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GEOSTATS: Summary of Cost Distance Calculation

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    Dear friends, Here is a summary of the responses I received to my question about cost distance calculation. I would like to thank to Dr. Duane Marble, Dr Roger
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 8, 2000
      Dear friends,

      Here is a summary of the responses I received to my question about cost distance
      I would like to thank to Dr. Duane Marble, Dr Roger Bivand and Dr Ned Levin for
      their help and kindness

      1. From Dr. Duane Marble:

      A GIS?based approach to estimating the human effort involved in movement over
      natural terrain,
      (with Brett Machovina), in Junger and Lavento (eds.), Iskos 11, pp. 117?126.
      [Keynote address given at the VII Nordic Conference on the Applications of
      Scientific Methods in Archaeology,  Savonlinna, Finland, September 1996.]
      You will find some useful information there on energy expenditure vs slope,
      terrain type, etc.
      I am now working on a paper dealing with movement in urban areas.
      Dr. Duane F. Marble
      Professor Emeritus of Geography              Telephone:  614-292-4419
      Center for Mapping                                   Fax:  614-292-8062
      The Ohio State University
      1216 Kinnear                                            Email:  marble.1@...

      Columbus, Ohio  43212

      2. From Dr Roger Bivand:

      Thanks for your kind remark.
      In general I think it would be OK to use a "cost" calculation to measure the
      effort required to get to and from school. A possible reservation is that this
      is beginning to feel like what is known as "multilevel" modelling. For instance,
      all the children from one village
      going to one school would have very similar "costs" - varying a bit more if
      spatial resolution is high, but probably not much. There is a book -Introducing
      Multilevel Modeling by Kreft and de Leeuw (Sage, 1998) that explains the issues
      if this is new to you - the idea is that some of the individual variance in
      response is due to individual-level factors, while some is due to group level
      factors (which school the children go to, which village they come from, etc.).
      The method tries to take into account dependencies between observations that are
      grouped at a higher level, say at the school level. There's a big literature in
      the use of the method in education studies, and it has also been used in spatial

      Regional variations in mortality rates in England and Wales: An analysis
      using multi-level modelling. Langford, IH / Bentham, G; SOCIAL SCIENCE &
      MEDICINE Vol. 0042, Nr. 6, Mar 1996, side 897-908.

      Multilevel modelling of the geographical distributions of diseases
      Langford, IH / Leyland, AH / Rasbash, J / Goldstein, H; JOURNAL OF THE

      (this was looking for Ian Langford, one of the key people, but in medical
      geography rather than education geography)

      Good luck!

      3. From Dr. Ned Levine:
      Check out Luc Anselin's SpaceStat program. It can create a spatial weights
      (contiguity) matrix and can conduct spatial lag regression. I've used it
      extensively to model the effects of nearby zones on a dependent variable.

      Ned Levine, PhD


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