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RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

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  • Larry Constantine
    I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier
    Message 1 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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      I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier material. I do not believe he coined the card-based modeling term.

       

      Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

      Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

       

       

      From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of William Hudson
      Sent: Tuesday, 26 March, 2013 07:49
      To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

       

      Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.

       

      I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be the earlier date.

       

      Regards,

       

      William

       

      From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
      Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
      To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

       



      AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

       

      ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

          Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

       

      [snipped]

    • William Hudson
      Larry - Thanks for the clarification. I was coming to that conclusion myself even though the Google result in question seems to be dated 1993. Regards, William
      Message 2 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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        Larry –

         

        Thanks for the clarification. I was coming to that conclusion myself even though the Google result in question seems to be dated 1993.

         

        Regards,

         

        William

         

        From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
        Sent: 26 March 2013 13:25
        To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
        Cc: William Hudson
        Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

         




        I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier material. I do not believe he coined the card-based modeling term.

         

        Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

        Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

         

         

        From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of William Hudson
        Sent: Tuesday, 26 March, 2013 07:49
        To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

         

        Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.

         

        I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be the earlier date.

         

        Regards,

         

        William

         

        From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
        Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
        To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

         

         

        AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

         

        ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

            Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

         

        [snipped]




      • Adrian Howard
        I m moderately the certain that the term user story came out of the XP crowd (possibly via being called customer stories first - my memory is poor). The
        Message 3 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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          I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
          XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
          memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
          and Sprint Backlog Items.

          The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
          early Scrum team folk to be sure.

          So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.

          The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
          define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
          something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
          impression I had in the late 90's.

          Adrian

          On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
          > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
          >
          >
          >
          > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
          > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
          > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
          > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
          > the earlier date.
          >
          >
          >
          > Regards,
          >
          >
          >
          > William
          >
          >
          >
          > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
          > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
          > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
          > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
          > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
          > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
          > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
          > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
          >
          >
          >
          > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
          >
          > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
          >
          >
          >
          > [snipped]



          --
          http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
          t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
        • spbyh
          I may have some of the original WIKI postings and emails from the CCC project back in the 90s where the term was used by Beck, Jeffries, Astels, Cunningham, et
          Message 4 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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            I may have some of the original WIKI postings and emails from the CCC project back in the 90s where the term was used by Beck, Jeffries, Astels, Cunningham, et al. I do have some original Ron Jeffries user stories on cards and they are not in the Rachel Davis format which apparently started around 2005.  Ron put the estimate on the front of the card and the acceptance test on the back of the card, something that we didn't do.  I don't know who actually came up with the idea of using cards.
            If it can be traced back before CCC, you might have to go to the Smalltalk world, but I have the distinct impression the concept evolved out of the work done on CCC.
            =steve



            -----Original Message-----
            From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
            To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
            Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

            I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
            XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
            memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
            and Sprint Backlog Items.
            
            The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
            early Scrum team folk to be sure.
            
            So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
            
            The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
            define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
            something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
            impression I had in the late 90's.
            
            Adrian
            
            
            On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote: > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you. > > > > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be > the earlier date. > > > > Regards, > > > > William > > > > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15 > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories > > > > > > > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns. > > > > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow > > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute > > > > [snipped] -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh ------------------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Links <*> To visit your group on the web, go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/ <*> Your email settings: Individual Email | Traditional <*> To change settings online go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/join (Yahoo! ID required) <*> To change settings via email: agile-usability-digest@yahoogroups.com agile-usability-fullfeatured@yahoogroups.com <*> To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to: agile-usability-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com <*> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to: http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          • spbyh
            Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a paper at OOPSLA89 which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the
            Message 5 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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              Just a bit more.  In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a paper at OOPSLA89 which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
              =steve



              -----Original Message-----
              From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
              To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
              Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
              Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

              I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
              XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
              memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
              and Sprint Backlog Items.
              
              The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
              early Scrum team folk to be sure.
              
              So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
              
              The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
              define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
              something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
              impression I had in the late 90's.
              
              Adrian
              
              
              On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote: > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you. > > > > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be > the earlier date. > > > > Regards, > > > > William > > > > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15 > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories > > > > > > > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns. > > > > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow > > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute > > > > [snipped] -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh ------------------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Links <*> To visit your group on the web, go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/ <*> Your email settings: Individual Email | Traditional <*> To change settings online go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/join (Yahoo! ID required) <*> To change settings via email: agile-usability-digest@yahoogroups.com agile-usability-fullfeatured@yahoogroups.com <*> To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to: agile-usability-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com <*> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to: http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            • Gerard Meszaros
              I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in 1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
              Message 6 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
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                I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                with them in that time frame.

                CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                seeds of the user story concept.

