > > >
                      > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      > > >
                      > > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > ------------------------------------
                      > >
                      > > This is Albanach, a group devoted to the study and re-enactment of
                      > > Scotland c. 503-1603 AD. Yahoo! Groups Links
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      >
                      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      >
                      >


                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Jody Allen
                      Thank you so much this is wonderful information just what I needed. jody ... [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      Message 10 of 10 , Sep 20, 2010
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Thank you so much this is wonderful information just what I needed.

                        jody

                        On Fri, Sep 17, 2010 at 5:17 AM, Shel Browder <ebrowder@...>wrote:

                        > Hi Jody,
                        >
                        > My apologies for the late reply. I just got back from England and I
                        > didn'thave the opportunity to check my email there.
                        >
                        > First, the boundaries between iron working trades can blur and certainly
                        > ironworkers will stray into the territories of one another. That said,
                        > blacksmiths are pretty much generalists who work on farm tools, tools
                        > for other tradesmen, household equipment and hardware, and spend a lot
                        > of time as well doing repairs on all sorts of things. An armourer is
                        > trained to make and repair arms and armour. In the 13th century they
                        > could be making weapons as well as armour, or not. Sword making is
                        > often a trade unto itself. DThey would certainly need to repair weapons.
                        >
                        > Repairs to armour and weapons would encompass a wide variety of work.
                        > Dents in armour would need to be taken out and re-polished. Buckles and
                        > straps break and need to be repaired and riveted back. Chain mail links
                        > may need to be repaired and "sewn" back. Bent and broken swords,
                        > lances, etc. need to be straightened or rew-elded (broken swords can be
                        > re-welded), hardened and tempered and polished. Sword hilts and lance
                        > tips can loosen and require tightening. Battles are hard on equipment.
                        >
                        > Since there is a fairly extensive set of tools required and a set of
                        > highly developed shills as well, I doubt if most knights could do more
                        > than the simplest field expedient repairs.
                        >
                        > Skills in all trades have been learned through apprenticeships for a
                        > very long time, certainly earlier than the 13th century, though I don't
                        > know anything about those early apprenticeships. Some guilds in Britain
                        > go back to the 12th century and perhaps earlier. They would set the
                        > terms of apprenticeship.
                        >
                        > I hope this helps. It would be fun to research trades from that time.
                        >
                        > I was at an ironmaking conference in the south of England and also had
                        > time to help with some archaeology on a recently discovered iron making
                        > site--probably 12th century.
                        >
                        > Beannachd leat,
                        > Shel
                        >
                        > On 8/29/10 11:07 AM, Jody Allen wrote:
                        > >
                        > > Shel
                        > > May I ask a question. As a blacksmith, in the period of the early
                        > > 1300's in
                        > > Scotland what would be the difference between an armourer and a
                        > > blacksmith?
                        > > What types of equipment would an armourer be repairing for a group of
                        > > knights and men at arms?
                        > >
                        > > Where would an armourer learn the skills needed to make armour as well as
                        > > chainmail? And could this be a skill a knight might have learned as he
                        > > served a Lord during his training to be a knight?
                        > >
                        > > Jody
                        > > On Thu, Aug 12, 2010 at 4:57 PM, Shel Browder <ebrowder@...
                        > > <mailto:ebrowder%40widomaker.com <ebrowder%2540widomaker.com>>>wrote:
                        > >
                        > > > Hi Diana,
                        > > >
                        > > > It has been an interesting summer. The heat and humidity have not made
                        > > > it a particularly pleasant one for working in a blacksmith shop but
                        > > > having two good interns as well as having archaeology going on around
                        > > > the blacksmith shop have made it fun. I'll end it with a trip to
                        > > > England (wish that it were Scotland) to attend an iron making
                        > conference
                        > > > and hopefully up to the Royal Armouries at Leeds to look at old, sharp
                        > > > stuff. I hope that you have had a good summer. How is your new book
                        > > > coming?
                        > > >
                        > > > Shel
                        > > >
                        > > > On 8/12/10 5:02 PM, Diana Cosby wrote:
                        > > > >
                        > > > > Shel Browder wrote:
                        > > > >
                        > > > > >The word claymore comes from the Gaelic "claidheamh mor" and
                        > normally
                        > > > > >refers to a double edged, single handed sword. The Gaelic for
                        > > thegreat
                        > > > > >two handed sword is "claidheamh da laimh", which means two-handed
                        > > > > >sword. I suspect that the 13th century Gaelic is a bit different for
                        > > > > >both, though I don't know. If I were preparing for battle, I would
                        > > > > >check my weapons, probably several times (a bit of testosterone
                        > > fueled
                        > > > > >nervousness), but they would be kept sharp and in good order all the
                        > > > > >time. It is likely that some nobility left such things to
                        > underlings,
                        > > > > >but some people prefer to be more directly involved with their
                        > > personal
                        > > > > >weapons, perhaps because it focuses the mind on the upcoming
                        > > fray. The
                        > > > > >underlings should have their own weapons and other tasks to
                        > > attend to.
                        > > > > >
                        > > > > >
                        > > > > ~Thank you very much, Shel, great information. Hope you're enjoying
                        > > > > your summer!
                        > > > >
                        > > > > Diana
                        > > > > www.dianacosby.com <http://www.dianacosby.com/>
                        > > > > His Captive/Alexander MacGruder
                        > > > > His Woman/Duncan MacGruder - 4 star Romantic Times review - 2009
                        > > > > Booksellers Best Finalist
                        > > > > His Conquest - Pre-Order now! / His Destiny - Nov 2011
                        > > > >
                        > > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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                        > > > This is Albanach, a group devoted to the study and re-enactment of
                        > > > Scotland c. 503-1603 AD. Yahoo! Groups Links
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                        > This is Albanach, a group devoted to the study and re-enactment of
                        > Scotland c. 503-1603 AD. Yahoo! Groups Links
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