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FW: ANB - Bio of the Day: Henry Watkins Collier [Alabama Governor and Chief Justice]

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    ... From: ANB Biography of the Day [mailto:biod-request@www.anb.org] Sent: Friday, June 08, 2001 1:00 AM Subject: ANB - Bio of the Day American National
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      Sent: Friday, June 08, 2001 1:00 AM
      Subject: ANB - Bio of the Day


      American National Biography Online


      Collier, Henry Watkins (17 Jan. 1801-28 Aug. 1855), chief justice
      of the Alabama Supreme Court and governor of Alabama, was born
      on a plantation in Lunenburg County, Virginia, the son of James
      Collier and Elizabeth Bouldin, planters. When he was one year
      old, his family moved to the Abbeville District of South Carolina.
      Collier received a classical education at Moses Waddel's well-known
      academy. In 1818 he moved with his parents to Madison County,
      Alabama, a booming cotton-producing area of the Tennessee Valley.
      Over the next few years he read law in Nashville, Tennessee,
      with Judge John Haywood of the Tennessee Supreme Court. Collier
      began practicing law in Huntsville in 1822 and the next year
      was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Alabama. He moved
      in 1823 to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and soon established a law practice
      with Simon L. Perry. In 1826 Collier married Mary Ann Battle.
      The Colliers had four children and were devout Methodists who
      took a leadership role in the church and often entertained visiting
      Methodist dignitaries in their home.

      In 1826 Collier stood for the Alabama legislature. He was elected
      to the house on a platform of constructing a new capitol in Tuscaloosa,
      where the legislature had recently relocated the state capital.
      His dignified demeanor, keen knowledge of the law, generous nature,
      judicious temperament, and reputation for fairness so impressed
      the legislature that in 1828 it elected him a circuit judge (and
      thus a member of the supreme court). In 1836, when the Alabama
      Supreme Court was constituted separately, the legislature elevated
      him to associate justice. The next year he became chief justice
      and held the office for twelve years. On the bench, Collier wrote
      more than 1,165 opinions, more than any other justice to that
      time, and he was frequently cited in appellate court decisions.
      His opinions varied from brief, one-paragraph summations to many
      pages. He was always mindful of constitutional principles and
      tried to apply them with fairness. He was known as an attentive
      listener with a reflective and impartial nature and as a judicial
      scholar with a gift for analysis. Of the legal profession, Collier
      wrote in 1838 that the lawyer "explores the abstruse and obscured
      learning of other ages, that he may more successfully protect
      the weak, vindicate the innocent, and punish the oppressor--looking
      to the consciousness of having performed his duty for his chief
      reward." Collier maintained his home in Tuscaloosa, although
      after the Alabama capital was moved to Montgomery in 1846, he
      spent much time there.

      With sectional issues causing divisive politics in Washington,
      D.C., and the state Whig party increasing its influence, the
      Alabama Democratic Convention refused to renominate Governor
      Reuben Chapman and in 1849 selected Collier as its nominee instead.
      Collier faced no opposition candidate since his views were decidedly
      Whiggish, especially on the dominant political question of the
      day--the issue of the state bank. He received all but 704 of
      the 37,925 votes cast. Collier favored a state public education
      system, private banking, a state insane asylum, and prison and
      judicial reforms. He believed in the importance of an educated
      citizenry, advocated more equitable funding and centralized oversight
      of education through a state superintendent, and called the attitude
      in Alabama of neglecting to fund schools a "blighting apathy
      that pervades the community." Because of the economic importance
      of agriculture to the state, he advocated establishing a professorship
      of geology and agriculture at the University of Alabama.

      Although Collier supported southern rights in his inaugural
      address on 17 December 1849, he remained a moderate, not disturbed
      by sectional conflict, which he viewed as a natural consequence
      of democratic politics. Collier agreed that Alabama should send
      delegates to the Nashville convention to discuss the deteriorating
      relationship between the southern states and the federal government,
      but when they returned he refused to call a state convention
      as the radicals wished. Judicious and conservative, he supported
      Henry Clay's Compromise of 1850, and he did not believe that
      the people of Alabama were ready to make secession an issue.

      Collier accepted renomination in 1851 but refused to campaign
      across the state, standing instead on his record. He was reelected
      decisively with only token opposition coming from both extremes--staunch
      Unionist Benjamin G. Shields and disgruntled southern rights fire-eaters.

      Collier believed that the problems of the nation could be solved
      by voters, who had the opportunity to repudiate "political hucksters
      for high places and the supplicants for federal favors." He supported
      the prison reform work of Dorothea Dix, and she consulted with
      him during her visits to Alabama. He frequently toured the state
      penitentiary and followed its administration closely. He also
      advocated economic diversification, especially increasing the
      number of textile mills in Alabama, which would locate the manufacturing
      process close to raw-material production and decrease shipping
      and commission costs for the planter. As his second gubernatorial
      term drew to a close in 1853, Collier declined to be considered
      for a legislative appointment to the U.S. Senate and retired
      to his plantation near Tuscaloosa. Suffering poor health in the
      summer of 1855, he visited Bailey Springs in Lauderdale County
      in hopes that the waters might restore his strength, but he died
      there of cholera morbus, an early term for gastroenteritis.

      Collier's experience on the Alabama bench and his twelve years
      as chief justice came in the formative period of Alabama statehood,
      and his extensive judicial decisions form the basis of numerous
      citations and case comments. His gubernatorial leadership paved
      the way for the enactment of an Alabama public education system
      in 1854, moved the state toward diversification and investment
      in manufacturing, and strengthened the Alabama Democratic party
      at a pivotal time in its history. His successor, Governor John
      A. Winston, called him "a man of ability, integrity, and sterling
      worth." Collier's guidance and example were calming influences
      in Alabama during the growing emotionalism and extremism of the
      sectional conflict, and his death left a vacuum in the moderate
      political leadership of the state at a critical time.


      Bibliography

      Collier's gubernatorial papers are preserved in the Alabama
      Department of Archives and History in Montgomery. His judicial
      opinions are in the Alabama Court Reports. Biographical sketches
      are in Thomas M. Owen, History of Alabama (4 vols., 1921); William
      Garrett, Reminiscences of Public Men in Alabama (1872); Willis
      Brewer, Alabama (1872); Benjamin F. Riley, Makers and Romance
      of Alabama (n.d., 1915?); and John Craig Stewart, The Governors
      of Alabama (1975). Alabama politics and Collier's role are explored
      in J. Mills Thornton III, Politics and Power in a Slave Society:
      Alabama, 1800-1860 (1978); and William W. Rogers et al., Alabama:
      The History of a Deep South State (1994). An obituary is in the
      Mobile Daily Register, 9 Sept. 1855.

      Leah Rawls Atkins



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      Citation:
      Leah Rawls Atkins. "Collier, Henry Watkins";
      http://www.anb.org/articles/03/03-00107.html;
      American National Biography Online Feb. 2000.
      Access Date:
      Copyright (c) 2000 American Council of Learned Societies. Published
      by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.





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