                Best wishes,

                Gerard


                On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a
                > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the
                > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                > =steve
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                >
                > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                >
                > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                >
                > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                >
                > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                > impression I had in the late 90's.
                >
                > Adrian
                >
                > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                >> the earlier date.
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> Regards,
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> William
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                >>
                >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                >>
                >>
                >>
                >> [snipped]
                >
                >
                >
                > --
                > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh
                > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                >
                >
                > ------------------------------------
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                >
                >
                >

                --
                Gerard Meszaros
                Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                1-403-827-2967

                Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html
              • Adam Sroka
                I can t remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and
                Message 7 of 23 , Mar 26, 2013
                • 0 Attachment
                  I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and that when stories came along it was just a natural fit. 

                  The CRC paper is no smoking gun, but it is evidence that using cards to think about the software they were creating was something they were already doing at least that early. 


                  On Tue, Mar 26, 2013 at 8:35 PM, Gerard Meszaros <yahoo@...> wrote:
                   

                  I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                  1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                  understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                  with them in that time frame.

                  CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                  single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                  story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                  them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                  the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                  You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                  writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                  Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                  Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                  seeds of the user story concept.

                  Best wishes,

                  Gerard



                  On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                  > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a
                  > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the

                  > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                  > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                  > =steve
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > -----Original Message-----
                  > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                  > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                  > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                  > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                  >
                  > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                  > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                  > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                  > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                  >
                  > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                  > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                  >
                  > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                  >
                  > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                  > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                  > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                  > impression I had in the late 90's.
                  >
                  > Adrian
                  >
                  > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                  >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                  >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                  >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                  >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                  >> the earlier date.
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> Regards,
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> William
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                  >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine

                  >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                  >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>

                  >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                  >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                  >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                  >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                  >>
                  >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                  >>
                  >>
                  >>
                  >> [snipped]
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > --
                  > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh

                  > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                  >
                  >
                  > ------------------------------------
                  >
                  > Yahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >

                  --
                  Gerard Meszaros
                  Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                  http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                  1-403-827-2967

                  Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                  Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                  competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html


                • William Hudson
                  Many thanks to Steve, Gerard and Adam for their helpful additions. As an OO developer in the 1990 s I have heard of CRC cards, but it seems something of a jump
                  Message 8 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
                  • 0 Attachment

                    Many thanks to Steve, Gerard and Adam for their helpful additions.

                     

                    As an OO developer in the 1990’s I have heard of CRC cards, but it seems something of a jump (conceptually) to user stories. However, I have come across a 1994 paper at Interact that uses the term ‘user stories’ in the correct sense. The authors of that paper have adapted the term ‘war stories’ used in a 1986 paper from Xerox Parc called ‘Narratives at Work’ (does *everything* we do today come from Xerox Parc<g>?)

                     

                    I’d be really interested to see some of the original user stories if possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development. Email me at whudson@... (if you’d prefer not to post them to the list).

                     

                    Regards,

                     

                    William

                     

                    From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adam Sroka
                    Sent: 27 March 2013 04:04
                    To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                    Cc: spbroi@...
                    Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                     




                    I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and that when stories came along it was just a natural fit. 

                     

                    The CRC paper is no smoking gun, but it is evidence that using cards to think about the software they were creating was something they were already doing at least that early. 

                     

                    On Tue, Mar 26, 2013 at 8:35 PM, Gerard Meszaros <yahoo@...> wrote:

                     

                    I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                    1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                    understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                    with them in that time frame.

                    CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                    single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                    story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                    them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                    the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                    You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                    writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                    Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                    Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                    seeds of the user story concept.

                    Best wishes,

                    Gerard



                    On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                    > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a

                    > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the


                    > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                    > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                    > =steve
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > -----Original Message-----
                    > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                    > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                    > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                    > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                    >
                    > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                    > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                    > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                    > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                    >
                    > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                    > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                    >
                    > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                    >
                    > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                    > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                    > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                    > impression I had in the late 90's.
                    >
                    > Adrian
                    >

                    > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                    >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                    >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                    >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                    >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                    >> the earlier date.
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> Regards,
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> William
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>

                    >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine


                    >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15

                    >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>


                    >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                    >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                    >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                    >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                    >>
                    >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                    >>
                    >>
                    >>
                    >> [snipped]
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > --

                    > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh


                    > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                    >
                    >
                    > ------------------------------------
                    >
                    > Yahoo! Groups Links
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >

                    --
                    Gerard Meszaros
                    Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                    http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                    1-403-827-2967

                    Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                    Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                    competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html

                     




                  • Adrian Howard
                    Hey William, ... That s an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it? Adrian -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@quietstars.com
                    Message 9 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                      Hey William,

                      On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                      > I’d be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                      > possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a benefit
                      > to users so it would be good to plot that development.

                      That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?

                      Adrian
                      --
                      http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                      t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                    • William Hudson
                      A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the inter-role
                      Message 10 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
                      • 0 Attachment
                        A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                        the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                        inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                        and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                        roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                        one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                        same role in a different context.

                        Regards,

                        William


                        -----Original Message-----
                        From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                        [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                        Sent: 27 March 2013 11:39
                        To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                        Hey William,

                        On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                        > I'd be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                        > possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a
                        > benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development.

                        That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?

                        Adrian
                        --
                        http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                        t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh


                        ------------------------------------

                        Yahoo! Groups Links
                      • Adrian Howard
                        I d question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in that way. The use-case role and the user story role tend to be used fairly
                        Message 11 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                          I'd question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in
                          that way. The use-case "role" and the user story "role" tend to be
                          used fairly differently in my experience.

                          We hit the same name - different usage problem again.

                          They're normally much closer to customer archetypes / persona in my
                          experience (indeed most agile ux folk I know who adopt the story
                          format slot persona into the role hole).

                          Cheers,

                          Adrian

                          On 27 March 2013 12:03, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                          > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                          > the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                          > inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                          > and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                          > roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                          > one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                          > same role in a different context.
                          >
                          > Regards,
                          >
                          > William
                          >
                          >
                          > -----Original Message-----
                          > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                          > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                          > Sent: 27 March 2013 11:39
                          > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                          > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                          >
                          > Hey William,
                          >
                          > On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                          >> I'd be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                          >> possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a
                          >> benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development.
                          >
                          > That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?
                          >
                          > Adrian
                          > --
                          > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                          > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                          >
                          >
                          > ------------------------------------
                          >
                          > Yahoo! Groups Links
                          >
                          >
                          >



                          --
                          http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                          t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                        • William Hudson
                          Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who pointed this
                          Message 12 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                            Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles
                            literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who
                            pointed this out as a problem with their introduction of UX design.

                            Regards,

                            William


                            -----Original Message-----
                            From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                            [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                            Sent: 27 March 2013 12:11
                            To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                            I'd question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in that
                            way. The use-case "role" and the user story "role" tend to be used fairly
                            differently in my experience.

                            We hit the same name - different usage problem again.

                            They're normally much closer to customer archetypes / persona in my
                            experience (indeed most agile ux folk I know who adopt the story format slot
                            persona into the role hole).

                            Cheers,

                            Adrian

                            [snipped]
                          • Adrian Howard
                            ... My experiences differ. It does happen - of course - but my experiences of teams, even those without UX input, is that the roles are more often treated as
                            Message 13 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                              On 27 March 2013 12:22, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                              > Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles
                              > literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who
                              > pointed this out as a problem with their introduction of UX design.

                              My experiences differ.

                              It does happen - of course - but my experiences of teams, even those
                              without UX input, is that the roles are more often treated as market
                              segments / archetypes / etc.

                              They're certainly seem to treated much more generally than use-case type roles.

                              Possibly you're seeing teams who are primarily transferring from
                              use-cases to stories? In those situations it's certainly a common
                              problem.

                              Cheers,

                              Adrian
                              --
                              http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                              t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                            • Larry Constantine
                              ... the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict and so on.
                              Message 14 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                                William said:

                                > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                                the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                same role in a different context. <

                                The user role concept traces back to contributions from Rebecca Wirfs-Brock
                                and was developed and elaborated in usage-centered design and later
                                model-driven activity-centered design (Constantine and Lockwood). A role is
                                a relationship between users and a system or service and is defined (ala
                                Wirfs-Brock) by a characteristic set of needs, expectations, interests, and
                                responsibilities in relation to the system/service and in the context of the
                                activity in which the user is participating. As such, a user role focuses
                                precisely on those issues most salient to effective interaction design (see
                                my chapter in The Persona Lifecycle for persuasive support). That it blurs
                                or compresses "individual differences" is precisely why it is a more compact
                                and efficient model, particularly for agile design and development.
                                Individual incumbents in a role vary immensely; the role itself is are far
                                less variable. Individuals are extremely complicated; roles are far simpler.
                                A well-formulated role absolutely does make allowance for the needs of the
                                individual, but not as an individual, not as a person, but rather as an
                                individual in a particular activity and in a particular relationship to a
                                designed artifact.

                                The critical issue in modeling for agile IxD/UxD is to model only what is
                                most important to model, compactly and concisely, to focus on what is likely
                                to yield the biggest payoff in guidance toward an effective design in the
                                least amount of time. The templated user role profiles employed in
                                usage-centered design and human activity modeling do just that,
                                concentrating the modeler/designer's attention on those things that are most
                                likely to directly impact and shape the design.

                                The issues you mention-role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role
                                conflict-are interesting from an intellectual standpoint and often play some
                                part in a complete analysis of human activity (we incorporate them in our
                                application of activity-theory to educational research, for instance), but
                                the relationship of the actor in role to the designed artifact is far more
                                relevant to designing that system or service. Inter-role issues that may be
                                important in organizational dynamics or social psychology are typically far
                                less central to getting the design right.

                                In the most recent incarnation of the user role profile that we use in
                                model-driven agile design (not yet written up), we have reduced the template
                                further to include just 3 categories (ORB): Orientation, Responsibilities,
                                and Background. Orientation and attitude of the actor in role to focal
                                activities and to the designed artifact; Responsibilities of the actor in
                                role within focal activities and with the designed artifact; Background
                                characteristics expected in relation to use of the designed artifact within
                                focal activities. This is a vast simplification from the concept of role in
                                activity theory and role theory, but it zeroes in on the stuff that is most
                                likely to make a difference, covering the bases on a single index card.

                                Modeling efficiency and design leverage are behind most of my work and the
                                usage/activity-centered design community. It is why we favor concise role
                                profiles over the decorative embellishments of personas, why essential use
                                cases win out over traditional concrete use cases and scenarios.

                                Psychologists and humanists can plead for attention to the individual, but,
                                as Don Norman and I pointed out some years ago, that is precisely the
                                problem. It is the focus on humans, on individuals, that diverts our
                                attention from the more important focus on what people are doing and trying
                                to do, that is, on activity as mediated by designed artifacts. This badly
                                needed shift in focus was behind my development of human activity modeling
                                (with Don's encouragement and contributions) and then its adaptation to
                                agile design and development. We drive AD&D by activity models not to
                                capture a complete analysis embodied in those models but to move as quickly
                                and efficiently as possible toward good designs. That means concentrating on
                                roles and activities and glossing over stuff that is less critical to speedy
                                solutions.

                                Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                                Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                              • William Hudson
                                Thanks, Larry. Very interesting. Do you know when Rebecca first started talking about roles? I have a paper here from Jacobson dated 1987 that describes their
                                Message 15 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
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                                  Thanks, Larry. Very interesting. Do you know when Rebecca first started
                                  talking about roles? I have a paper here from Jacobson dated 1987 that
                                  describes their use in OO development.

                                  BTW, I wasn't suggesting that designers of information systems should
                                  thoroughly research roles and their interrelationships. My point is more
                                  that roles are not a very useful focus of attention in many systems.

                                  Regards,

                                  William


                                  -----Original Message-----
                                  From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                  [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                                  Sent: 27 March 2013 13:06
                                  To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                  Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                                  William said:

                                  > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs
                                  > of
                                  the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                  inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                  and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                  roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                  one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                  same role in a different context. <

                                  The user role concept traces back to contributions from Rebecca Wirfs-Brock
                                  and was developed and elaborated in usage-centered design and later
                                  model-driven activity-centered design (Constantine and Lockwood). A role is
                                  a relationship between users and a system or service and is defined (ala
                                  Wirfs-Brock) by a characteristic set of needs, expectations, interests, and
                                  responsibilities in relation to the system/service and in the context of the
                                  activity in which the user is participating. As such, a user role focuses
                                  precisely on those issues most salient to effective interaction design (see
                                  my chapter in The Persona Lifecycle for persuasive support). That it blurs
                                  or compresses "individual differences" is precisely why it is a more compact
                                  and efficient model, particularly for agile design and development.
                                  Individual incumbents in a role vary immensely; the role itself is are far
                                  less variable. Individuals are extremely complicated; roles are far simpler.
                                  A well-formulated role absolutely does make allowance for the needs of the
                                  individual, but not as an individual, not as a person, but rather as an
                                  individual in a particular activity and in a particular relationship to a
                                  designed artifact.

                                  [snipped]
                                • Gerard Meszaros
                                  ... Yes, they used cards for all sorts of purposes including organizing presentations by putting each thing they wanted to talk about onto a card. Easy to
                                  Message 16 of 23 , Mar 27, 2013
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    On 3/26/2013 10:03 PM, Adam Sroka wrote:
                                    > I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that
                                    > Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and
                                    > that when stories came along it was just a natural fit.
                                    >
                                    >

                                    Yes, they used cards for all sorts of purposes including organizing
                                    presentations by putting each thing they wanted to talk about onto a card. Easy
                                    to reorganize the content simply by moving the card. Other agilist/OO people
                                    have adopted this style of presentation "notes" most notably (Uncle) Bob Martin
                                    (who rarely uses visuals in presentation) and Ron Jeffries (another CCC team
                                    member.)

                                    Gerard

                                    --
                                    Gerard Meszaros
                                    Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                                    http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                                    1-403-827-2967

                                    Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                                    Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                                    competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html
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